300 relations: Abuse, Accident of birth, Adultery, Advertising, Affinity (law), Africa, Aggression, Alan Macfarlane, Aleister Crowley, American Enterprise Institute, Ancestor, Ancient Society, Annulment, Anthropologist, Anti-Oedipus, Arranged marriage, Asia, Aunt, Australia, Authoritarianism, Avunculate, Ayn Rand, Ayn Rand and the World She Made, Bangladesh, Barbarian, Bigamy, Bilateral descent, Biology, Breastfeeding, Bride kidnapping, Bride price, Brother, Cambodia, Cambridge University Press, Capitalism, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Charles Darwin, Child, Child abuse, Child custody, Child neglect, Child sexual abuse, Child support, Childlessness, Children's rights, Chin, Christianity, Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010, Civil union, Civilization, ..., Coefficient of relationship, Coercion, Cognatic kinship, Cohabitation, Coming out, Common law, Common ownership, Common-law marriage, Community, Community property, Compulsory sterilization, Conjugal family, Consanguinity, Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, Council of Europe, Cousin, Coverture, Crow kinship, Cultural anthropology, Daniele Luttazzi, Daughter, David M. Schneider, De facto, Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, Deference, Dependent adult, Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf, Discrimination, Divorce, Divorce law by country, Domestic partnership, Domestic violence, Dowry, Eastern Europe, Economic power, Elder abuse, Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, Enculturation, Encyclopædia Britannica, Escapism, Eskimo kinship, Etymology, European Convention on Human Rights, Evolution, Extended family, Extramarital sex, Familialism, Family economics, Family law, Family planning, Family values, Father, Fathers' rights movement, Female, Female genital mutilation, Fictive kinship, Forced abortion, Forced marriage, Fornication, Friedrich Engels, Gender equality, Genealogy, Geneva, Global village, Grandparent, Group marriage, Hawaiian kinship, History, Holy Guardian Angel, Homicide, Homosexuality, Honor killing, Honour, Household, Human, Human Nature (journal), Human rights, Humanism, Humiliation, Husband, Il manifesto, Immediate family, In-group favoritism, Incest, Incest taboo, India, Individualism, Indonesia, Industrialisation, Inheritance, Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality, Interpersonal relationship, Intimate relationship, Iran, Iroquois kinship, Islam, Jack Goody, John Russon, John Stuart Mill, Judaism, Karl Marx, Kinship, Labor rights, Legal separation, Legitimacy (family law), Lewis H. Morgan, LGBT, LGBT community, Lineage (anthropology), List of French possessions and colonies, Love, Magick (Thelema), Magick Without Tears, Malaysia, Male, Malthusianism, Marital power, Marital rape, Marriage, Marriage law, Marriage promotion, Mary Daly (sociologist), Maternal health, Matrifocal family, Matrilineality, Max Weber, Meiosis, Melanesia, Michael Lamb (psychologist), Michel Foucault, Middle class, Middle East, Milk kinship, Monogamy, Moral, Mother, Mothers' rights, Napoleonic Code, Natalism, Nation, Neolocal residence, Nepal, Nepotism, Niece and nephew, Niger, Nuclear family, Nurture kinship, Oedipus complex, Olivia Harris, Omaha kinship, One-child policy, Organized religion, Pakistan, Palace of Nations, Parent, Parental leave, Parents' rights movement, Patriarchy, Patrilineality, Paul Gilroy, People, Person, Peter Laslett, Physical abuse, Polyamory, Polyandry, Polygamy, Polygyny, Polynesia, Power (social and political), Primitive culture, Prohibition, Propertarianism, Psychological abuse, Psychotherapy, R. D. Laing, Racism, Rape, Rationalism, Reformation, Repression (psychology), Reproductive health, Resource, Same-sex marriage, Scotland, Secrecy of correspondence, Seneca people, Sexology, Shame, Sharing economy, Sibling, Sibling-in-law, Singapore, Single parent, Sister, Social control, Social criticism, Social group, Social justice, Social system, Socialization, Society, Sociology, Sociology of the family, Son, Southern Europe, Spouse, Springer Science+Business Media, Stepfamily, Steven Ozment, Structural functionalism, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sudanese kinship, SUNY Press, Switzerland, Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, Tax on childlessness, Thailand, The Hague, The History of Sexuality, The Mass Psychology of Fascism, The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, The personal is political, The Sociological Review, The Subjection of Women, The Wall Street Journal, Theodor W. Adorno, Total fertility rate, Trust (emotion), Trust law, Uncle, United Nations, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, United Nations Population Fund, United States, University of California Press, University of Michigan Press, Verbal abuse, Victorian era, Violence against women, Voluntary childlessness, Welfare state, West Africa, Western culture, Wife, Wilhelm Reich, Will and testament, Women's rights, World Health Organization, Zoology. Expand index (250 more) » « Shrink index
Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit.
Accident of birth is a phrase pointing out that no one has any control of, or responsibility for, the circumstances of their birth or parentage.
Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
In law and in cultural anthropology, affinity, as distinguished from consanguinity (blood relationship), is the kinship relationship that is created or exists between two or more people as a result of someone's marriage.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
Alan Donald James Macfarlane FBA FRHistS (born 20 December 1941 in Shillong, Meghalaya, India) is an anthropologist and historian and a Professor Emeritus of King's College, Cambridge.
Aleister Crowley (born Edward Alexander Crowley; 12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947) was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, and mountaineer.
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. which researches government, politics, economics and social welfare.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Ancient Society is an 1877 book by the American anthropologist Lewis H. Morgan.
Annulment is a legal procedure within secular and religious legal systems for declaring a marriage null and void.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.
Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (Capitalisme et schizophrénie.) is a 1972 book by French authors Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, respectively a philosopher and a psychoanalyst.
Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
An aunt is a person who is the sister, half-sister, step-sister, or sister-in-law of a parent, or the wife of one's uncle, but can also be an affectionate title for an older nurturing woman.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
The avunculate, sometimes called avunculism or avuncularism, is any social institution where a special relationship exists between an uncle and his sisters' children.
Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.
Ayn Rand and the World She Made is a 2009 biography of Russian-American philosopher Ayn Rand by Anne C. Heller.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
In cultures that practice marital monogamy, bigamy is the act of entering into a marriage with one person while still legally married to another.
Bilateral descent is a system of family lineage in which the relatives on the mother's side and father's side are equally important for emotional ties or for transfer of property or wealth.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry.
Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.
A brother is a male sibling.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.
Child custody and legal guardianship are legal terms which are used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent or guardian and a child in that person's care, such as the right to make decisions on behalf of a child and the duty to care for and support the child.
Child neglect is a form of child abuse, and is a deficit in meeting a child's basic needs, including the failure to provide adequate health care, supervision, clothing, nutrition, housing as well as their physical, emotional, social, educational and safety needs.
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
In family law and public policy, child support (or child maintenance) is an ongoing, periodic payment made by a parent for the financial benefit of a child (or parent, caregiver, guardian, or state) following the end of a marriage or other relationship.
Childlessness is the state of people – men and women – not having children.
Children's rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors.
The chin or the mental region is the area of the face below the lower lip and including the mandibular prominence.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010 is an Act of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament) which allows same-sex couples to enter into civil partnerships.
A civil union, also referred to by a variety of other names, is a legally recognized arrangement similar to marriage.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
The coefficient of relationship is a measure of the degree of consanguinity (or biological relationship) between two individuals.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
Cognatic kinship is a mode of descent calculated from an ancestor or ancestress counted through any combination of male and female links, or a system of bilateral kinship where relations are traced through both a father and mother.
Cohabitation is an arrangement where two people who are not married live together.
Coming out of the closet, or simply coming out, is a metaphor for LGBT people's self-disclosure of their sexual orientation or of their gender identity.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property.
Common-law marriage, also known as sui iuris marriage, informal marriage, marriage by habit and repute, or marriage in fact, is a legal framework in a limited number of jurisdictions where a couple is legally considered married, without that couple having formally registered their relation as a civil or religious marriage.
A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.
Community property is a marital property regime under which most property acquired during the marriage (except for gifts or inheritances), the community, or communio bonorum, is owned jointly by both spouses and is divided upon divorce, annulment, or death.
Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced or coerced sterilization, programs are government policies which force people to undergo surgical or other sterilization.
A conjugal family is a nuclear family consisting of a married couple and their children (by birth or adoption) who are unmarried and underage.
Consanguinity ("blood relation", from the Latin consanguinitas) is the property of being from the same kinship as another person.
The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention) is a Council of Europe convention against violence against women and domestic violence which was opened for signature on 11 May 2011, in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Commonly, "cousin" refers to a "first cousin" or equivalently "full cousin", people whose most recent common ancestor is a grandparent.
Coverture (sometimes spelled couverture) was a legal doctrine whereby, upon marriage, a woman's legal rights and obligations were subsumed by those of her husband, in accordance with the wife's legal status of feme covert.
Crow kinship is a kinship system used to define family.
Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans.
Daniele Luttazzi (born January 26, 1961), real name Daniele Fabbri, is an Italian theater actor, writer, satirist, illustrator and singer/songwriter.
A daughter is a female offspring; a girl, woman, or female animal in relation to her parents.
David Murray Schneider (November 11, 1918, Brooklyn, New York – October 30, 1995, Santa Cruz, California) was an American cultural anthropologist, best known for his studies of kinship and as a major proponent of the symbolic anthropology approach to cultural anthropology.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women was adopted without vote by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993.
Deference (also called submission or passivity) is the condition of submitting to the espoused, legitimate influence of one's superior or superiors.
A dependent adult is an adult who is not a senior citizen and who needs assistance to carry out normal activities or to protect their rights, or who is in a hospital for at least a 24-hour stay.
Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf ("sexuality in the culture war"), 1936 (published later in English as The Sexual Revolution), is a work by Wilhelm Reich.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.
This article is a general overview of divorce laws around the world.
A domestic partnership is an interpersonal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are not married (to each other or to anyone else), but they receive a lot of benefits that guarantee rights of survivor ship, hospital visitation and others.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Economists use several concepts featuring the word "power".
Elder abuse (also called "elder mistreatment", "senior abuse", "abuse in later life", "abuse of older adults", "abuse of older women", and "abuse of older men") is "a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm or distress to an older person." This definition has been adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) from a definition put forward by Action on Elder Abuse in the UK.
Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality was a Peer Reviewed scholarly journal that publishes articles, dissertations, theses, posters, and other academic materials about all aspects of human sexuality.
Enculturation is the process by which people learn the dynamics of their surrounding culture and acquire values and norms appropriate or necessary in that culture and worldviews.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Escapism is the avoidance of unpleasant, boring, arduous, scary, or banal aspects of daily life.
Eskimo kinship is a category of kinship used to define family organization in anthropology.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of parents like father, mother, and their children, aunts, uncles, and cousins, all living nearby or in the same household.
Extramarital sex occurs when a married person engages in sexual activity with someone other than his or her spouse.
Familialism or familism is an ideology that puts priority to family.
Family economics applies basic economic concepts such as production, division of labor, distribution, and decision making to the study of the family.
Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations.
Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".
Family values, sometimes referred to as familial values, are traditional or cultural values that pertain to the family's structure, function, roles, beliefs, attitudes, and ideals.
A father is the male parent of a child.
The fathers' rights movement is a movement whose members are primarily interested in issues related to family law, including child custody and child support that affect fathers and their children.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Fictive kinship is a term used by anthropologists and ethnographers to describe forms of kinship or social ties that are based on neither consanguineal (blood ties) nor affinal ("by marriage") ties, in contrast to true kinship ties.
A forced abortion may occur when the perpetrator causes abortion by force, threat or coercion, or by taking advantage of woman's incapability to give her consent, or where she gives her consent under duress.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
Fornication is generally consensual sexual intercourse between two people not married to each other.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
The global village is a metaphoric shrinking of the world into a village through the use of electronic media.
Grandparents are the parents of a person's father or mother – paternal or maternal.
Group marriage (a form of polyfidelity) is a marriage-like arrangement between more than two people, where three or more adults live together, all considering themselves partners, sharing finances, children, and household responsibilities.
Hawaiian kinship, also referred to as the generational system, is a kinship system used to define family.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The term Holy Guardian Angel (HGA) originates in the Catholic Church where a morning prayer is recited which reads, "Holy Guardian Angel whom God has appointed to be my guardian, direct and govern me during this day/ Amen".
Homicide is the act of one human killing another.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
Honour (or honor in American English, note) is the idea of a bond between an individual and a society, as a quality of a person that is both of social teaching and of personal ethos, that manifests itself as a code of conduct, and has various elements such as valor, chivalry, honesty, and compassion.
A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human Nature is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Humiliation is the abasement of pride, which creates mortification or leads to a state of being humbled or reduced to lowliness or submission.
A husband is a male in a marital relationship.
Il manifesto is an Italian language daily newspaper published in Rome, Italy.
The immediate family is a defined group of relations, used in rules or laws to determine which members of a person's family are affected by those rules.
In-group favoritism, sometimes known as in-group–out-group bias, in-group bias, or intergroup bias, is a pattern of favoring members of one's in-group over out-group members.
Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.
An incest taboo is any cultural rule or norm that prohibits sexual relations between closely related persons.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.
The Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality (est. 1976) is an unaccredited,U.S. Department of Education.
An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.
An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship that involves physical or emotional intimacy.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iroquois kinship (also known as bifurcate merging) is a kinship system named after the Haudenosaunee people that were previously known as Iroquois and whose kinship system was the first one described to use this particular type of system.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Sir John Rankine Goody, (27 July 1919 – 16 July 2015) was a British social anthropologist.
John Russon (born 1960) is a Canadian philosopher, working primarily in the tradition of Continental Philosophy.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law.
Legal separation (sometimes judicial separation, separate maintenance, divorce a mensa et thoro, or divorce from bed-and-board) is a legal process by which a married couple may formalize a de facto separation while remaining legally married.
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.
Lewis Henry Morgan (November 21, 1818 – December 17, 1881) was a pioneering American anthropologist and social theorist who worked as a railroad lawyer.
LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.
The LGBT community or GLBT community, also referred to as the gay community, is a loosely defined grouping of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, LGBT organizations, and subcultures, united by a common culture and social movements.
A lineage is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, the French colonial empire was the second largest colonial empire behind the British Empire; it extended over of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s.
Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.
Magick, in the context of Aleister Crowley's Thelema, is a term used to show and differentiate the occult from performance magic and is defined as "the Science and Art of causing Change to occur in conformity with Will", including both "mundane" acts of will as well as ritual magic.
Magick Without Tears, a series of letters, was the last book written by English occultist Aleister Crowley (1875–1947), although it was not published until after his death.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
Malthusianism is the idea that population growth is potentially exponential while the growth of the food supply is linear.
In civil law jurisdictions, marital power (potestas maritalis, maritale macht, maritale mag) was a doctrine in terms of which a wife was legally an incapax under the usufructory tutorship (tutela usufructuaria) of her husband.
Marital rape (or spousal rape) is the act of sexual intercourse with one's spouse without the spouse's consent.
Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).
Marriage law refers to the legal requirements that determine the validity of a marriage, and which vary considerably among countries.
Marriage promotion is a policy aiming to produce “strong families” for the purposes of social security; as found in 21st-century American maternalism.
Mary Daly, is an Irish sociologist and academic.
Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
A matrifocal family structure is one where mothers head families and fathers play a less important role in the home and in bringing up children.
Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.
Michael E. Lamb is a professor and former Head of the then Department of Social and Developmental Psychology at the University of Cambridge.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Milk kinship, formed during nursing by a non-biological mother, was a form of fostering allegiance with fellow community members.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
A moral (from Latin morālis) is a message that is conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event.
A mother is the female parent of a child.
Mother's rights are the legal obligations for expecting mothers, existing mothers, and adoptive mothers in the United States.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
Natalism (also called pronatalism or the pro-birth position) is a belief that promotes reproduction of sentient life.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
Neolocal residence is a type of post-marital residence in which a newly married couple resides separately from both the husband's natal household and the wife's natal household.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.
A nephew is a son of a person's sibling, and a niece is a daughter of a person's sibling.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).
The concept of nurture kinship in the anthropological study of human social relationships (kinship) highlights the extent to which such relationships are brought into being through the performance of various acts of nurture between individuals.
The Oedipus complex is a concept of psychoanalytic theory.
Olivia Jane Harris (26 August 1948 – 9 April 2009) was a British social anthropologist whose work focused on the study of the Bolivian highlands.
Omaha kinship is the system of terms and relationships used to define family in Omaha tribal culture.
The one-child policy, a part of the family planning policy, was a population planning policy of China.
Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palace of Nations (Palais des Nations) is the home of the United Nations Office at Geneva, located in Geneva, Switzerland.
A parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species.
Parental leave or family leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries.
The Parents' rights movement is a civil rights movement whose members are primarily interested in issues affecting fathers, mothers and children related to family law, including child custody.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
Paul Gilroy FBA (born 16 February 1956) is a Professor of American and English Literature at King's College London.
A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation.
A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility.
Peter Laslett CBE (18 December 1915 – 8 November 2001) was an English historian.
Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or trauma to another person or animal by way of bodily contact.
Polyamory (from Greek πολύ poly, "many, several", and Latin amor, "love") is the ability or capacity to love more than one person at a time.
Polyandry (from πολυ- poly-, "many" and ἀνήρ anēr, "man") is a form of polygamy in which a woman takes two or more husbands at the same time.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.
Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
The phrase primitive culture is the title of an 1871 book by Edward Burnett Tylor.
Prohibition is the illegality of the manufacturing, storage in barrels or bottles, transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcohol including alcoholic beverages, or a period of time during which such illegality was enforced.
Propertarianism (also proprietarianism) is an ethical discipline within right-libertarian philosophy that advocates contractual relationships as replacements for monopolistic bureaucracies organized as states.
Psychological abuse (also referred to as psychological violence, emotional abuse, or mental abuse) is a form of abuse, characterized by a person subjecting, or exposing, another person to behavior that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Ronald David Laing (7 October 1927 – 23 August 1989), usually cited as R. D. Laing, was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illnessin particular, the experience of psychosis.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Repression is the psychological attempt to direct one's own desires and impulses toward pleasurable instincts by excluding them from one's consciousness and holding or subduing them in the unconscious.
Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.
A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The secrecy of correspondence (Briefgeheimnis, secret de la correspondance) or literally translated as secrecy of letters, is a fundamental legal principle enshrined in the constitutions of several European countries.
The Seneca are a group of indigenous Iroquoian-speaking people native to North America who historically lived south of Lake Ontario.
Sexology is the scientific study of human sexuality, including human sexual interests, behaviors and functions.
Shame is a painful, social emotion that can be seen as resulting "...from comparison of the self's action with the self's standards...". but which may equally stem from comparison of the self's state of being with the ideal social context's standard.
Sharing economy is an umbrella term with a range of meanings, often used to describe economic activity involving online transactions.
A sibling is one of two or more individuals having one or both parents in common.
David and Jonathan, sworn friends and confidants, became brothers-in-law when David married Jonathan's sister Michal. One's sibling-in-law is one's spouse's sibling, or one's sibling's spouse, or ones's spouse's sibling's spouse. By gender, this is specified as brother-in-law for one's spouse's brother, one's sibling's husband, or one's spouse's sibling's husband, and sister-in-law for the one's spouse's sister, one's sibling's wife, or one's spouse's sibling's wife. Just like other affines, or "in-laws", siblings-in-law are related by a type of kinship called affinity. Just like the children of one's siblings, the children of one's siblings-in-law are called simply ''nieces'' and ''nephews'' – if necessary, specified whether "by marriage", as opposed to "by blood" or "by adoption". One study, examining the issue of envy in the triadic system of sibling, sibling-in-law and spouse, concluded that "The sibling-in-law relationship shared similarities with both spousal and sibling relationships" and that "Relational closeness and satisfaction for all relationships in the triad were correlated." In Islamic law (shariʿa) and Jewish law (halakhah) sexual relations between siblings-in-law are prohibited as incestuous, unless the spouse is no longer married. Conversely, in Judaism there was the custom of yibbum, whereby a man had a non-obligatory duty to wed his deceased brother's childless widow so she might have progeny by him. If one pair of siblings is married to another pair of siblings, the siblings-in-law are thus doubly-related, each of the four both through one's spouse and through one's sibling, while the children of the two couples are double cousins.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
A single parent is a parent that parents alone without the other parent's support, meaning this particular parent is the only parent to the child, responsible for all financial, material, and emotional needs.
A sister is a female sibling.
Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.
The term social criticism often refers to a mode of criticism that locates the reasons for malicious conditions in a society considered to be in a flawed social structure.
In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
In sociology, a social system is the patterned network of relationships constituting a coherent whole that exist between individuals, groups, and institutions.
In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Sociological studies of the family look at.
A son is a male offspring; a boy or man in relation to his parents.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
A spouse is a life partner in a marriage, civil union, or common-law marriage.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A stepfamily, blended family, or bonus family is a family where at least one parent has children that are not genetically related to the other spouse or partner.
Steven E. Ozment (born February 21, 1939, McComb, Mississippi) is an American historian of early modern and modern Germany, the European family, and the Protestant Reformation.
Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Sudanese kinship, also referred to as the descriptive system, is a kinship system used to define family.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family is an 1871 book written by Lewis Henry Morgan (1818 - 1881) and published by the Smithsonian Institution.
The tax on childlessness (translit) was imposed in the Soviet Union and other Communist countries, starting in the 1940s, as part of their natalist policies.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The History of Sexuality (L'Histoire de la sexualité) is a four-volume study of sexuality in the western world by the French historian and philosopher Michel Foucault, in which the author examines the emergence of "sexuality" as a discursive object and separate sphere of life and argues that the notion that every individual has a sexuality is a relatively recent development in Western societies.
The Mass Psychology of Fascism (Die Massenpsychologie des Faschismus) is a 1933 book by Wilhelm Reich, in which the author explores how fascists come into power, and explains their rise as a symptom of sexual repression.
The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State: in the Light of the Researches of Lewis H. Morgan (Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums und des Staats) is an 1884 historical materialist treatise by Friedrich Engels.
The personal is political, also termed The private is political, is a political argument used as a rallying slogan of student movement and second-wave feminism from the late 1960s.
The Sociological Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all aspects of sociology, including anthropology, criminology, philosophy, education, gender, medicine, and organization.
The Subjection of Women is an essay by English philosopher, political economist and civil servant John Stuart Mill published in 1869, with ideas he developed jointly with his wife Harriet Taylor Mill.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theodor W. Adorno (born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German philosopher, sociologist, and composer known for his critical theory of society.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
In a social context, trust has several connotations.
A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.
Uncle (from avunculus the diminutive of avus "grandfather") is a male family relationship or kinship within an extended or immediate family.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE or ECE) was established in 1947 to encourage economic cooperation among its member States.
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
Verbal abuse (verbal attack or verbal assault) is when a person forcefully criticizes, insults, or denounces someone else.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women and girls.
Voluntary childlessness, also described by some as being childfree, is the voluntary choice to not have children.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
A wife is a female partner in a continuing marital relationship.
Wilhelm Reich (24 March 1897 – 3 November 1957) was an Austrian doctor of medicine and psychoanalyst, a member of the second generation of analysts after Sigmund Freud.
A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
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