46 relations: Anterior segment of eyeball, Blood vessel, Choroid, Ciliary body, Cornea, Corneal endothelium, Corneal epithelium, Cyclopia, Descemet's membrane, Drosophila, Ectoderm, Embryo, Endoderm, Endodermic evagination, Endothelium, Extraocular muscles, Eye, Eyelid, Gastrulation, Invagination, Iris (anatomy), Lens (anatomy), Lens placode, LMX1B, Mesoderm, Muscle, Neural crest, Neural plate, Neural tube, Neuroectoderm, Neuroepithelial cell, Neurulation, Optic cup (embryology), Optic nerve, Optic vesicle, PAX6, Retina, Retinoic acid, Sclera, Sonic hedgehog, Stroma of cornea, Surface ectoderm, Tela choroidea, Vitamin A, Vitamin A deficiency, Vitreous membrane.
The anterior segment or anterior cavity is the front third of the eye that includes the structures in front of the vitreous humour: the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The choroid, also known as the choroidea or choroid coat, is the vascular layer of the eye, containing connective tissues, and lying between the retina and the sclera.
The ciliary body is a part of the eye that includes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the lens, and the ciliary epithelium, which produces the aqueous humor.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
The corneal endothelium is a single layer of cells on the inner surface of the cornea.
The corneal epithelium (epithelium corneæ anterior layer) is made up of epithelial tissue and covers the front of the cornea.
Cyclopia (also cyclocephaly or synophthalmia) is a rare form of holoprosencephaly and is a congenital disorder (birth defect) characterized by the failure of the embryonic prosencephalon to properly divide the orbits of the eye into two cavities.
Descemet's membrane (or the Descemet membrane) is the basement membrane that lies between the corneal proper substance, also called stroma, and the endothelial layer of the cornea.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Endodermic evagination relates to the inner germ layers of cells of the very early embryo, from which is formed the lining of the digestive tract, of other internal organs, and of certain glands, implies the extension of a layer of body tissue to form a pouch, or the turning inside out (protrusion) of some body part or organ from its basic position, for example the para-nasal sinuses are believed to be formed in the fetus by 'ballooning' of the developing nasal canal, and the prostate or Skene's gland formed out of evaginations of the urethra.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae).
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects the human eye.
Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.
In developmental biology, invagination is a mechanism that takes place during gastrulation.
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
The Lens placode is a thickened portion of ectoderm which serves as the precursor to the lens.
LIM homeobox transcription factor 1-beta, also known as LMX1B, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LMX1B gene.
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Neural crest cells are a temporary group of cells unique to chordates of the group Cristozoa that arise from the embryonic ectoderm cell layer, and in turn give rise to a diverse cell lineage—including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia.
The neural plate is a key developmental structure that serves as the basis for the nervous system.
In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
Neuroectoderm (or neural ectoderm or neural tube epithelium) is ectoderm which receives bone morphogenetic protein-inhibiting signals from proteins such as noggin, which leads to the development of the nervous system from this tissue.
Neuroepithelial cells are the "stem cells" of the nervous system, deriving from actual stem cells in several different stages of neural development.
Neurulation refers to the folding process in vertebrate embryos, which includes the transformation of the neural plate into the neural tube.
During embryonic development of the eye, the outer wall of the bulb of the optic vesicles becomes thickened and invaginated, and the bulb is thus converted into a cup, the optic cup (or ophthalmic cup), consisting of two strata of cells.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
The eyes begin to develop as a pair of diverticula from the lateral aspects of the forebrain.
Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX6 gene.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development.
The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber.
Sonic hedgehog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHH ("sonic hedgehog") gene.
The substantia propria (or stroma of cornea) is fibrous, tough, unyielding, and perfectly transparent.
The surface ectoderm (or external ectoderm) forms the following structures.
The tela choroidea (or tela chorioidea) is a region of meningeal pia mater and underlying ependyma that gives rise to the choroid plexus in each of the brain’s four ventricles.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) or hypovitaminosis A is a lack of vitamin A in blood and tissues.
The vitreous membrane (or hyaloid membrane or vitreous cortex) is a layer of collagen separating the vitreous humour from the rest of the eye.