263 relations: Adaptation, Aedes, Alexandre Brongniart, American bison, American Museum of Natural History, Anagenesis, Animal, Anopheles, Anopheles gambiae, Antinatalism, Background extinction rate, Balancing selection, Big business, Biodiversity action plan, Biodiversity loss, Bioethics, Bioevent, Biogeography, Biology, BioScience, Bottom trawling, Breeding program, British Isles, Cape Floristic Region, Carboniferous rainforest collapse, Carter Center, Cengage, Chalumna River, Charles Darwin, Charles Lyell, Cladogenesis, Climate change, Coelacanth, Competition, Competition (biology), Conservation biology, Conservation movement, Conservation status, Contamination, Convention on Biological Diversity, Cretaceous, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Dagger (typography), David Benatar, David M. Raup, DDT, Dengue fever, Deposition (geology), Developing country, Dinosaur, ..., DNA, Dodo, Dominance (genetics), Donkey, Dracunculiasis, Dracunculus medinensis, E. O. Wilson, Ecological niche, Ecology, Ecosystem, Ecotourism, Empty forest, Endangered species, Endemism, Endling, Equus (genus), Ethics, Evolution, Evolution of the horse, Evolutionary capacitance, Evolvability, Extinct in the wild, Extinction debt, Extinction event, Extinction vortex, Family (biology), Fern, Fitness (biology), Fitness landscape, Fixation (population genetics), Food chain, Fossil, Functional extinction, Gene flow, Gene knockout, Gene pool, Genetic diversity, Genetic pollution, Genetic variability, Genocide, Genus, George M. Church, Georges Cuvier, Global warming, Goat, Government, Government of Australia, Gradualism, Great chain of being, Haast's eagle, Habitat, Habitat destruction, Habitat fragmentation, Hawaii, Heterosis, History of the horse in Britain, Holocene extinction, Homo sapiens, Horse, Human extinction, Human overpopulation, Hybrid (biology), Hyracotherium, Inbreeding, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Institut de France, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Introduced species, Introgression, Invasive species, Ireland, Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Ivory-billed woodpecker, J. L. B. Smith, Jack Sepkoski, Japanese wolf, Jared Diamond, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Keystone species, Lazarus taxon, Life, List of recently extinct bird species, Lists of extinct animals, Livestock, Living fossil, Living Planet Index, Local extinction, Los Angeles Times, Lungfish, Lymphatic filariasis, Madagascar, Malaria, Mammoth, Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer, Martin Rees, Megafauna, Megaloceros, Minimum viable population, Moa, Moose, Morphology (biology), Mosquito, Mountain goat, MSNBC, Mutation, Mutational meltdown, Mutualism (biology), National park, National Science Foundation, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Nature reserve, Nature versus nurture, Nautilus, Neontology, New Scientist, New York City, Niles Eldredge, North America, Olivia Judson, Olson's Extinction, On the Origin of Species, Organism, Our Final Hour, Overconsumption, Overexploitation, Oxford University Press, Parasitism, Paris Basin, Pathogen, Paul R. Ehrlich, PBS Digital Studios, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Peter Watson (intellectual historian), Phenotypic plasticity, Philosophy, Plant, Plantation, PLOS Biology, Poliovirus, Pollinator, Pollution, Population, Population bottleneck, Population growth, Predation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Pseudoextinction, Punctuated equilibrium, Purebred, Pyrenean ibex, Range (biology), Rare species, Rat, Refugium (population biology), Reproduction, Richard Leakey, Rinderpest, Risk, Robert Hooke, Robustness (evolution), Royal Society, Science (journal), Science Advances, Sea level, Selective breeding, Sepilok Orang Utan Rehabilitation Centre, Sexual reproduction, Slash-and-burn, Slender-billed curlew, Smallpox, South America, Speciation, Species, Species reintroduction, Stephen C. Stearns, Stephen Jay Gould, Sterilization (microbiology), Stratum, Stuart Pimm, Subsistence agriculture, Subspecies, Survival skills, Taxon, Technology, Tetrapod, The Independent, The New York Times, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Molyneux, Threatened species, Thylacine, Toxicity, Treponema pallidum, Trophic level, Tropical rainforest, Uniformitarianism, University of Arizona, University of Oxford, Virus, Voluntary Human Extinction Movement, Water, Water buffalo, West Indies, Wild water buffalo, Wolf reintroduction, World Wide Fund for Nature, Yale University Press, Yaws, Yellow fever, Zebra, Zoo, Zoology. Expand index (213 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Aedes is a genus of mosquitoes originally found in tropical and subtropical zones, but now found on all continents except Antarctica.
Alexandre Brongniart (5 February 17707 October 1847) was a French chemist, mineralogist, and zoologist, who collaborated with Georges Cuvier on a study of the geology of the region around Paris.
The American bison or simply bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.
The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world.
Anagenesis is an evolutionary pattern defined by a gradual change that occurs in a species without the need for splitting.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Anopheles (Greek anofelís: "useless") is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818.
The Anopheles gambiae complex consists of at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species of mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles.
Antinatalism, or anti-natalism, is a philosophical position that assigns a negative value to birth.
Background extinction rate, also known as the normal extinction rate, refers to the standard rate of extinction in earth's geological and biological history before humans became a primary contributor to extinctions.
Balancing selection refers to a number of selective processes by which multiple alleles (different versions of a gene) are actively maintained in the gene pool of a population at frequencies larger than expected from genetic drift alone.
A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems.
Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat.
Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine.
A bioevent or bio-event (a shortening of 'biotic event' or 'biological event') is an event recognised in a sequence of sedimentary rocks, where there is a significant change in the biota as recorded by assemblages of fossils over a relatively short period of time.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
BioScience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.
Bottom trawling is trawling (towing a trawl, which is a fishing net) along the sea floor.
A breeding program is the planned breeding of a group of animals or plants, usually involving at least several individuals and extending over several generations.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
The Cape Floristic Region is a floristic region located near the southern tip of South Africa.
The Carboniferous rainforest collapse (CRC) was a minor extinction event that occurred around 305 million years ago in the Carboniferous period.
The Carter Center is a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization founded in 1982 by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
The Chalumna River (Tyolomnqa) is a river in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.
Cladogenesis is an evolutionary splitting event where a parent species splits into two distinct species, forming a clade.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
The coelacanths constitute a now rare order of fish that includes two extant species in the genus Latimeria: the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) primarily found near the Comoro Islands off the east coast of Africa and the Indonesian coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis).
Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.
Competition is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed.
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.
The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future.
Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
A dagger, obelisk, or obelus is a typographical symbol usually used to indicate a footnote if an asterisk has already been used.
David Benatar (born 1966) is a South African philosopher, academic and author.
David M. Raup (April 24, 1933 – July 9, 2015) was a University of Chicago paleontologist.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The dodo (Raphus cucullatus) is an extinct flightless bird that was endemic to the island of Mauritius, east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
Dracunculiasis, also called Guinea-worm disease (GWD), is an infection by the Guinea worm.
Dracunculus medinensis or Guinea worm is a nematode that causes dracunculiasis, also known as guinea worm disease.
Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
Empty forest is a term coined by Kent H. Redford's article "The Empty Forest" (1992), which was published in BioScience.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
An endling is the last known individual of a species or subspecies.
Equus is a genus of mammals in the family Equidae, which includes horses, donkeys, and zebras.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolution of the horse, a mammal of the family Equidae, occurred over a geologic time scale of 50 million years, transforming the small, dog-sized, forest-dwelling Eohippus into the modern horse.
Evolutionary capacitance is the storage and release of variation, just as electric capacitors store and release charge.
Evolvability is defined as the capacity of a system for adaptive evolution.
An extinct in the wild (EW) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as only known by living members kept in captivity or as a naturalized population outside its historic range due to massive habitat loss.
In ecology, extinction debt is the future extinction of species due to events in the past.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
Extinction vortices are a class of models through which conservation biologists, geneticists and ecologists can understand the dynamics of and categorize extinctions in the context of their causes.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes (types of evolutionary landscapes) are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes and reproductive success.
In population genetics, fixation is the change in a gene pool from a situation where there exists at least two variants of a particular gene (allele) in a given population to a situation where only one of the alleles remains.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Functional extinction is the extinction of a species or other taxon such that.
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.
A gene knockout (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism).
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
Genetic pollution is a controversial term for uncontrolled gene flow into wild populations.
Genetic variability is either the presence of, or the generation of, genetic differences.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
George McDonald Church (born August 28, 1954) is an American geneticist, molecular engineer, and chemist.
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
Gradualism, from the Latin gradus ("step"), is a hypothesis, a theory or a tenet assuming that change comes about gradually or that variation is gradual in nature and happens over time as opposed to in large steps.
The Great Chain of Being is a strict hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought in medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God.
The Haast's eagle (Harpagornis moorei) is an extinct species of eagle that once lived in the South Island of New Zealand, commonly accepted to be the Pouakai of Maori legend.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment (habitat), causing population fragmentation and ecosystem decay.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring.
The known history of the horse in Britain starts with horse remains found in Pakefield, Suffolk, dating from 700,000 BC, and in Boxgrove, West Sussex, dating from 500,000 BC.
The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
In futures studies, human extinction is the hypothetical end of the human species.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Hyracotherium ("hyrax-like beast") is an extinct genus of very small (about 60 cm in length) perissodactyl ungulates that was found in the London Clay formation.
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Institut de France (Institute of France) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is the Académie française.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
Introgression, also known as introgressive hybridization, in genetics is the movement of a gene (gene flow) from one species into the gene pool of another by the repeated backcrossing of an interspecific hybrid with one of its parent species.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (16 December 1805 – 10 November 1861) was a French zoologist and an authority on deviation from normal structure.
The ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) is one of the largest woodpeckers in the world, at roughly long and in wingspan.
James Leonard Brierley Smith, known as J. L. B. Smith (26 September 1897 – 8 January 1968), was a South African ichthyologist, organic chemist and university professor.
Joseph John Sepkoski Jr. (July 26, 1948 – May 1, 1999) was a University of Chicago paleontologist.
The (Canis lupus hodophilax) is an extinct subspecies of the gray wolf that was once endemic to the islands of Honshū, Shikoku, and Kyūshū in the Japanese archipelago. It is also known as the Honshū wolf. Its binomial name derives from the Greek Hodos (path) and phylax (guardian), in reference to Japanese folklore, which portrayed wolves as the protectors of travellers. It was one of two subspecies that were once found in the Japanese archipelago, the other being the Hokkaidō wolf.
Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.
A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
In paleontology, a Lazarus taxon (plural taxa) is a taxon that disappears for one or more periods from the fossil record, only to appear again later.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Since 1500, over 190 species of birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing.
The following are lists of extinct animals:;By region.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
A living fossil is an extant taxon that closely resembles organisms otherwise known only from the fossil record.
The Living Planet Index (LPI) is an indicator of the state of global biological diversity, based on trends in vertebrate populations of species from around the world.
Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.
Lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis, is a human disease caused by parasitic worms known as filarial worms.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair.
Marjorie Eileen Doris Courtenay-Latimer (24 February 190717 May 2004) was the South African museum official who in 1938 brought to the attention of the world the existence of the coelacanth, a fish thought to have been extinct for sixty-five million years.
Martin John Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow, One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: (born 23 June 1942) is a British cosmologist and astrophysicist.
In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.
Megaloceros (from Greek: μεγαλος, megalos + κερας, keras, literally "Great Horn"; see also Lister) is an extinct genus of deer whose members lived throughout Eurasia from the late Pliocene to the Late Pleistocene and were important herbivores during the Ice Ages.
Minimum viable population (MVP) is a lower bound on the population of a species, such that it can survive in the wild.
The moa were nine species (in six genera) of flightless birds endemic to New Zealand.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
The mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus), also known as the Rocky Mountain goat, is a large hoofed mammal endemic to North America.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mutational meltdown (not to be confused with the concept of an error catastrophe) is the accumulation of harmful mutations in a small population, which leads to loss of fitness and decline of the population size, which may lead to further accumulation of deleterious mutations due to fixation by genetic drift.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.
The nautilus (from the Latin form of the original ναυτίλος, 'sailor') is a pelagic marine mollusc of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole extant family of the superfamily Nautilaceae and of its smaller but near equal suborder, Nautilina.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Niles Eldredge (born August 25, 1943) is a U.S. biologist and paleontologist, who, along with Stephen Jay Gould, proposed the theory of punctuated equilibrium in 1972.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Olivia P. Judson (born 1970) is an evolutionary biologist and science writer.
Olson's Extinction was a mass extinction that occurred in the early Guadalupian of the Permian period and which predated the Permian–Triassic extinction event.
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Our Final Hour is a 2003 book by the British Astronomer Royal Sir Martin Rees.
Overconsumption is a situation where resource use has outpaced the sustainable capacity of the ecosystem.
Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932) is an American biologist, best known for his warnings about the consequences of population growth and limited resources.
PBS Digital Studios is a YouTube channel and network through which PBS distributes original educational web video content.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
Peter Watson (born 1943) is an intellectual historian and former journalist, now perhaps best known for his work in the history of ideas.
Phenotypic plasticity refers to some of the changes in an organism's behavior, morphology and physiology in response to a unique environment.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.
PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.
Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis (commonly known as polio), is a human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae.
A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Pseudoextinction (or phyletic extinction) of a species occurs when all members of the species are extinct, but members of a daughter species remain alive.
Punctuated equilibrium (also called punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that once species appear in the fossil record the population will become stable, showing little evolutionary change for most of its geological history.
Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding.
The Pyrenean ibex (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica), Spanish common name bucardo, Catalan common name herc and French common name bouquetin was one of the four subspecies of the Iberian ibex or Iberian wild goat, a species endemic to the Pyrenees.
In biology, the range of a species is the geographical area within which that species can be found.
A rare species is a group of organisms that are very uncommon, scarce, or infrequently encountered.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
In biology, a refugium (plural: refugia) is a location which supports an isolated or relict population of a once more widespread species.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Richard Erskine Frere Leakey FRS (born 19 December 1944) is a Kenyan paleoanthropologist, conservationist, and politician.
Rinderpest (also cattle plague or steppe murrain) was an infectious viral disease of cattle, domestic buffalo, and many other species of even-toed ungulates, including buffaloes, large antelope and deer, giraffes, wildebeests, and warthogs.
Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
Robustness of a biological system (also called biological or genetic robustness) is the persistence of a certain characteristic or trait in a system under perturbations or conditions of uncertainty.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science Advances is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary open-access scientific journal established in early 2015.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.
Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre is located about 25 kilometres west of Sandakan in the state of Sabah, Malaysia.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.
The slender-billed curlew (Numenius tenuirostris) is a bird in the wader family Scolopacidae.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Species reintroduction is the deliberate release of a species into the wild, from captivity or other areas where the organism is capable of survival.
Stephen C. Stearns (born December 12, 1946, in Kapaau, Hawaii and raised in Hawi, Hawaii), an American biologist, is the Edward P. Bass Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Yale University.
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
Stuart Leonard Pimm (born 27 February 1949) is an American-British biologist and theoretical ecologist specializing in scientific research of biodiversity and conservation biology.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
Survival skills are techniques that a person may use in order to sustain life in any type of natural environment or built environment.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Sir Thomas Molyneux (1531–1597) was a statesman in Ireland during the Elizabethan era.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
The thylacine (or, also; Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause the diseases syphilis, bejel, and yaws.
The trophic level of an organism is the position it occupies in a food chain.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
Uniformitarianism, also known as the Doctrine of Uniformity,, "The assumption of spatial and temporal invariance of natural laws is by no means unique to geology since it amounts to a warrant for inductive inference which, as Bacon showed nearly four hundred years ago, is the basic mode of reasoning in empirical science.
The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
The Voluntary Human Extinction Movement (VHEMT) is an environmental movement that calls for all people to abstain from reproduction to cause the gradual voluntary extinction of humankind.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee), also called Asian buffalo, Asiatic buffalo and wild Asian buffalo, is a large bovine native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
Wolf reintroduction involves the reestablishment of a portion of Gray wolves in areas where native wolves have been extirpated.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yaws is a tropical infection of the skin, bones and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum pertenue.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
Zebras are several species of African equids (horse family) united by their distinctive black and white striped coats.
A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
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