165 relations: Adaptation (eye), Adobe Flash, Africa, Amphibian, Amphipoda, Angular resolution, Animal, Annelid, Annual Reviews (publisher), Antarctic krill, Aqueous humour, Aragonite, Arthropod, Arthropod eye, Binocular vision, BioScience, Bird of prey, Bivalvia, Black and white, Blind spot (vision), Box jellyfish, Brain, Brittle star, Brownsnout spookfish, Calcite, Cambrian explosion, Camera, Caterpillar, Cell (biology), Cephalopod, Cephalopod eye, Chiton, Chordate, Circadian rhythm, Cnidaria, Color, Color vision, Cone cell, Copepod, Copilia, Cornea, Crayfish, Crustacean, Crystal, Crystallin, Darkness, Decapoda, Degree (angle), Depth perception, Diffraction, ..., Dragonfly, Ed Yong, Emission theory (vision), Entrainment (chronobiology), Eye, Eye chart, Eye color, Eye development, Eye disease, Eye injury, Eye movement, Eyelid, Field of view, Fish, Flatworm, Focus (optics), Fovea centralis, Fresnel lens, Gastropoda, Glyptonotus antarcticus, Guanine, Hagfish, Horse, Human eye, Hydrothermal vent, Hyperiidea, Hyperspectral imaging, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, Iris (anatomy), Jumping spider, Larva, Lens (anatomy), Light, Limulus, Lobster, Luneburg lens, Mammalian eye, Mantis, Mantis shrimp, Mayfly, Microorganism, Minute and second of arc, Mirror, Mollusc eye, Mollusca, Monocular vision, Monophyly, Mysida, Nature (journal), Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Nervous system, Neuron, Nictitating membrane, Ommatidium, Ophiocoma wendtii, Optic nerve, Optical axis, Optics, Organ (anatomy), Parallel evolution, PAX6, Pecten (bivalve), Peripheral vision, Phased array, Photopic vision, Photoreceptor cell, Photoreceptor protein, Photosensitivity, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Pinhole camera, Pit viper, Polarization (waves), Pontella, Prawn, Pretectal area, Pseudopupil, Pupil, Pupillary light reflex, Rabbit, Ray (optics), Refractive index, Retina, Retinohypothalamic tract, Rhodopsin, Rod cell, Rotifer, Scallop, Scotopic vision, Scutigera, Sensory organs of gastropods, Shrimp, Simple eye in invertebrates, Snail, Snake, Spherical aberration, Springer Science+Business Media, Stimulus (physiology), Stimulus–response model, Strepsiptera, Sunlight, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Tapetum lucidum, Tears, The Journal of Experimental Biology, The Quarterly Review of Biology, Transparency and translucency, Trilobite, Ultraviolet, Vertebrate, Visual acuity, Visual perception, Visual system, Vitreous body, Zoom lens. Expand index (115 more) » « Shrink index
In ocular physiology, adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of light.
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and generally with laterally compressed bodies.
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.
Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a species of krill found in the Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean.
The aqueous humour is a transparent, watery fluid similar to plasma, but containing low protein concentrations.
Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Apposition eyes are the most common form of eye, and are presumably the ancestral form of compound eye.
In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings.
BioScience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.
A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
Black and white, often abbreviated B/W or B&W, and hyphenated black-and-white when used as an adjective, is any of several monochrome forms in visual arts.
A blind spot, scotoma, is an obscurity of the visual field.
Box jellyfish (class Cubozoa) are cnidarian invertebrates distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brittle stars or ophiuroids are echinoderms in the class Ophiuroidea closely related to starfish.
The brownsnout spookfish (Dolichopteryx longipes) is a species of barreleye in the family Opisthoproctidae.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.
A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.
Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Cephalopods, as active marine predators, possess sensory organs specialized for use in aquatic conditions.
Chitons are marine molluscs of varying size in the class Polyplacophora, formerly known as Amphineura.
A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.
Copilia is a genus of copepods in the family Sapphirinidae.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, crawldads, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In anatomy, a crystallin is a water-soluble structural protein found in the lens and the cornea of the eye accounting for the transparency of the structure.
Darkness, the polar opposite to brightness, is understood as a lack of illumination or an absence of visible light.
The Decapoda or decapods (literally "ten-footed") are an order of crustaceans within the class Malacostraca, including many familiar groups, such as crayfish, crabs, lobsters, prawns, and shrimp.
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions (3D) and the distance of an object.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, infraorder Anisoptera (from Greek ἄνισος anisos, "uneven" and πτερόν pteron, "wing", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).
Edmund Soon-Weng Yong (born 1981), commonly known as Ed Yong, is a British science journalist.
Emission theory or extramission theory (variants: extromission, extromittism) is the proposal that visual perception is accomplished by eye beams emitted by the eyes.
Entrainment, within the study of chronobiology, occurs when rhythmic physiological or behavioral events match their period to that of an environmental oscillation.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
An eye chart is a chart used to measure visual acuity.
Eye color is a polygenic phenotypic character determined by two distinct factors: the pigmentation of the eye's iris and the frequency-dependence of the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris.
Eye formation in the human embryo begins at approximately three weeks into embryonic development and continues through the tenth week.
This is a partial list of human eye diseases and disorders.
Physical or chemical injuries of the eye can be a serious threat to vision if not treated appropriately and in a timely fashion.
Eye movement includes the voluntary or involuntary movement of the eyes, helping in acquiring, fixating and tracking visual stimuli.
An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects the human eye.
The field of view is the extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.
The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye.
A Fresnel lens is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel for lighthouses.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
Glyptonotus antarcticus is a benthic marine isopod crustacean in the suborder Valvifera.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
The Hyperiidea are a suborder of amphipods, small aquatic crustaceans.
Hyperspectral imaging, like other spectral imaging, collects and processes information from across the electromagnetic spectrum.
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye.
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
Jumping spiders are a group of spiders that constitute the family Salticidae.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Limulus is a genus of horseshoe crab, with one extant species, the Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus).
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
A Luneburg lens (originally Lüneburg lens, often incorrectly spelled Luneberg lens) is a spherically symmetric gradient-index lens.
Mammals normally have a pair of eyes.
Mantises are an order (Mantodea) of insects that contains over 2,400 species in about 430 genera in 15 families.
Mantis shrimps, or stomatopods, are marine crustaceans of the order Stomatopoda.
Mayflies (also known as Canadian soldiers in the United States, and as shadflies or fishflies in Canada and the upper Midwestern U.S.; also up-winged flies in the United Kingdom) are aquatic insects belonging to the order Ephemeroptera.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
The molluscs have the widest variety of eye morphologies of any phylum, and a large degree of variation in their function.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used separately.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Mysida is an order of small, shrimp-like crustaceans in the malacostracan superorder Peracarida.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature Reviews Neuroscience is a leading review journal with one of the highest impact factors covering neuroscience, in particular.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
The nictitating membrane (from Latin nictare, to blink) is a transparent or translucent third eyelid present in some animals that can be drawn across the eye from the medial canthus for protection and to moisten it while maintaining vision.
The compound eyes of arthropods like insects, crustaceans and millipedes are composed of units called ommatidia (singular: ommatidium).
Ophiocoma wendtii is a species of brittle stars that inhabits coral reefs from Bermuda to Brazil.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
An optical axis is a line along which there is some degree of rotational symmetry in an optical system such as a camera lens or microscope.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Parallel evolution is the development of a similar trait in related, but distinct, species descending from the same ancestor, but from different clades.
Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX6 gene.
Pecten is a genus of large scallops or saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks in the family Pectinidae, the scallops.
Peripheral vision is a part of vision that occurs only on the side gaze.
In antenna theory, a phased array usually means an electronically scanned array; a computer-controlled array of antennas which creates a beam of radio waves which can be electronically steered to point in different directions, without moving the antennas.
Photopic vision is the vision of the eye under well-lit conditions (luminance level 10 to 108 cd/m2).
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
Photoreceptor proteins are light-sensitive proteins involved in the sensing and response to light in a variety of organisms.
Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
A pinhole camera is a simple camera without a lens but with a tiny aperture, a pinhole – effectively a light-proof box with a small hole in one side.
The Crotalinae, commonly known as pit vipers,Mehrtens JM.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
Pontella is a marine copepod genus in the family Pontellidae.
Prawn is a common name for small aquatic crustaceans with an exoskeleton and ten legs (i.e. a member of the order decapoda), some of which can be eaten.
The pretectal area, or pretectum, is a midbrain structure composed of seven nuclei and comprises part of the subcortical visual system.
In the compound eye of invertebrates such as insects and crustaceans, the pseudopupil appears as a dark spot which moves across the eye as the animal is rotated.
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness.
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).
In optics a ray is an idealized model of light, obtained by choosing a line that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a photic neural input pathway involved in the circadian rhythms of mammals.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
The rotifers (Rotifera, commonly called wheel animals) make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals.
Scallop is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops.
Scotopic vision is the vision of the eye under low-light levels.
Scutigera is a centipede genus in the family Scutigeridae.
The sensory organs of gastropods (snails and slugs) include olfactory organs, eyes, statocysts and mechanoreceptors.
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.
Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Spherical aberration is an optical effect observed in an optical device (lens, mirror, etc.) that occurs due to the increased refraction of light rays when they strike a lens or a reflection of light rays when they strike a mirror near its edge, in comparison with those that strike close to the centre.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
The stimulus–response model is a characterization of a statistical unit (such as a neuron) as a black box model, predicting a quantitative response to a quantitative stimulus, for example one administered by a researcher.
The Strepsiptera (translation: "twisted wing"', giving rise to the insects' common name, twisted-wing parasites) are an endopterygote order of insects with nine extant families making up about 600 species.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
The tapetum lucidum (Latin: "bright tapestry; coverlet", plural tapeta lucida) is a layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates.
Tearing, lacrimation, or lachrymation is the secretion of tears, which often serves to clean and lubricate the eyes in response to an irritation of the eyes.
The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.
The Quarterly Review of Biology is a peer reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of biology.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
The vitreous body is the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eyeball of humans and other vertebrates.
A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length (and thus angle of view) can be varied, as opposed to a fixed focal length (FFL) lens (see prime lens).
Animal eyes, Apposition eye, Camera-type eye, Compound Eye, Compound Eyes, Conjunctival disorders, Cyber-eye, Eye (anatomy), Eye (invertebrate), Eye (vertebrate), Eye ball, Eye balls, Eye membrane, Eyeball, Eyeballs, Eyes, Facet eyes, Fly's eye lens, Ocular, Ocular globe, Oculars, Ommateum, Ommotidium, Pinhole eye, Robotic eye, Schizochroal eye, Simple eye.