88 relations: Abducens nerve, Anatomical terms of location, Annulus of Zinn, Brainstem, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Cognitive development, Computer processing of body language, Congenital fourth nerve palsy, Convergence micropsia, Cranial nerves, Diplopia, Dissociated vertical deviation, Duane syndrome, Duction, Electrochemistry, Extraocular muscles, Eye, Eye movement, Eye movement in music reading, Eye movement in reading, Eye movement in scene viewing, Eye tracking, Fixation (visual), Fovea centralis, Frontal eye fields, Frontal lobe, Gaussian blur, Gaze-contingency paradigm, Harada–Ito procedure, Hering's law of equal innervation, Hertz, Inferior oblique muscle, Inferior rectus muscle, Internuclear ophthalmoplegia, Lateral rectus muscle, Listing's law, Luminance, Medial eye fields, Medial longitudinal fasciculus, Medial rectus muscle, Medial superior temporal area, Microsaccade, Midbrain, Myasthenia gravis, Nucleus prepositus, Nystagmus, Occipital lobe, Ocular tremor, Oculesics, ..., Oculomotor nerve, Oculomotor nerve palsy, Ophthalmoparesis, Opsoclonus, Optic nerve, Optokinetic response, Orbit (anatomy), Orthoptics, Paramedian pontine reticular formation, Parietal lobe, Photoreceptor cell, Pretectal area, Progressive supranuclear palsy, Rapid eye movement sleep, Reflex, Reticular formation, Retina, Retinal correspondence, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Saccade, Sherrington's law of reciprocal innervation, Sixth nerve palsy, Smooth pursuit, Strabismus, Strabismus surgery, Superior colliculus, Superior oblique muscle, Superior rectus muscle, Supplementary eye field, Trochlear nerve, Vergence, Vertebrate, Vestibular nuclei, Vestibulo–ocular reflex, Visual acuity, Visual cortex, Visual perception, Voluntary action. Expand index (38 more) » « Shrink index
The abducens nerve is a nerve that controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle in humans, responsible for outward gaze.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
The annulus of Zinn, also known as the annular tendon or common tendinous ring, is a ring of fibrous tissue surrounding the optic nerve at its entrance at the apex of the orbit.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain and cognitive psychology.
The normal way that a computer functions manually is through a person that controls the computer.
*For acquired fourth nerve palsy, see fourth nerve palsy Congenital fourth nerve palsy is a condition present at birth characterized by a vertical misalignment of the eyes due to a weakness or paralysis of the superior oblique muscle.
Convergence micropsia is a type of micropsia characterized by the reduction in apparent size of objects viewed when the eyes are more converged than they need to be for the distance of the object from the eyes.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other.
Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is an eye condition which occurs in association with a squint, typically infantile esotropia.
Duane syndrome is a congenital rare type of strabismus most commonly characterized by the inability of the eye to move outwards.
A duction is an eye movement involving only one eye.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae).
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
Eye movement includes the voluntary or involuntary movement of the eyes, helping in acquiring, fixating and tracking visual stimuli.
Eye movement in music reading is the scanning of a musical score by a musician's eyes.
Eye movement in reading involves the visual processing of written text.
Eye movement in scene viewing refers to the visual processing of information presented in scenes.
Eye tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head.
Fixation or visual fixation is the maintaining of the visual gaze on a single location.
The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye.
The frontal eye fields (FEF) are a region located in the frontal cortex, more specifically in Brodmann area 8 or BA8, of the primate brain.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
In image processing, a Gaussian blur (also known as Gaussian smoothing) is the result of blurring an image by a Gaussian function (named after mathematician and scientist Carl Friedrich Gauss).
The gaze-contingency paradigm is a general term for techniques allowing a computer screen display to change in function depending on where the viewer is looking.
The Harada–Ito procedure is an eye muscle operation designed to improve the excyclotorsion experienced by some patients with cranial nerve IV palsy.
Hering's law of equal innervation is used to explain the conjugacy of saccadic eye movement in stereoptic animals.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
The inferior oblique muscle or obliquus oculi inferior is a thin, narrow muscle placed near the anterior margin of the floor of the orbit.
The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) is a disorder of conjugate lateral gaze in which the affected eye shows impairment of adduction.
The lateral rectus muscle is a muscle on the lateral side of the eyeball in the orbit.
Listing's law, named after German mathematician Johann Benedict Listing (1808–1882), describes the three-dimensional orientation of the eye and its axes of rotation.
Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction.
Medial eye fields are areas in the frontal lobe of the primate brain that play a role in visually guided eye movement.
The medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) is one of a pair of crossed over tracts, on each side of the brainstem.
The medial rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.
The medial superior temporal (MST) area is a part of the cerebral cortex, which lies in the dorsal stream of the visual area of the primate brain.
Microsaccades are a kind of fixational eye movement.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.
Located in the caudal pons and upper medulla oblongata, the nucleus prepositus (also nucleus prepositus hypoglossi) is part of the horizontal gaze holding system.
Nystagmus is a condition of involuntary (or voluntary, in rare cases) eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision.
The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Ocular microtremor (OMT) is a constant, physiological, high frequency (peak 80Hz), low amplitude (estimated circa 150-2500nm (1)) eye tremor.
Oculesics, a subcategory of kinesics, is the study of eye movement, eye behavior, gaze, and eye-related nonverbal communication.
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve.
Oculomotor nerve palsy or third nerve palsy is an eye condition resulting from damage to the third cranial nerve or a branch thereof.
Ophthalmoparesis or ophthalmoplegia refers to weakness (-paresis) or paralysis (-plegia) of one or more extraocular muscles which are responsible for eye movements.
Opsoclonus refers to uncontrolled eye movement.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
The optokinetic response is a combination of a slow-phase and fast-phase eye movements.
In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated.
Orthoptics is a profession allied to eye care profession whose primary emphasis is the diagnosis and non-surgical management of strabismus (wandering eye), amblyopia (lazy eye) and eye movement disorders.
The paramedian pontine reticular formation, also known as PPRF or paraabducens nucleus, is part of the pontine reticular formation, a brain region without clearly defined borders in the center of the pons.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
The pretectal area, or pretectum, is a midbrain structure composed of seven nuclei and comprises part of the subcortical visual system.
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP; or the Steele–Richardson–Olszewski syndrome, after the doctors who described it in 1963) is a degenerative disease involving the gradual deterioration and death of specific volumes of the brain.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Retinal correspondence is the inherent relationship between paired retinal visual cells in the two eyes.
Rhabdomyosarcoma, or RMS, is an aggressive and highly malignant form of cancer that develops from skeletal (striated) muscle cells that have failed to fully differentiate.
A saccade (French for jerk) is a quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two or more phases of fixation in the same direction.
Sherrington's law of reciprocal innervation, also called Sherrington's law II explains how a muscle will relax when its opposite muscle (e.g., biceps/triceps) is activated.
Sixth nerve palsy, or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve), which is responsible for causing contraction of the lateral rectus muscle to abduct (i.e., turn out) the eye.
Smooth pursuit eye movements allow the eyes to closely follow a moving object.
Strabismus, also known as crossed eyes, is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object.
Strabismus surgery (also: extraocular muscle surgery, eye muscle surgery, or eye alignment surgery) is surgery on the extraocular muscles to correct strabismus, the misalignment of the eyes.
The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
The superior oblique muscle, or obliquus oculi superior, is a fusiform muscle originating in the upper, medial side of the orbit (i.e. from beside the nose) which abducts, depresses and internally rotates the eye.
The superior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.
Supplementary eye field (SEF) is the name for the anatomical area of the dorsal medial frontal lobe of the primate cerebral cortex that is indirectly involved in the control of saccadic eye movements.
The trochlear nerve, also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve (a somatic efferent nerve) that innervates only a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye, which operates through the pulley-like trochlea.
A vergence is the simultaneous movement of both eyes in opposite directions to obtain or maintain single binocular vision.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The vestibular nuclei (VN) are the cranial nuclei for the vestibular nerve.
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a reflex, where activation of the vestibular system causes eye movement.
Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision.
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Voluntary action is an anticipated goal-oriented movement.
Excycloduction, Excyclotorsion, Eye movement (sensory), Eye movement disorder, Eye movement disorders, Eye movements, Incyclotorsion, Ocular motility disorder, Ocular motility disorders, Ocular nerve, Version (eye).