174 relations: Abandonware, Acuff-Rose Music, Affirmative defense, American Civil Liberties Union, American Library Association, American University, Andrea Blanch, Android (operating system), Application programming interface, Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Association of Research Libraries, Audio Home Recording Act, Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement, Australian Digital Alliance, Australian Law Reform Commission, Authors Guild, Inc. v. Google, Inc., Authors Guild, Inc. v. HathiTrust, Barbie, Bernard J. Geis, Berne three-step test, Betamax, Biz Markie, Bridgeport Music, Inc. v. Dimension Films, Burden of proof (law), Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc., Capitol Records, Inc. v. Thomas-Rasset, CCH Canadian Ltd v Law Society of Upper Canada, Cease and desist, Charles Nesson, Civil law (legal system), Common law, Communication protocol, Computer hardware, Copyfraud, Copyright, Copyright Act of 1976, Copyright Act of Canada, Copyright infringement, Copyright law of Canada, Copyright law of Poland, Copyright law of South Korea, Copyright law of the United States, Court of Chancery, Creative Commons, Cryptography, Data mining, De minimis, Default judgment, Denny Chin, Derivative work, ..., Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Exclusive right, Fair dealing, Fair use (U.S. trademark law), Fair Use Project, Folsom v. Marsh, Freedom of speech, Gagosian Gallery, Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, George Washington, Gerald Ford, Gilbert O'Sullivan, Gone with the Wind (novel), Google, Grand Upright Music, Ltd. v. Warner Bros. Records Inc., Gross domestic product, Gyles v Wilcox, Harold Baer Jr., Harper & Row v. Nation Enterprises, Harvard Law Review, Harvard University, Idea–expression divide, Injunction, Inline linking, Interoperability, Java (programming language), Jeff Koons, Jeremy Fogel, Joseph Story, Jules and Gédéon Naudet, Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corp., Kiwi Camara, Knesset, Las Vegas Review-Journal, Law of Poland, Law of the United States, Law Society of Ontario, Lawsuit, Legal doctrine, Legal tests, Leibovitz v. Paramount Pictures Corp., Lenz v. Universal Music Corp., Let's Go Crazy, License, Limitations and exceptions to copyright, Loose Change, Los Angeles Times v. Free Republic, Lumen (website), Margaret Mitchell, Mattel, Microsoft, Moral rights, National Coalition Against Censorship, Official Code of Georgia Annotated, Oh, Pretty Woman, Open-source model, Oracle America, Inc. v. Google, Inc., Oracle Corporation, Parliament of Great Britain, Parody, Perfect 10, Inc. v. Amazon.com, Inc., Philip Martin Pro, Pierre N. Leval, Piracy, Plagiarism, Prima facie, Productivity Commission, Professional liability insurance, Public.Resource.Org, Rapping, Reverse engineering, Richard Prince, Richard W. Story, Righthaven, Rogers v. Koons, Roy Orbison, Salinger v. Random House, Inc., Sampling (music), Satire, Scènes à faire, Software, Sony BMG Music Entertainment v. Tenenbaum, Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., Stanford University, Statute of Anne, Strategic lawsuit against public participation, Structure, sequence and organization, Substitute good, Summary judgment, Sun Microsystems, Suntrust Bank v. Houghton Mifflin Co., Supreme Court of Canada, Supreme Court of the United States, TEACH Act, Text mining, The Sydney Morning Herald, The Wind Done Gone, This Film Is Not Yet Rated, Thumbnail, Time shifting, Tom Forsythe, Toward a Fair Use Standard, Trade group efforts against file sharing, Transformation (law), United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, United States District Court for the District of Nevada, United States District Court for the Northern District of California, United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia, United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, Universal Music Group, Universal Pictures, Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. v. RDR Books, Web mining, Web search engine, World Intellectual Property Organization, World Trade Center (1973–2001), Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers, Yahoo!, YouTube, Zapruder film, 2 Live Crew. Expand index (124 more) » « Shrink index
Abandonware is a product, typically software, ignored by its owner and manufacturer, and for which no support is available.
Acuff-Rose Music was an American music publishing firm formed in 1942 by Roy Acuff and Fred Rose in Nashville, Tennessee.
An affirmative defense to a civil lawsuit or criminal charge is a fact or set of facts other than those alleged by the plaintiff or prosecutor which, if proven by the defendant, defeats or mitigates the legal consequences of the defendant's otherwise unlawful conduct.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.
The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally.
The American University (AU or American) is a private United Methodist-affiliated research university in Washington, D.C., United States.
Andrea Blanch, is a prominent portrait, commercial, and fine art photographer.
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.
The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) is a nonprofit organization of 125 research libraries at comprehensive, research institutions in the United States and Canada that share similar missions, aspirations, and achievements.
The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the United States copyright law by adding Chapter 10, "Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media".
The Australia – United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) is a preferential trade agreement between Australia and the United States modelled on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
The Australian Digital Alliance (ADA) is an Australian non-profit coalition of public and private sector interests, formed to promote balanced copyright law by providing a voice for the public interest perspective in debates about copyright change and reform.
The Australian Law Reform Commission (often abbreviated to ALRC) is an Australian independent statutory body established to conduct reviews into the law of Australia.The reviews, also called inquiries or references, are referred to the ALRC by the Attorney-General of Australia.
Authors Guild v. Google is a copyright case litigated in the United States.
Authors Guild v. HathiTrust, 755 F.3d 87 (2d Cir. 2014), is a United States copyright decision finding search and accessibility uses of digitized books to be fair use.
Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel, Inc. and launched in March 1959.
Bernard J. Geis (August 30, 1909 – January 8, 2001) was an American editor and publisher who founded the now-defunct Bernard Geis Associates, which published and promoted several best-sellers in the 1960s and 70s, including Jacqueline Susann's Valley of the Dolls and Helen Gurley Brown's Sex and the Single Girl.
The Berne three-step test is a clause that is included in several international treaties on intellectual property.
Betamax (also called Beta, as in its logo) is a consumer-level analog-recording and cassette format of magnetic tape for video.
Marcel Theo Hall (born April 8, 1964), better known by his stage name Biz Markie, is an American rapper, beatboxer, DJ, actor, comedian, reality television personality and commercial spokesperson.
Bridgeport Music, Inc.
The burden of proof (onus probandi) is the obligation of a party in a trial to produce the evidence that will prove the claims they have made against the other party.
Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc., was a United States Supreme Court copyright law case that established that a commercial parody can qualify as fair use.
Capitol Records, Inc.
CCH Canadian Ltd v Law Society of Upper Canada, 1 SCR 339,CCH Canadian Ltd.
A cease and desist letter is a document sent to an individual or business to stop purportedly illegal activity ("cease") and not to restart it ("desist").
Charles Rothwell Nesson (born February 11, 1939) is the William F. Weld Professor of Law at Harvard Law School and the founder of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society and of the Global Poker Strategic Thinking Society.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
Copyfraud refers to false copyright claims by individuals or institutions with respect to content that is in the public domain.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
The Copyright Act of 1976 is a United States copyright law and remains the primary basis of copyright law in the United States, as amended by several later enacted copyright provisions.
The Copyright Act of Canada is the federal statute governing copyright law in Canada.
Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works.
The copyright law of Canada governs the legally enforceable rights to creative and artistic works under the laws of Canada.
Polish copyright law is regulated by the act from 1994.
Copyright law of South Korea is regulated by the Copyright Act of 1957.
The copyright law of the United States is intended to encourage the creation of art and culture by rewarding authors and artists with a set of exclusive rights.
The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness (or "inequity") of the common law.
Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
De minimis is a Latin expression meaning "about minimal things", normally in the locutions de minimis non curat praetor ("The praetor does not concern himself with trifles") or de minimis non curat lex ("The law does not concern itself with trifles") a legal doctrine by which a court refuses to consider trifling matters.
Default judgment is a binding judgment in favor of either party based on some failure to take action by the other party.
Denny Chin (陳卓光; born 1954) is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, based in New York City.
In copyright law, a derivative work is an expressive creation that includes major copyright-protected elements of an original, previously created first work (the underlying work).
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
In Anglo-Saxon law, an exclusive right, or exclusivity, is a de facto, non-tangible prerogative existing in law (that is, the power or, in a wider sense, right) to perform an action or acquire a benefit and to permit or deny others the right to perform the same action or to acquire the same benefit.
Fair dealing is a limitation and exception to the exclusive right granted by copyright law to the author of a creative work.
In the United States, trademark law includes a fair use defense, sometimes called "trademark fair use" to distinguish it from the better-known fair use doctrine in copyright.
The Fair Use Project is part of the Stanford Center for Internet and Society at Stanford Law School.
Folsom v. Marsh, 9.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Gagosian Gallery is a contemporary art gallery owned and directed by Larry Gagosian.
Gallitzin is a borough in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, in the United States.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Gilbert O'Sullivan (born Raymond Edward O'Sullivan, 1 December 1946) is an Irish singer-songwriter, best known for his early 1970s hits "Alone Again (Naturally)", "Clair", and "Get Down".
Gone with the Wind is a novel by American writer Margaret Mitchell, first published in 1936.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Grand Upright Music, Ltd v. Warner Bros.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gyles v Wilcox (1740) 26 ER 489 was a decision of the Court of Chancery of EnglandSaunders (1992), 29.
Harold Baer Jr. (February 16, 1933 – May 27, 2014) was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York.
Harper & Row v. Nation Enterprises,, was a United States Supreme Court decision in which public interest in learning about a historical figure’s impressions of a historic event was held not to be sufficient to show fair use of material otherwise protected by copyright.
The Harvard Law Review is a law review published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The idea–expression divide or idea–expression dichotomy limits the scope of copyright protection by differentiating an idea from the expression or manifestation of that idea.
An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that compels a party to do or refrain from specific acts.
Inline linking (also known as hotlinking, leeching, piggy-backing, direct linking, offsite image grabs) is the use of a linked object, often an image, on one site by a web page belonging to a second site.
Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Jeffrey Koons (born January 21, 1955) is an American artist known for working with popular culture subjects and his reproductions of banal objects—such as balloon animals produced in stainless steel with mirror-finish surfaces.
Jeremy Don Fogel (born September 17, 1949)"." S. Hrg.
Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 – September 10, 1845) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1845.
Jules Clément Naudet (born April 26, 1973) and Thomas Gédéon Naudet (born March 27, 1970) are French-born American filmmakers known for their 9/11 documentary.
Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corporation, 280 F.3d 934 (9th Cir. 2002) withdrawn, re-filed at 336 F.3d 811 (9th Cir. 2003), is a U.S. court case between a commercial photographer and a search engine company.
Kiwi Alejandro Danao Camara (born June 16, 1984), also known as K.A.D. Camara, is a Filipino American attorney.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
The Las Vegas Review-Journal is a major daily newspaper published in Las Vegas, Nevada, since 1909.
The Polish law, or legal system in Poland has been developing since the first centuries of Polish history, over 1,000 years ago.
The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States.
The Law Society of Ontario (LSO) (French: Barreau de l'Ontario) is the law society responsible for the self-regulation of lawyers and paralegals in the Canadian province of Ontario.
A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.
A legal doctrine is a framework, set of rules, procedural steps, or test, often established through precedent in the common law, through which judgments can be determined in a given legal case.
Legal tests are various kinds of commonly applied methods of evaluation used to resolve matters of jurisprudence.
Leibovitz v. Paramount Pictures Corp. is an influential 1998 Second Circuit fair use case.
Lenz v. Universal Music Corp., 801 F.3d 1126 (2015), is a decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, affirming the ruling in 2008 of the US District Court for the Northern District of California, holding that copyright holders must consider fair use in good faith before issuing a takedown notice for content posted on the Internet.
"Let's Go Crazy" is a 1984 song by Prince and The Revolution, from the album Purple Rain.
A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).
Limitations and exceptions to copyright are provisions, in local copyright law or Berne Convention, which allow for copyrighted works to be used without a license from the copyright owner.
Loose Change is a series of films released between 2005 and 2009 that argue in favor of certain conspiracy theories relating to the September 11th attacks.
L.A. Times v. Free Republic is a 1998 United States district court copyright law case.
Lumen, formerly Chilling Effects, is a collaborative archive created by Wendy Seltzer and founded along with several law school clinics and the Electronic Frontier Foundation to protect lawful online activity from legal threats.
Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell (November 8, 1900 – August 16, 1949) was an American novelist and journalist under the pseudonym Peggy Mitchell.
Mattel, Inc. is an American multinational toy manufacturing company founded in 1945 with headquarters in El Segundo, California.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Moral rights are rights of creators of copyrighted works generally recognized in civil law jurisdictions and, to a lesser extent, in some common law jurisdictions.
The National Coalition Against Censorship (NCAC), founded in 1974, is an alliance of 50 American non-profit organizations, including literary, artistic, religious, educational, professional, labor, and civil liberties groups.
The Official Code of Georgia Annotated or OCGA is the compendium of all laws in the U.S. state of Georgia.
"Oh, Pretty Woman" or "Pretty Woman" is a song recorded by Roy Orbison, written by Orbison and Bill Dees.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
Oracle America, Inc.
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
A parody (also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on something, caricature, or joke) is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.
Perfect 10, Inc.
Philip Martin Pro (born 1946) is a former United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Nevada.
Pierre Nelson Leval (born September 4, 1936) is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.
Prima facie is a Latin expression meaning on its first encounter or at first sight.
The Productivity Commission is the Australian Government's principal review and advisory body on microeconomic policy, regulation and a range of other social and environmental issues.
Professional liability insurance (PLI), also called professional indemnity insurance (PII) but more commonly known as errors & omissions (E&O) in the US, is a form of liability insurance which helps protect professional advice- and service-providing individuals and companies from bearing the full cost of defending against a negligence claim made by a client, and damages awarded in such a civil lawsuit.
Public.Resource.Org is a 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation dedicated to publishing and sharing public domain materials in the United States and internationally.
Rapping (or rhyming, spitting, emceeing, MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backbeat or musical accompaniment.
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
Richard Prince (born 1949) is an American painter and photographer.
Richard W. Story (born 1953) is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia.
Righthaven LLC was a copyright enforcement company founded in early 2010.
Rogers v. Koons, 960 F.2d 301 (2d Cir. 1992), is a leading U.S. court case on copyright, dealing with the fair use defense for parody.
Roy Kelton Orbison (April 23, 1936 – December 6, 1988) was an American singer, songwriter and musician known for his impassioned singing style, complex song structures, and dark emotional ballads.
Salinger v. Random House, Inc., 811 F.2d 90 (2d Cir. 1987) is a United States case on the application of copyright law to unpublished works.
In music, sampling is the act of taking a portion, or sample, of one sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or a sound recording in a different song or piece.
Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
Scène à faire (French for "scene to be made" or "scene that must be done"; plural: scènes à faire) is a scene in a book or film which is almost obligatory for a genre of its type.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
Sony BMG Music Entertainment v. Tenenbaum (1st Circuit Court) is the appeals lawsuit which followed the U.S. District Court case Sony BMG v. Tenenbaum, No.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
The Statute of Anne, also known as the Copyright Act 1710 (cited either as 8 Ann. c. 21 or as 8 Ann. c. 19), is an act of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1710, which was the first statute to provide for copyright regulated by the government and courts, rather than by private parties.
A strategic lawsuit against public participation (SLAPP) is a lawsuit that is intended to censor, intimidate, and silence critics by burdening them with the cost of a legal defense until they abandon their criticism or opposition.
Structure, sequence and organization (SSO) is a term used in the United States to define a basis for comparing one software work to another in order to determine if copying has occurred that infringes on copyright, even when the second work is not a literal copy of the first.
A substitute good is one good that can be used instead of another.
In law, a summary judgment (also judgment as a matter of law) is a judgment entered by a court for one party and against another party summarily, i.e., without a full trial.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
Suntrust v. Houghton Mifflin Co., 268 F.3d 1257 (11th Cir. 2001),, was a case decided by the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit against the owner of Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind, vacating an injunction prohibiting the publisher of Alice Randall's The Wind Done Gone from distributing the book.
The Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act of 2002 (part of Public Law 107-273), known as the TEACH Act, is a section of an Act of the United States Congress.
Text mining, also referred to as text data mining, roughly equivalent to text analytics, is the process of deriving high-quality information from text.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
The Wind Done Gone (2001) is the first novel written by Alice Randall.
This Film is Not Yet Rated is a 2006 American documentary film about the Motion Picture Association of America's rating system and its effect on American culture, directed by Kirby Dick and produced by Eddie Schmidt.
Thumbnails are reduced-size versions of pictures or videos, used to help in recognizing and organizing them, serving the same role for images as a normal text index does for words.
In broadcasting, time shifting is the recording of programming to a storage medium to be viewed or listened to after the live broadcasting.
Tom Forsythe is an artist who lives and works in Utah.
"Toward a Fair Use Standard", 103 Harv. L. Rev. 1105 (1990) (alt. citation: v.103, n5. March 1, 1990), is a 1990 law review article on the fair use doctrine in US copyright law, written by then-District Court Judge Pierre N. Leval.
Arts and media industry trade groups, such as the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) and Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), strongly oppose and attempt to prevent copyright infringement through file sharing.
In United States copyright law, transformation is a possible justification that use of a copyrighted work may qualify as fair use, i.e., that a certain use of a work does not infringe its holder's copyright due to the public interest in the usage.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit (in case citations, 11th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a U.S. Federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (in case citations, 2d Cir.) is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals.
The United States District Court for the District of Nevada (in case citations, D. Nev.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Nevada.
The United States District Court for the Northern District of California (in case citations, N.D. Cal.) is the federal United States district court whose jurisdiction comprises following counties of California: Alameda, Contra Costa, Del Norte, Humboldt, Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Monterey, Napa, San Benito, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma.
The United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia (in case citations, N.D. Ga.) is a United States District Court which serves the residents of forty-six counties.
The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (in case citations, S.D.N.Y.) is a federal district court.
Universal Music Group (also known in the United States as UMG Recordings, Inc. and abbreviated as UMG) is an American global music corporation that is a subsidiary of the French media conglomerate Vivendi.
Universal Pictures (also known as Universal Studios) is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal.
Web mining is the application of data mining techniques to discover patterns from the World Wide Web.
A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web.
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN).
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.
The Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers (until 1937 the Worshipful Company of Stationers), usually known as the Stationers' Company, is one of the livery companies of the City of London.
Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
The Zapruder film is a silent, color motion picture sequence shot by private citizen Abraham Zapruder with a home-movie camera, as U.S. President John F. Kennedy's motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963.
The 2 Live Crew is an American hip-hop group from Miami, Florida.
17 U.S.C. §107, Fair Use, Fair use criteria, Fair use doctorine, Fair use doctrine, Fair use exception, Fair use exemption, Fair use policy, Fair use rationale, Fair use rights, Fair-use, Fairuse, Transformative Use Defense, Transformative use defence, Transformative use defense, Transformative-use defense.