29 relations: Bariatric surgery, Bile acid, Bile acid malabsorption, Bile acid sequestrant, Chenodeoxycholic acid, Cholestasis, Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, Crohn's disease, Diarrhea, Farnesoid X receptor, FGF15, FGF15/19, Fibroblast growth factor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, Gene, Glycochenodeoxycholic acid, Heparin, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hormone, Ileum, Insulin resistance, Klotho (biology), Metabolic syndrome, Morphogenesis, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Obeticholic acid, Protein, SeHCAT, 7α-Hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one.
Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
Bile acid malabsorption, known also as bile acid diarrhea, is a cause of several gut-related problems, the main one being chronic diarrhea.
The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract.
Chenodeoxycholic acid (also known as chenodesoxycholic acid, chenocholic acid and 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid) is a bile acid.
Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum.
Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase also known as cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase or cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP7A1 gene which has an important role in cholesterol metabolism.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
The bile acid receptor (BAR), also known as farnesoid X receptor (FXR) or NR1H4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4) is a nuclear receptor that is encoded by the NR1H4 gene in humans.
Fibroblast growth factor 15 is a protein in mouse encoded by the Fgf15 gene.
FGF15/19 refers to two orthologous fibroblast growth factors which share 50% aminoacid identity and have similar functions.
The fibroblast growth factors are a family of cell signalling proteins that are involved in a wide variety of processes, most notably as crucial elements for normal development.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGFR4 gene.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Glycochenodeoxycholic acid is a bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholic acid and glycine, usually found as the sodium salt.
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Klotho is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KL gene.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the types of fatty liver which occurs when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver due to causes other than excessive alcohol use.
Obeticholic acid (abbreviated to OCA, trade name Ocaliva), is a semi-synthetic bile acid analogue which has the chemical structure 6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
SeHCAT (23-seleno-25-homotaurocholic acid, selenium homocholic acid taurine, or tauroselcholic acid) is a drug used in a clinical test to diagnose bile acid malabsorption.
7α-Hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one is an intermediate in the biochemical synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol.