107 relations: Abu Ghraib, Academi, Agence France-Presse, Al Anbar Governorate, Al Jazeera, Al-Qaeda, All Things Considered, Anbar (town), Anbar campaign (2015–16), Anglo-Iraqi War, Aramaic language, Asōristān, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Ba'ath Party, Babylonia, Baghdad, Basij, Battle of Fallujah (2016), Battle of Ramadi (2006), BBC, BBC News, Benjamin of Tudela, Biometrics, Bloomsbury Publishing, Body bag, Chemical weapon, Civil-military operations center, Districts of Iraq, Dreamland (Fallujah, Iraq), Euphrates, Eurest Support Services, Fallujah Barrage, Fallujah District, Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre, Federal government of Iraq, First Battle of Fallujah, Frontline (U.S. TV series), Funk & Wagnalls, George Monbiot, Gerard Leachman, Governorates of Iraq, Gulf War, Highway 1 (Iraq), Highway 10 (Iraq), Human Rights Watch, Internally displaced person, Iraq, Iraqi Army, Iraqi insurgency (2003–11), IRIN, ..., Islamic Army in Iraq, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Jewish Encyclopedia, Jews, Latin script, List of cities in Iraq, List of events named massacres, List of places in Iraq, List of sovereign states, Mesopotamian Arabic, Military transition team, NBC News, Nehardea, News agency, NPR, Odaenathus, Operation Alljah, Ottoman Empire, Palmyra, Patrick Cockburn, Persian language, Petroleum, Private military company, Pumbedita, RAI, Ramadi, Reporters Without Borders, Romanization of Arabic, Saddam Hussein, Saqlawiyah, Sasanian Empire, Scott Helvenston, Second Battle of Fallujah, Siege of Fallujah (2016), Sunni Islam, Sunni Triangle, Sura Academy, Syriac language, Taha Bidaywi Hamed, Taipei Times, The Christian Science Monitor, The Guardian, The Independent, The New York Times, The New Yorker, The Washington Post, United Nations Special Commission, USA Today, Voice of America, War crime, WGBH-TV, White flag, White phosphorus munitions, 2004 Fallujah ambush, 6th Marine Regiment (United States), 82nd Airborne Division, 8th Marine Regiment (United States). Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
Abu Ghraib (أبو غريب, Abū Ghurayb) is a city in the Baghdad Governorate of Iraq, located just west of Baghdad's city center, or northwest of Baghdad International Airport.
Academi is an American private military company founded in 1997 by former Navy SEAL officer Erik Prince as Blackwater, renamed as Xe Services in 2009 and now known as Academi since 2011 after the company was acquired by a group of private investors.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Al Anbar Governorate (محافظة الأنبار; muḥāfaẓat al-’Anbār), or Anbar Province, is the largest governorate in Iraq by area.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
All Things Considered (ATC) is the flagship news program on the American network National Public Radio (NPR).
Anbar (الأنبار) was a town in Iraq, at lat.
The Anbar campaign (2015–16) was a military campaign launched by the Iraqi Armed Forces and their allies aimed at recapturing areas of the Anbar Governorate held by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), including the city of Ramadi, which ISIL seized earlier in 2015.
The Anglo–Iraqi War (2–31 May 1941) was a British military campaign against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq during the Second World War.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Asōristān (𐭠𐭮𐭥𐭥𐭮𐭲𐭭 Asōrestān, Āsūrestān) was the name of the Sasanian provinces of Mesopotamia from 226 to 637.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was a political party founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, and associates of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
The Battle of Fallujah (2016), also referred to as Third Battle of Fallujah, or Fallujah offensive (2016), code-named Operation Breaking Terrorism (عملية كسر الإرهاب) by the Iraqi government, was a military operation against ISIL launched to capture the city of Fallujah and its suburbs, located about 69 kilometers (40 miles) west of the Iraqi capital Baghdad.
The Battle of Ramadi in 2006 (sometimes referred to as the Second Battle of Ramadi) was fought during the Iraq War from April 2006 to November 2006 for control of the capital of the Al Anbar Governorate in western Iraq. A combined force of U.S. Soldiers, U.S. Marines, U.S. Navy SEALs, and Iraqi Security Forces fought insurgents for control of key locations in Ramadi, including the Government Centre and the General Hospital. Coalition strategy relied on establishing a number of patrol bases called Combat Operation Posts throughout the city. U.S. military officers believe that insurgent actions during the battle led to the formation of the Anbar Awakening. In August, insurgents executed a tribal sheik who was encouraging his kinsmen to join the Iraqi police and prevented his body from being buried in accordance with Islamic laws. In response, Sunni sheiks banded together to drive insurgents from Ramadi. In September 2006, Sheik Abdul Sattar Abu Risha formed the Anbar Salvation Council, an alliance of approximately 40 Sunni tribes. U.S. Navy SEAL Michael A. Monsoor was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for actions during the battle. On September 29, 2006, he threw himself upon a grenade which threatened the lives of the other members of his team. Monsoor had previously been awarded the Silver Star in May for rescuing an injured comrade in the city. The battle also marked the first use of chlorine bombs by insurgents during the war. On October 21, 2006, insurgents detonated a car-bomb with two 100-pound chlorine tanks, injuring three Iraqi policemen and a civilian in Ramadi.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benjamin of Tudela (בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה,; بنيامين التطيلي;‎ Tudela, Kingdom of Navarre, 1130Castile, 1173) was a medieval Jewish traveler who visited Europe, Asia, and Africa in the 12th century.
Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.
Bloomsbury Publishing plc (formerly M.B.N.1 Limited and Bloomsbury Publishing Company Limited) is a British independent, worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction.
A body bag, also known as a cadaver pouch or human remains pouch (HRP), is a non-porous bag designed to contain a human body, used for the storage and transportation of corpses.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
A civil-military operations center or CMOC is a center usually established by a military force for coordinating civil-military operations in an area of operations.
Iraq's 19 governorates are subdivided into 120 districts (kaza).
Camp Baharia, also known as Dreamland or FOB Volturno, was a U.S. military installation that was located just outside the city of Fallujah, Iraq.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Eurest Support Services (ESS) is a subsidiary of the catering company Compass Group PLC specializing in harsh-environment large-scale food service and facilities management.
The Fallujah Barrage is a barrage on the Euphrates near Fallujah in Al Anbar Governorate, Iraq.
Fallujah is a district in Al Anbar Governorate, Iraq.
Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre is a documentary film by Sigfrido Ranucci and Maurizio Torrealta which first aired on Italy's RAI state television network on November 8, 2005.
The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution, approved in 2005, as an Islamic, democratic, federal parliamentary republic.
The First Battle of Fallujah, also known as Operation Vigilant Resolve, was an operation to root out extremist elements of Fallujah as well as an attempt to apprehend the perpetrators of the killing of four U.S. contractors in March 2004.
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
Funk & Wagnalls was an American publisher known for its reference works, including A Standard Dictionary of the English Language (1st ed. 1893-5), and the Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia (25 volumes, 1st ed. 1912).
George Joshua Richard Monbiot (born 27 January 1963) is a British writer known for his environmental, political activism.
Lieutenant-Colonel Gerard Evelyn Leachman, CIE, DSO (27 July 1880, Petersfield, Hampshire – 12 August 1920, Iraq) was an English soldier and intelligence officer who travelled extensively in Arabia.
Iraq consists of 19 governorates (muḥāfażah in Arabic), also known as "provinces".
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Highway 1 is an Iraqi highway which extends from Baghdad to Qamishli in Syria.
Highway 10 is an Iraqi highway which extends from Al Rutbah to the Jordan frontier.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraqi Army, officially the Iraqi Ground Forces, is the ground force component of the Iraqi Armed Forces, having been active in various incarnations throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.
An insurgency began in Iraq after the 2003 US-led invasion, and lasted throughout the ensuing Iraq War (2003–2011).
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
The Islamic Army in Iraq (IAI) (Arabic: الجيش الإسلامي في العراق, al jaysh al islāmi fī'l-`irāq) is one of a number of underground Islamist militant (or mujahideen) organizations formed in Iraq following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by United States and coalition military forces, and the subsequent collapse of the Baathist government headed by Saddam Hussein.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
This article shows a list of cities in Iraq.
The following is a list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "massacre." Massacre is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "the indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people or (less commonly) animals; carnage, butchery, slaughter in numbers".
This is a list of places in Iraq.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
Mesopotamian Arabic, or Iraqi Arabic, is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into Syria, Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.
A Military Transition Team, or Transition Team, is a 10-15 soldier team that trains local forces.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
Nehardea or Nehardeah (nəhardəʿā "river of knowledge") was a city of Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka (also known as Nâr Sharri, Ar-Malcha, Nahr el-Malik, and King's Canal), one of the earliest centers of Babylonian Judaism.
A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers, magazines and radio and television broadcasters.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Septimius Udhayna, Latinized as Odaenathus (Palmyrene:, spelled Oḏainaṯ; أذينة; 220 – 267 AD), was the founder king (Mlk) of the Palmyrene Kingdom centered at Palmyra, Syria.
Operation Alljah was an operation launched by Coalition forces in Iraq, mainly U.S. Marines, in June 2007 to secure the neighborhoods of Fallujah.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
Patrick Oliver Cockburn (born 5 March 1950) is an Irish journalist who has been a Middle East correspondent for the Financial Times since 1979 and, from 1990, The Independent.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
A private military company (PMC) is a private company providing armed combat or security services.
Pumbedita (sometimes Pumbeditha, Pumpedita, or Pumbedisa; פומבדיתא), literally meaning in Aramaic: "The Mouth of the River," was the name of a city in ancient Babylonia close to the modern-day city of Fallujah, in Anbar Province.
RAI – Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. (commercially styled Rai; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane is the national public broadcasting company of Italy, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. The RAI operates many DVB and Sat television channels and radio stations, broadcasting via digital terrestrial transmission (15 television and 7 radio channels nationwide) and from several satellite platforms. It is the biggest television broadcaster in Italy and competes with Mediaset, and other minor television and radio networks. The RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 33.8%. RAI broadcasts are also received in neighboring countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Vatican City, Switzerland, and Tunisia, and elsewhere on cable and satellite. Sometimes Rai 1 was received even further in Europe via Sporadic E until the digital switch off in July 2012. Half of the RAI's revenues come from broadcast receiving licence fees, the rest from the sale of advertising time Retrieved on 2007-10-10 Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10. In 1950, the RAI became one of the 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union.
Ramadi (الرمادي Ar-Ramādī; also formerly rendered as Rumadiyah or Rumadiya) is a city in central Iraq, about west of Baghdad and west of Fallujah.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
As Saqlāwīyah (الصقلاوية) is a city in Al Anbar Governorate, in central Iraq.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Stephen "Scott" Helvenston (June 21, 1965 – March 31, 2004) was a former United States Navy SEAL.
The Second Battle of Fallujah—code-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic: الفجر "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury—was a joint American, Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War.
The Siege of Fallujah (2016) was an offensive that the Iraqi government launched against ISIL in Al-Karmah and in the city of Fallujah, with the aim of enforcing a siege of Fallujah.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Sunni Triangle is a densely populated region of Iraq to the northwest of Baghdad that is inhabited mostly by Sunni Muslim Arabs.
Sura Academy (Hebrew: ישיבת סורא) was a Jewish yeshiva in Babylonia, with Pumbedita Academy one of the two major Jewish academies from the year 225 AD at the beginning of the era of the Amora sages until 1033 AD at the end of the era of the Gaonim.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
Taha Bidaywi Hamed is an Iraqi politician.
The Taipei Times is the only printed daily English-language newspaper in Taiwan and the third to be established in the nation.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was an inspection regime created by the United Nations to ensure Iraq's compliance with policies concerning Iraqi production and use of weapons of mass destruction after the Gulf War.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
WGBH-TV, virtual channel 2 (UHF digital channel 19), is a PBS member television station located in Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
White flags have had different meanings throughout history and depending on the locale.
White phosphorus is a material made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus that is used in smoke, tracer, illumination, and incendiary munitions.
The 2004 Fallujah ambush occurred on March 31, 2004, when Iraqi insurgents attacked a convoy containing four American contractors from the private military company Blackwater USA who were conducting a delivery for food caterers ESS.
The 6th Marine Regiment (also referred to as "6th Marines") is an infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.
The 82nd Airborne Division is an airborne infantry division of the United States Army, specializing in parachute assault operations into denied areas.
The 8th Marine Regiment is an infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps.
Al Falluja, Al Fallujah, Al Falojah, Battle for Fallujah, Fallouja, Falluja, Falluja Precursors, Falluja massacre, Falluja riots, Fallujah, Iraq, Faluja, Falujah, Falujah, Iraq, Falusha, Iraq, Feludjah, History of Fallujah.