299 relations: Active SETI, Adenine, Aeolis Palus, Age of Enlightenment, Age of the universe, Aliphatic compound, Allan Hills 84001, Allen Telescope Array, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Americas, Ames Research Center, Ammonia, Anaxagoras, Ancient Greece, Anton Maria Schyrleus of Rheita, Area 51, Aromaticity, Around the Moon, Associated Press, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Astrobiology, Astrobiology (journal), Astronomer, Astronomical object, Astrophysics, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmosphere of Jupiter, Atmosphere of Mars, Autotroph, Bacteria, Baroque, BBC News, Benjamin Franklin, Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, Big Bang, Biochemistry, Biosignature, Biosphere, Biotic material, Breakthrough Initiatives, Bright spots on Ceres, Brine, Brown dwarf, California Institute of Technology, Callisto (moon), Camille Flammarion, Carbon, Carl Sagan, Carl Sagan Institute, ..., Cassini–Huygens, Centaurus, Ceres (dwarf planet), Chandra Wickramasinghe, Chemical element, Chemotroph, CHON, Christopher Columbus, Circumstellar habitable zone, Civilization, Clay minerals, Comet, Communication with extraterrestrial intelligence, Constellation, Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds, Copernican principle, Copernican Revolution, Cosmic dust, Cosmos, Cosmos (Australian magazine), Curiosity (rover), Cyrano de Bergerac, David Brin, Democritus, DENIS-P J082303.1-491201 b, Discover (magazine), Donald E. Brownlee, Drake equation, Dwarf planet, Early Earth, Earth, Edison's Conquest of Mars, Enceladus, Eris (dwarf planet), Ethane, Europa (moon), Europa Clipper, Europa Jupiter System Mission – Laplace, European Geosciences Union, European Space Agency, Evolving the Alien, Excite, Exoplanet, Extragalactic planet, Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia, Extraterrestrial (TV documentary), Extraterrestrial intelligence, Extraterrestrial liquid water, Extremely Large Telescope, Extremophile, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, False positives and false negatives, Federal government of the United States, Fermi paradox, Folklore, Fossil, Francis Crick, Frank Drake, Fred Hoyle, Gaia hypothesis, Galaxy, Gale (crater), Galilean moons, Ganymede (moon), Garrett P. Serviss, Geoffrey Marcy, Geologist, Giordano Bruno, Glycolaldehyde, Green Bank Telescope, Guanine, Guesstimate, H. G. Wells, Harvard University Press, Heliocentrism, Henry More, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hoax, Hubble Space Telescope, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrothermal vent, Hypothesis, Hypothetical types of biochemistry, I.B. Tauris, Icarus (journal), Ice V, Immanuel Kant, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Intelligence, International Journal of Astrobiology, Interstellar communication, Io (moon), Jared Diamond, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, John Locke, Jules Verne, Jupiter, Kardashev scale, Kepler (spacecraft), Kepler-186f, Kepler-62c, Kepler-62e, Kepler-62f, Lacustrine plain, Lakes of Titan, Latin, Leslie Orgel, Liebigs Annalen, Life, Life on Titan, List of multiplanetary systems, List of reported UFO sightings, Lithotroph, Los Angeles Times, Macroevolution, Mars, Mars rover, Mars Science Laboratory, Martian canal, Martian meteorite, Mediocrity principle, Metalaw, Meteorite, Meteoroid, Methane, Microorganism, Milky Way, Mindspark Interactive Network, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Moons of Saturn, Muhammad al-Baqir, Mythology, Nanobacterium, NASA, NASA Exoplanet Archive, Nature (journal), NBC, Nexus for Exoplanet System Science, Nitrogen, Nova (TV series), Nova ScienceNow, Oberon (moon), Observable universe, Ocean, Opportunity (rover), Organic compound, Organic matter, Outer space, Oxygen, Paleontology, Panspermia, Parkes Observatory, PBS, Percival Lowell, Peter Ward (paleontologist), Phosphorus, Physical law, Plain, Planet, Planetary habitability, Planetary objects proposed in religion, astrology, ufology and pseudoscience, Planetary protection, Planetary system, Pluto, Potential cultural impact of extraterrestrial contact, Probability theory, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Prokaryote, Propane, Protoplanetary disk, Protostar, Proxima Centauri b, Pseudoscience, PSR B1257+12 A, Quran, Radioactive decay, Rare Earth hypothesis, Red dwarf, Rhea (moon), Richard Blackmore, Rio Tinto (river), RNA, RNA world, Robotic spacecraft, Science (journal), Science Daily, Science fiction, Scientific Revolution, Search for extraterrestrial intelligence, Sentience, Seth Shostak, SETI Institute, Silicate minerals, Small Solar System body, Solar analog, Solar System, Solvent, Space Age, Space.com, Spain, Spectroscopy, Star, Star formation, Stellar classification, Stephen Hawking, Sulfur, Sun, Svante Arrhenius, Taphonomy, Telescope, Terrestrial planet, The New York Times, The Science of Aliens, The War of the Worlds, Titan (moon), Titania (moon), Total organic carbon, Transit (astronomy), Triton (moon), Unidentified flying object, Universe, Universe Today, University of Arizona, University of California, Berkeley, University of California, Santa Cruz, University of Copenhagen, University of Oxford, University of Puerto Rico, University of Texas at El Paso, Uranus, Viking program, Water, Western Australia, White dwarf, White House, Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope, William Herschel, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, William Wallace Campbell, Winston Churchill, Wisdom, Wow! signal, Yuri Milner, Zoo hypothesis, 90377 Sedna, 90482 Orcus. 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Active SETI (Active Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) is the attempt to send messages to intelligent extraterrestrial life.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Aeolis Palus is a plain between the northern wall of Gale crater and the northern foothills of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp) on Mars.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.
Allan Hills 84001 (commonly abbreviated ALH84001) is a meteorite that was found in Allan Hills, Antarctica on December 27, 1984, by a team of U.S. meteorite hunters from the ANSMET project.
The Allen Telescope Array (ATA), formerly known as the One Hectare Telescope (1hT), is a radio telescope array dedicated to astronomical observations and a simultaneous search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Anton (or Antonius) Maria Schyrleus (also Schyrl, Schyrle) of Rheita (1604–1660) (Antonín Maria Šírek z Reity) was an astronomer and optician.
The United States Air Force facility commonly known as Area 51 is a highly classified remote detachment of Edwards Air Force Base, within the Nevada Test and Training Range.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Around the Moon (Autour de la Lune, 1870), Jules Verne's sequel to From the Earth to the Moon, is a science fiction novel which continues the trip to the moon which was only partially described in the previous novel.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
Astrobiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life across the universe.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atmosphere of Jupiter is the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System.
The atmosphere of the planet Mars is composed mostly of carbon dioxide.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle (11 February 16579 January 1757), also called Bernard Le Bouyer de Fontenelle, was a French author and an influential member of three of the academies of the Institut de France, noted especially for his accessible treatment of scientific topics during the unfolding of the Age of Enlightenment.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
A biosignature (sometimes called chemical fossil or molecular fossil) is any substance – such as an element, isotope, molecule, or phenomenon – that provides scientific evidence of past or present life.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms.
Breakthrough Initiatives is a science-based program founded in 2015 and funded by Yuri Milner to search for extraterrestrial intelligence over a span of at least 10 years.
Several bright surface features (also known as faculae) were discovered on the dwarf planet Ceres by the ''Dawn'' spacecraft in 2015.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.
Nicolas Camille Flammarion FRAS (26 February 1842 – 3 June 1925) was a French astronomer and author.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.
The Carl Sagan Institute: Pale Blue Dot and Beyond was founded in 2014 at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York to further the search for habitable planets and moons in and outside the Solar System.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Centaurus is a bright constellation in the southern sky.
Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.
Chandra Wickramasinghe (born 20 January 1939) is a Sri Lankan-born British mathematician, astronomer and astrobiologist of Sinhalese ethnicity.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments.
CHON is a mnemonic acronym for the four most common elements in living organisms: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
In astronomy and astrobiology, the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), or simply the habitable zone, is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
Communication with extraterrestrial intelligence (a.k.a. CETI) is a branch of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence that focuses on composing and deciphering interstellar messages that theoretically, could be understood by another technological civilization.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds (Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes) is a popular science book by French author Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, published in 1686.
In physical cosmology, the Copernican principle, is an alternative name of the mediocrity principle, or the principle of relativity, stating that humans (the Earth, or the Solar system) are not privileged observers of the universe.
The Copernican Revolution was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
The cosmos is the universe.
Cosmos (styled COSMOS) is a science magazine produced in Australia with a global outlook and literary ambitions.
Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
Savinien de Cyrano de Bergerac (6 March 1619 – 28 July 1655) was a French novelist, playwright, epistolarian and duelist.
Glen David Brin (born October 6, 1950) is an American scientist and author of science fiction.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
DENIS-P J082303.1-491201 b (alias 2MASS J08230313-4912012 b) is a substellar object, classified as either an exoplanet or a brown dwarf, orbiting DENIS-P J082303.1-491201, an L1.5-type brown dwarf in the constellation Vela.
Discover is an American general audience science magazine launched in October 1980 by Time Inc.
Donald Eugene Brownlee (born December 21, 1943) is a professor of astronomy at the University of Washington at Seattle and the principal investigator for NASA's Stardust mission.
The Drake equation is a probabilistic argument used to estimate the number of active, communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
The early Earth (sometimes referred to as Gaia) is loosely defined as Earth in its first one billion years, or gigayear.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Edison's Conquest of Mars is an 1898 science fiction novel by American astronomer and writer Garrett P. Serviss.
Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn.
Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive and second-largest (by volume) dwarf planet in the known Solar System.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
Europa Clipper is an interplanetary mission in development by NASA comprising an orbiter.
The Europa Jupiter System Mission – Laplace (EJSM/Laplace) was a proposed joint NASA/ESA unmanned space mission slated to launch around 2020 for the in-depth exploration of Jupiter's moons with a focus on Europa, Ganymede and Jupiter's magnetosphere.
The European Geosciences Union (EGU) is a non-profit international union in the fields of Earth, planetary, and space sciences.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Evolving the Alien: The Science of Extraterrestrial Life (published in the US, and UK second edition as What Does a Martian Look Like?: The Science of Extraterrestrial Life) is a 2002 popular science book about xenobiology by biologist Jack Cohen and mathematician Ian Stewart.
Excite (stylized as excite) is an internet portal launched in December 1995 that provides a variety of content including news and weather, a metasearch engine, a web-based email, instant messaging, stock quotes, and a customizable user homepage.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
An extragalactic planet, also known as an extragalactic exoplanet, is a rogue planet, or a planet orbiting a star, located outside of the Milky Way galaxy.
The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia is an astronomy website, founded in Paris, France at the Meudon Observatory by Jean Schneider in February 1995, which maintains a database of all the currently known and candidate extrasolar planets, with individual pages for each planet and a full list interactive catalog spreadsheet.
Extraterrestrial (also Alien Worlds in the UK) is a British-American two-part television documentary miniseries, aired in 2005 in the UK by Channel 4, by the National Geographic Channel (as Extraterrestrial) in the US on Monday, May 30, 2005 and produced by Blue Wave Productions Ltd.
Extraterrestrial intelligence (often abbreviated ETI) refers to hypothetical intelligent extraterrestrial life.
Extraterrestrial liquid water (from the Latin words: extra and terrestris) is water in its liquid state that naturally occurs outside Earth.
The Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) is an astronomical observatory and the world's largest optical/near-infrared extremely large telescope now under construction.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī or Fakhruddin Razi (فخر الدين رازي) was an Iranian Sunni Muslim theologian and philosopher He was born in 1149 in Rey (in modern-day Iran), and died in 1209 in Herat (in modern-day Afghanistan).
In medical testing, and more generally in binary classification, a false positive is an error in data reporting in which a test result improperly indicates presence of a condition, such as a disease (the result is positive), when in reality it is not present, while a false negative is an error in which a test result improperly indicates no presence of a condition (the result is negative), when in reality it is present.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The Fermi paradox, or Fermi's paradox, named after physicist Enrico Fermi, is the apparent contradiction between the lack of evidence and high probability estimates for the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Frank Donald Drake (born May 28, 1930) is an American astronomer and astrophysicist.
Sir Fred Hoyle FRS (24 June 1915 – 20 August 2001) was a British astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
The Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
Gale is a crater, and probable dry lake, on Mars near the northwestern part of the Aeolis quadrangle at.
The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.
Garrett Putnam Serviss (March 24, 1851 – May 25, 1929) was an American astronomer, popularizer of astronomy, and early science fiction writer.
Geoffrey William Marcy (born September 29, 1954) is an American astronomer.
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it.
Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.
Glycolaldehyde is the organic compound with the formula HOCH2-CHO.
The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in Green Bank, West Virginia, US is the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Guesstimate is an informal English portmanteau of guess and estimate, first used by American statisticians in 1934 or 1935.
Herbert George Wells.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Henry More (12 October 1614 – 1 September 1687) was an English philosopher of the Cambridge Platonist school.
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.
A hoax is a falsehood deliberately fabricated to masquerade as the truth.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Hypothetical types of biochemistry are forms of biochemistry speculated to be scientifically viable but not proven to exist at this time.
I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.
Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.
Ice V (pronounced "ice five") is a monoclinic crystalline phase of water, formed by cooling water to 253 K at 500 MPa.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
The International Journal of Astrobiology (IJA) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 2002 and published by Cambridge University Press that covers research on the prebiotic chemistry, origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life on Earth and beyond, SETI (Search for extraterrestrial intelligence), societal and educational aspects of astrobiology.
Interstellar communication is the transmission of signals between planetary systems.
Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.
Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement, based on the amount of energy a civilization is able to use for communication, proposed by Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev.
Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars.
Kepler-186f (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-571.05) is an exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf Kepler-186, about 550 light-years (171 parsecs, or nearly km) from the Earth.
Kepler-62c (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-701.05) is an approximately Mars-sized exoplanet discovered in orbit around the star Kepler-62, the second innermost of five discovered by NASA's Kepler spacecraft around Kepler-62.
Kepler-62e (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-701.03) is a super-Earth exoplanet (extrasolar planet) discovered orbiting within the habitable zone of Kepler-62, the second outermost of five such planets discovered by NASA's Kepler spacecraft.
Kepler-62f (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-701.04) is a super-Earth exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the star Kepler-62, the outermost of five such planets discovered around the star by NASA's ''Kepler'' spacecraft.
Lacustrine Plains (or lake plains) are lakes that get filled by incoming sediment.
The lakes of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, are bodies of liquid ethane and methane that have been detected by the Cassini–Huygens space probe, and had been suspected long before.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leslie Eleazer Orgel FRS (12 January 1927 – 27 October 2007) was a British chemist.
Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (often cited as just Liebigs Annalen) was one of the oldest and historically most important journals in the field of organic chemistry worldwide.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Whether there is life on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is at present an open question and a topic of scientific assessment and research.
From the total of stars known to have exoplanets (as of), there are a total of known multiplanetary systems, or stars with at least two confirmed planets, beyond the Solar System.
This is a partial list of sightings of alleged unidentified flying objects (UFOs), including reports of close encounters and abductions.
Lithotrophs are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate (usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy conservation (i.e., ATP production) via aerobic or anaerobic respiration.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Macroevolution is evolution on a scale at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes of allele frequencies within a species or population.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
A Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that propels itself across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival.
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012.
For a time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was erroneously believed that there were canals on Mars.
A Martian meteorite is a rock that formed on the planet Mars and was then ejected from Mars by the impact of an asteroid or comet, and finally landed on the Earth.
The mediocrity principle is the philosophical notion that "if an item is drawn at random from one of several sets or categories, it's likelier to come from the most numerous category than from any one of the less numerous categories".
Metalaw is “the entire sum of legal rules regulating relationships between different races in the universe.” It is a concept of space law closely related to the scientific Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI).
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
Mindspark Interactive Network, Inc. was an operating business unit of IAC known for the development and marketing of entertainment and personal computing software, as well as mobile application development.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The moons of Saturn are numerous and diverse, ranging from tiny moonlets less than 1 kilometer across to the enormous Titan, which is larger than the planet Mercury.
Muḥammad al-Baqir, full name Muhammad bin 'Ali bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, also known as Abu Ja'far or simply al-Baqir (the one who opens knowledge) (677-733) was the fifth Shia imam, succeeding his father Zayn al-Abidin and succeeded by his son Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
Nanobacterium (pl. nanobacteria) is the unit or member name of a proposed class of living organisms, specifically cell-walled microorganisms with a size much smaller than the generally accepted lower limit for life (about 200 nm for bacteria, like mycoplasma).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The NASA Exoplanet Archive is an online astronomical exoplanet catalog and data service that collects and serves public data that support the search for and characterization of extra-solar planets (exoplanets) and their host stars.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
The Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) initiative is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) virtual institute designed to foster interdisciplinary collaboration in the search for life on exoplanets.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nova (stylized NOVΛ) is an American popular science television series produced by WGBH Boston.
Nova ScienceNow (styled NOVA scienceNOW) is a spinoff of the long-running and venerable PBS science program Nova.
Oberon, also designated, is the outermost major moon of the planet Uranus.
The observable universe is a spherical region of the Universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth at the present time, because electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms.
The Parkes Observatory (also known informally as "The Dish") is a radio telescope observatory, located 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Percival Lawrence Lowell (March 13, 1855 – November 12, 1916) was an American businessman, author, mathematician, and astronomer who fueled speculation that there were canals on Mars.
Peter Douglas Ward (born 1949) is an American paleontologist and professor at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Sprigg Institute of Geobiology at the University of Adelaide.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.
There are a number of planets or moons whose existence is not supported by scientific evidence, but are proposed by various astrologers, pseudoscientists, conspiracy theorists, or certain religious groups.
Planetary protection is a guiding principle in the design of an interplanetary mission, aiming to prevent biological contamination of both the target celestial body and the Earth in the case of sample-return missions.
A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
The cultural impact of extraterrestrial contact is the corpus of changes to terrestrial science, technology, religion, politics, and ecosystems resulting from contact with an extraterrestrial civilization.
Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.
A protostar is a very young star that is still gathering mass from its parent molecular cloud.
Proxima Centauri b (also called Proxima b or Alpha Centauri Cb) is an exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the red dwarf star Proxima Centauri, which is the closest star to the Sun and part of a triple star system.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
PSR B1257+12 b, alternatively designated PSR B1257+12 A, also named Draugr, is an extrasolar planet approximately 2,300 light-years away in the constellation of Virgo.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
In planetary astronomy and astrobiology, the Rare Earth Hypothesis argues that the origin of life and the evolution of biological complexity such as sexually reproducing, multicellular organisms on Earth (and, subsequently, human intelligence) required an improbable combination of astrophysical and geological events and circumstances.
A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.
Rhea (Ῥέᾱ) is the second-largest moon of Saturn and the ninth-largest moon in the Solar System.
Sir Richard Blackmore (22 January 1654 – 9 October 1729), English poet and physician, is remembered primarily as the object of satire and dull poet, but he was also a respected medical doctor and theologian.
The Río Tinto (red river) is a river in southwestern Spain that rises in the Sierra Morena mountains of Andalusia.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins.
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) is a collective term for scientific searches for intelligent extraterrestrial life, for example, monitoring electromagnetic radiation for signs of transmissions from civilizations on other planets.
Sentience is the capacity to feel, perceive or experience subjectively.
Seth Shostak (born July 20, 1943) is an American astronomer, currently Senior Astronomer for the SETI Institute and former Director of Center for SETI Research when it was a separate department.
The SETI Institute is a not-for-profit research organization whose mission is to explore, understand, and explain the origin and nature of life in the universe, and to apply the knowledge gained to inspire and guide present and future generations.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a natural satellite.
Solar-type star, solar analogs (also analogues), and solar twins are stars that are particularly similar to the Sun.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Svante August Arrhenius (19 February 1859 – 2 October 1927) was a Nobel-Prize winning Swedish scientist, originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry.
Taphonomy is the study of how organisms decay and become fossilized.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Science of Aliens is a touring exhibition that launched at the London Science Museum in October 2005.
The War of the Worlds is a science fiction novel by English author H. G. Wells first serialised in 1897 by Pearson's Magazine in the UK and by Cosmopolitan magazine in the US.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
Total organic carbon (TOC) is the amount of carbon found in an organic compound and is often used as a non-specific indicator of water quality or cleanliness of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment.
In astronomy, a transit or astronomical transit is the phenomenon of at least one celestial body appearing to move across the face of another celestial body, hiding a small part of it, as seen by an observer at some particular vantage point.
Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered.
An unidentified flying object or "UFO" is an object observed in the sky that is not readily identified.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Universe Today (UT) is a popular North American-based non-commercial space and astronomy news website.
The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of California, Santa Cruz (also known as UC Santa Cruz or UCSC), is a public research university and one of 10 campuses in the University of California system.
The University of Copenhagen (UCPH) (Københavns Universitet) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Puerto Rico (in Spanish, Universidad de Puerto Rico, or UPR) is the main public university system of Puerto Rico and a government-owned corporation of Puerto Rico.
The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is a public research university in El Paso, Texas, United States.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
The Viking program consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA infrared space observatory that was recommended in 2010 by United States National Research Council Decadal Survey committee as the top priority for the next decade of astronomy.
Frederick William Herschel, (Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
William Wallace Campbell (April 11, 1862 – June 14, 1938) was an American astronomer, and director of Lick Observatory from 1901 to 1930.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.
The Wow! signal was a strong narrowband radio signal received on August 15, 1977, by Ohio State University's Big Ear radio telescope in the United States, then used to support the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
Yuri Borisovich (Bentsionovich) Milner (Ю́рий Бори́сович Бенцио́нович Ми́льнер; born 11 November 1961) is an Israeli-Russian entrepreneur, venture capitalist and physicist.
The zoo hypothesis speculates as to the assumed behavior and existence of technically advanced extraterrestrial life and the reasons they refrain from contacting Earth and is one of many theoretical explanations for the Fermi paradox.
90377 Sedna is a large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System that was,, at a distance of about 86 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, about three times as far as Neptune.
90482 Orcus, provisional designation, is a trans-Neptunian object from the Kuiper belt with a large moon, Vanth.
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