109 relations: Advanced Micro Devices, Ambric, AMD Radeon Rx 200 series, AMD RX Vega series, ASCI Red, ATI Technologies, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, Beowulf cluster, Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing, Blue Gene, Broadwell (microarchitecture), Calculator, Central processing unit, Computer performance, Computing, Cray, Cray X-MP, Cray XT4, Distributed computing, Doubleday (publisher), Einstein@Home, Exa-, Exponentiation, Floating-point arithmetic, Folding@home, GeForce 700 series, Giga-, Gordon Bell Prize, Graphics processing unit, Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search, Greater roadrunner, Grid computing, Gulftown, Haswell (microarchitecture), IBM, IBM 7030 Stretch, IBM Floating Point Architecture, IBM Roadrunner, IBM Sequoia, IEEE 754, IEEE 754-1985, Instructions per second, Intel, Internet, Ivy Bridge (microarchitecture), James Bamford, K computer, Kentucky Linux Athlon Testbed, Kilo-, Kraken, ..., LINPACK benchmarks, List of U.S. state birds, Mega-, Mersenne prime, Microprocessor, MilkyWay@home, Moore's law, Multi-core processor, Multiply–accumulate operation, National Science Foundation, National Security Agency, NEC, NEC SX-9, Nehalem (microarchitecture), Nvidia, Nvidia Tesla, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Orders of magnitude (numbers), Overclocking, Pentium Pro, Performance per watt, Personal computer, Peta-, Pipeline (computing), PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Radeon HD 4000 series, Radeon HD 5000 Series, Radeon HD 7000 Series, Real number, Riken, RIKEN MDGRAPE-3, Sandia National Laboratories, Sandy Bridge, Sempron, SETI@home, Significand, Skylake (microarchitecture), SPARC64 V, SPECfp, SPECint, Sun Microsystems, Sunway TaihuLight, Supercomputer, SUPS, Tera-, Teraflops Research Chip, The Pentagon, The Shadow Factory, Tianhe-1, Tianhe-2, Titan (supercomputer), TOP500, University of Texas at Austin, VAX, Vector processor, Xeon Phi, Yotta-, Zetta-. Expand index (59 more) » « Shrink index
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.
Ambric, Inc. was a designer of computer processors that developed the Ambric architecture.
The AMD Radeon R5/R7/R9 200 series is a family of GPUs developed by AMD.
The AMD RX Vega series is a series of consumer graphics processors produced by AMD.
ASCI Red (also known as ASCI Option Red or TFLOPS) was the first computer built under the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), the supercomputing initiative of the United States government created to help the maintenance of the United States nuclear arsenal after the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing.
ATI Technologies Inc. (commonly called ATI) was a semiconductor technology corporation based in Markham, Ontario, Canada, that specialized in the development of graphics processing units and chipsets.
Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) is a specification that prescribes a set of low-level routines for performing common linear algebra operations such as vector addition, scalar multiplication, dot products, linear combinations, and matrix multiplication.
A Beowulf cluster is a computer cluster of what are normally identical, commodity-grade computers networked into a small local area network with libraries and programs installed which allow processing to be shared among them.
The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC, pronounced – rhymes with "oink"), an open-source middleware system, supports volunteer and grid computing.
Blue Gene is an IBM project aimed at designing supercomputers that can reach operating speeds in the PFLOPS (petaFLOPS) range, with low power consumption.
Broadwell is Intel's codename for the 14 nanometer die shrink of its Haswell microarchitecture.
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Computer performance is the amount of work accomplished by a computer system.
Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.
Cray Inc. is an American supercomputer manufacturer headquartered in Seattle, Washington.
The Cray X-MP is a supercomputer designed, built and sold by Cray Research.
The Cray XT4 (codenamed Hood during development) is an updated version of the Cray XT3 supercomputer.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.
Einstein@Home is a volunteer distributed computing project that searches for signals from rotating neutron stars in data from the LIGO gravitational-wave detectors, from large radio telescopes, and from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
Exa is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting 1018 or.
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
Folding@home (FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing project for disease research that simulates protein folding, computational drug design, and other types of molecular dynamics.
The GeForce 700 Series is a series of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia.
Giga is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of a (short-form) billion (109 or 000).
The Gordon Bell Prize is an award presented by the Association for Computing Machinery each year in conjunction with the SC Conference series (formerly known as the Supercomputing Conference).
A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.
The Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS) is a collaborative project of volunteers who use freely available software to search for Mersenne prime numbers.
The greater roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus) is a long-legged bird in the cuckoo family, Cuculidae, from Southwestern United States and Mexico.
Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.
Gulftown or Westmere-EP is the codename of an up to six-core hyperthreaded Intel processor able to run up to 12 threads in parallel.
Haswell is the codename for a processor microarchitecture developed by Intel as the "fourth-generation core" successor to the Ivy Bridge microarchitecture.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBM's first transistorized supercomputer.
IBM System/360 computers, and subsequent machines based on that architecture (mainframes), support a hexadecimal floating-point format.
Roadrunner was a supercomputer built by IBM for the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, USA.
IBM Sequoia is a petascale Blue Gene/Q supercomputer constructed by IBM for the National Nuclear Security Administration as part of the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC).
The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point computation established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
IEEE 754-1985 was an industry standard for representing floating-point numbers in computers, officially adopted in 1985 and superseded in 2008 by IEEE 754-2008.
Instructions per second (IPS) is a measure of a computer's processor speed.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Ivy Bridge is the codename for the "third generation" of the Intel Core processors (Core i7, i5, i3).
The K computer named for the Japanese word, meaning 10 quadrillion (1016)See Japanese numbers is a supercomputer manufactured by Fujitsu, currently installed at the Riken Advanced Institute for Computational Science campus in Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan.
The Kentucky Linux Athlon Testbed (KLAT2) is a 64+2 node Beowulf cluster built by the University of Kentucky College of Engineering in 2000.
Kilo is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by one thousand (103).
The kraken is a legendary cephalopod-like sea monster of giant size that is said to dwell off the coasts of Norway and Greenland.
The LINPACK Benchmarks are a measure of a system's floating point computing power.
Below is a list of U.S. state birds as designated by each state's legislature.
Mega is a unit prefix in metric systems of units denoting a factor of one million (106 or 000).
In mathematics, a Mersenne prime is a prime number that is one less than a power of two.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
MilkyWay@home is a volunteer distributed computing project in astrophysics running on the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) platform.
Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.
A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent processing units called cores, which read and execute program instructions.
In computing, especially digital signal processing, the multiply–accumulate operation is a common step that computes the product of two numbers and adds that product to an accumulator.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
The SX-9 is a supercomputer built by NEC Corporation.
Nehalem is the codename for an Intel processor microarchitecture released in November 2008.
Nvidia Corporation (most commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or (due to their logo) nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California.
Nvidia Tesla is Nvidia's brand name for their products targeting stream processing or general-purpose GPU.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.
Overclocking is configuration of computer hardware components to operate faster than certified by the original manufacturer, with "faster" specified as clock frequency in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz).
The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 microprocessor developed and manufactured by Intel introduced in November 1, 1995.
In computing, performance per watt is a measure of the energy efficiency of a particular computer architecture or computer hardware.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
Peta is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by 1015.
In computing, a pipeline, also known as a data pipeline, is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one.
The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.
The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment.
The Radeon R700 is the engineering codename for a graphics processing unit series developed by Advanced Micro Devices under the ATI brand name.
The Evergreen series is a family of GPUs developed by Advanced Micro Devices for its Radeon line under the ATI brand name.
The Radeon HD 7000 Series, based on "Southern Islands", is further products series in the family of Radeon GPUs developed by AMD.
In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.
is a large research institute in Japan.
MDGRAPE-3 is an ultra-high performance petascale supercomputer system developed by the RIKEN research institute in Japan.
The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.
Sandy Bridge is the codename for the microarchitecture used in the "second generation" of the Intel Core processors (Core i7, i5, i3) - the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture is the successor to Nehalem microarchitecture.
Sempron has been the marketing name used by AMD for several different budget desktop CPUs, using several different technologies and CPU socket formats.
SETI@home ("SETI at home") is an Internet-based public volunteer computing project employing the BOINC software platform created by the Berkeley SETI Research Center and is hosted by the Space Sciences Laboratory, at the University of California, Berkeley.
The significand (also mantissa or coefficient) is part of a number in scientific notation or a floating-point number, consisting of its significant digits.
Skylake is the codename used by Intel for a processor microarchitecture that was launched in August 2015 succeeding the Broadwell microarchitecture.
The SPARC64 V (Zeus) is a SPARC V9 microprocessor designed by Fujitsu.
SPECfp is a computer benchmark designed to test the floating point performance of a computer.
SPECint is a computer benchmark specification for CPU integer processing power.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
The Sunway TaihuLight (Shénwēi·tàihú zhī guāng) is a Chinese supercomputer which,, is ranked second in the TOP500 list, with a LINPACK benchmark rating of 93 petaflops.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
In computational neuroscience, SUPS (for Synaptic Updates Per Second) or formerly CUPS (Connections Updates Per Second) is a measure of a neuronal network performance, useful in fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and computer science.
Tera is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by 1012 or (one trillion short scale; one billion long scale).
The Teraflops Research Chip (also called Polaris) is a research manycore processor, containing 80 cores developed by Intel Corporation's Tera-Scale Computing Research Program.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America is a book on the National Security Agency by author James Bamford.
Tianhe-I, Tianhe-1, or TH-1 (Sky River Number One) is a supercomputer capable of an Rmax (maximum range) of 2.5 petaFLOPS.
Tianhe-2 or TH-2 (that is, "Milky Way 2") is a 33.86-petaflop supercomputer located in National Supercomputer Center in Guangzhou, China.
Titan or OLCF-3 is a supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in a variety of science projects. Titan is an upgrade of Jaguar, a previous supercomputer at Oak Ridge, that uses graphics processing units (GPUs) in addition to conventional central processing units (CPUs). Titan is the first such hybrid to perform over 10 petaFLOPS. The upgrade began in October 2011, commenced stability testing in October 2012 and it became available to researchers in early 2013. The initial cost of the upgrade was US$60 million, funded primarily by the United States Department of Energy. Titan is due to be eclipsed at Oak Ridge by Summit in 2019, which is being built by IBM and features fewer nodes with much greater GPU capability per node as well as local per-node non-volatile caching of file data from the system's parallel file system. Titan employs AMD Opteron CPUs in conjunction with Nvidia Tesla GPUs to improve energy efficiency while providing an order of magnitude increase in computational power over Jaguar. It uses 18,688 CPUs paired with an equal number of GPUs to perform at a theoretical peak of 27 petaFLOPS; in the LINPACK benchmark used to rank supercomputers' speed, it performed at 17.59 petaFLOPS. This was enough to take first place in the November 2012 list by the TOP500 organization, but Tianhe-2 overtook it on the June 2013 list. Titan is available for any scientific purpose; access depends on the importance of the project and its potential to exploit the hybrid architecture. Any selected programs must also be executable on other supercomputers to avoid sole dependence on Titan. Six vanguard programs were the first selected. They dealt mostly with molecular scale physics or climate models, while 25 others were queued behind them. The inclusion of GPUs compelled authors to alter their programs. The modifications typically increased the degree of parallelism, given that GPUs offer many more simultaneous threads than CPUs. The changes often yield greater performance even on CPU-only machines.
The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.
In computing, a vector processor or array processor is a central processing unit (CPU) that implements an instruction set containing instructions that operate on one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors, compared to scalar processors, whose instructions operate on single data items.
Xeon Phi is a series of x86 manycore processors designed and made entirely by Intel.
Yotta is the largest decimal unit prefix in the metric system, denoting a factor of 1024 or; that is, one million million million million, or one septillion.
Zetta is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 1021 or.
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