167 relations: Africa, Albinism, Algeria, Americas, Anatolia, Ancient DNA, Aniridia, Ashkenazi Jews, Asia, ATPase, Aurès Mountains, Autosome, Baltic Sea, Belgium, Biological anthropology, Birman, Birth defect, Black Sea, Blue-eyed black lemur, Blue-eyed spotted cuscus, Bronze Age, Calico cat, Carleton S. Coon, Carotenoid, Cat, Cataract, Caucasian race, Celts (modern), Central Asia, Central Europe, Chalcolithic, Chaoui people, Chimera (genetics), Chromatophore, Chromosome 15, Cirrhosis, Collagen, Color vision, Congenital sensorineural deafness in cats, Copper, Current Biology, David Bowie, Directionality (molecular biology), Disease, Dog, Dominance (genetics), East Asia, Eastern Europe, Elizabeth Taylor, England, ..., Epithelium, Estonia, Europe, European Americans, Eye examination, Finland, Flash (photography), France, Freckle, Gene, Gene polymorphism, Gene pool, Germanic peoples, Golgi apparatus, Great horned owl, Hazelnut, Hepatitis, HERC2, Heredity, Heterochromia iridum, Homo sapiens, Horner's syndrome, Human eye, Human hair color, Human skin color, Hunter-gatherer, Hypopigmentation, Iceland, Injury, Intron, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Ireland, Iridology, Iris (anatomy), Iris pigment epithelium, Jaundice, Journal of Human Genetics, Jungle crow, Kayser–Fleischer ring, Koala, Lee Van Cleef, Limbal ring, Lipochrome, Lipofuscin, Macular degeneration, Martin scale, Martin–Schultz scale, Melanin, Mendelian traits in humans, Mesolithic, Middle East, Mie scattering, Morocco, Mosaic (genetics), Motala, MSNBC, Neanderthal, Neolithic, Neurological disorder, Nevus, New Scientist, North Africa, Northern Europe, OCA2, Oceania, Ojos Azules, Persian cat, Phenotype, Pigment, Polygene, Primate, Promoter (genetics), Prostaglandin analogue, Proto-Indo-European language, Pteridine, Pupillary light reflex, Purine, Quantitative genetics, Rayleigh scattering, Red-eye effect, Regulatory sequence, Rotterdam, Sapphire, Scattering, Sclera, Scotland, Siamese cat, Siberia, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, SLC24A4, Solomon Islands skink, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Southern Europe, Spain, Stroma of iris, Structural coloration, Sweden, Tabby cat, Transillumination, Tunisia, Turbidity, Tyndall effect, Tyrosinase, United States, Uveal melanoma, Uveitis, Verona, Waardenburg syndrome, Wales, Western Asia, Western Europe, White Americans, Wilson's disease, X-inactivation, Xanthopterin, Yamna culture. Expand index (117 more) » « Shrink index
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Albinism in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient DNA (aDNA) is DNA isolated from ancient specimens.
Aniridia is the absence of the iris, usually involving both eyes.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
The Aures Mountains (ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⴰⵡⵔⴰⵙ, Aurasium, Jibāl al-Awrās) are an eastern prolongation of the Atlas Mountain System that lies to the east of the Saharan Atlas in northeastern Algeria, North Africa.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.
The Birman, also called the "Sacred Cat of Burma", Retrieved 16 April 2010 is a domestic cat breed.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons), also known as the Sclater's lemur, is a species of true lemur.
The blue-eyed spotted cuscus or Biak spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus wilsoni) is a species of marsupial in the family Phalangeridae.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Calico cats are domestic cats with a spotted or particolored coat that is predominantly white, with patches of two other colors (often orange and black).
Carleton Stevens Coon (June 23, 1904 – June 3, 1981) was an American physical anthropologist, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, lecturer and professor at Harvard University, and president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
The modern Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'') are a related group of ethnicities who share similar Celtic languages, cultures and artistic histories, and who live in or descend from one of the regions on the western extremities of Europe populated by the Celts.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
The Chaoui people or Shawia (شاويه, Išawiyen) are a Berber population inhabiting the Aurès, Batna and Khenchla Oum bwaghi Biskra regions located in and surrounded by the Aurès Mountains.
A genetic chimerism or chimera (also spelled chimaera) is a single organism composed of cells with distinct genotypes.
Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.
Chromosome 15 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
Congenital sensorineural deafness occurs in domestic cats with a white coat.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Current Biology is a scientific journal that covers all areas of biology, especially molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, neurobiology, ecology and evolutionary biology.
David Robert Jones (8 January 1947 – 10 January 2016), known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer-songwriter and actor.
Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, (February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011) was a British-born American actress, businesswoman, and humanitarian.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.
An eye examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist, or orthoptist assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
A flash is a device used in photography producing a flash of artificial light (typically 1/1000 to 1/200 of a second) at a color temperature of about 5500 K to help illuminate a scene.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freckles are clusters of concentrated melaninized cells which are most easily visible on people with a fair complexion.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A gene is said to be polymorphic if more than one allele occupies that gene’s locus within a population.
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
The great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), also known as the tiger owl (originally derived from early naturalists' description as the "winged tiger" or "tiger of the air") or the hoot owl,Austing, G.R. & Holt, Jr., J.B. (1966).
The hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Probable E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HERC2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HERC2 gene.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Heterochromia is a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Horner's syndrome is a combination of symptoms that arises when a group of nerves known as the sympathetic trunk is damaged.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
Hair color is the pigmentation of hair follicles due to two types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin.
Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hypopigmentation is the loss of skin color.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS) is an online journal published by the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO).
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Iridology (also known as iridodiagnosisCline D; Hofstetter HW; Griffin JR. Dictionary of Visual Science. 4th ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston 1997. or iridiagnosis) is an alternative medicine technique whose proponents claim that patterns, colors, and other characteristics of the iris can be examined to determine information about a patient's systemic health.
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
The iris pigment epithelium (IPE) is a one cell thick layer of cuboidal cells lying behind the iris.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
The Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of human genetics and genomics.
Jungle crow has been split into the following species.
Kayser–Fleischer rings (KF rings) are dark rings that appear to encircle the iris of the eye.
The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus, or, inaccurately, koala bear) is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia.
Clarence Leroy Van Cleef Jr. (January 9, 1925 – December 16, 1989), was an American actor best known for his roles in Spaghetti Westerns such as For A Few Dollars More and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly.
A limbal ring is a dark ring around the iris of the eye.
Lipochrome (from Greek λίπος ("fat") and χρῶμα ("color")) is a term referring to naturally occurring fat-soluble pigments.
Lipofuscin is the name given to fine yellow-brown pigment granules composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion.
Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.
The Martin scale is an older version of color scale commonly used in physical anthropology to establish more or less precisely the eye color of an individual; it was created by the anthropologist Martin in the first half of the 20th century.
The Martin–Schultz scale is a standard color scale commonly used in physical anthropology to establish more or less precisely the eye color of an individual; it was created by the anthropologists Rudolf Martin and Bruno K Schultz in the first half of the 20th century.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Mendelian traits in humans concerns how, in Mendelian inheritance, a child receiving a dominant allele from either parent will have the dominant form of the phenotypic trait or characteristic.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Mie solution to Maxwell's equations (also known as the Lorenz–Mie solution, the Lorenz–Mie–Debye solution or Mie scattering) describes the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a homogeneous sphere.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
In genetics, a mosaic, or mosaicism, involves the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual, who has developed from a single fertilized egg.
Motala is a locality and the seat of Motala Municipality, Östergötland County, Sweden with 29,823 inhabitants (41,956 in the entire municipality) in 2010.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Nevus (or nevi if multiple) is a nonspecific medical term for a visible, circumscribed, chronic lesion of the skin or mucosa.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
P protein, also known as melanocyte-specific transporter protein or pink-eyed dilution protein homolog, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2) gene.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Ojos Azules is a breed of domestic cat.
The Persian cat (Persian: گربه ایرانی Gorbe Irâni) is a long-haired breed of cat characterized by its round face and short muzzle.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
A "polygene” or "multiple gene inheritance" is a member of a group of non-epistatic genes that interact additively to influence a phenotypic trait.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Prostaglandin analogues are a class of drugs that bind to a prostaglandin receptor.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Pteridine is an aromatic chemical compound composed of fused pyrimidine and pyrazine rings.
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Quantitative genetics is a branch of population genetics that deals with phenotypes that vary continuously (in characters such as height or mass)—as opposed to discretely identifiable phenotypes and gene-products (such as eye-colour, or the presence of a particular biochemical).
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
The red-eye effect in photography is the common appearance of red pupils in color photographs of the eyes of humans and several other animals.
A regulatory sequence is a segment of a nucleic acid molecule which is capable of increasing or decreasing the expression of specific genes within an organism.
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Siamese cat is one of the first distinctly recognized breeds of Asian cat.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
Sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 4 also known as solute carrier family 24 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC24A4 gene.
The Solomon Islands skink (Corucia zebrata), also known as prehensile-tailed skink, monkey-tailed skink, giant skink, zebra skink, and monkey skink, is an arboreal species of skink endemic to the Solomon Islands archipelago.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The stroma of the iris is a fibrovascular layer of tissue.
Structural coloration is the production of colour by microscopically structured surfaces fine enough to interfere with visible light, sometimes in combination with pigments.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
A tabby is any domestic cat (Felis catus) that has a coat featuring distinctive stripes, dots, lines or swirling patterns, usually together with a mark resembling an 'M' on its forehead.
Transillumination is the technique of sample illumination by transmission of light through the sample.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
The Tyndall effect, also known as Willis–Tyndall scattering, is light scattering by particles in a colloids or in a very fine suspension.
Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Uveal melanoma is a cancer (melanoma) of the eye involving the iris, ciliary body, or choroid (collectively referred to as the uvea).
Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder most often characterized by varying degrees of deafness, minor defects in structures arising from the neural crest, and pigmentation changes.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.
X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.
Xanthopterin is a yellow, crystalline solidhttp://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?xanthopterin that occurs mainly in the wings of butterflies and in the urine of mammals.
The Yamna people or Yamnaya culture (traditionally known as the Pit Grave culture or Ochre Grave culture) was a late Copper Age to early Bronze Age culture of the region between the Southern Bug, Dniester and Ural rivers (the Pontic steppe), dating to 3300–2600 BC.
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