116 relations: Abdel-Bari Zamzami, Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al ash-Sheikh, Abdulaziz Sachedina, Ahmadiyya, Al-Azhar Mosque, Al-Azhar University, Al-Jama'a al-Islamiyya, Ali al-Sistani, Amir al-Mu'minin, Ancien Régime, Asharq Al-Awsat, Brian Whitaker, Cairo, Cairo University, Civilian, Combatant, Common law, Council of Senior Scholars (Saudi Arabia), Darul 'Uloom Karachi, Ebrahim Desai, Edict, Egypt, Evolution, Farag Foda, Fard, Fatawā of Osama bin Laden, Fiqh, France, Freemasonry, French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools, Gad al-Haq, Grand Mufti, Hadith, Haram, Ijazah, Ijma, Ijtihad, Indonesian Ulema Council, International Islamic Fiqh Academy, Jeddah, Iraq, Islam, Islamic Golden Age, IslamOnline, Islamopedia Online, IslamQA, Israel, Jamia Uloom-ul-Islamia, Jews, John Safran, John Safran vs God, ..., Last Judgment, Legal education, Legal opinion, List of fatwas, Madhhab, Madrasa, Makruh, Memorandum opinion, Middle East, Misyar marriage, Mohammed VI of Morocco, Moral authority, Morocco, Mubah, Mufti, Muhammad, Muhammad Al-Munajjid, Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, Mullah, Muslim, Muslim world, Muslim World League, Mustahabb, Nahdlatul Ulama, NPR, Omar Bakri Muhammad, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Osama bin Laden, Papal bull, PBS, Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta, Pokémon, Pope, Posek, Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, Quran, Responsa, Rove McManus, Ruhollah Khomeini, Sadakat Kadri, Saudi Arabia, School of thought, Sharia, Shaykh al-Islām, Sheikh, Shia Islam, Slang, Smoking in Syria, Sudan, Sunnah, Sunni Islam, Supreme Court of India, Tafsir, Taqlid, Taslima Nasrin, The Guardian, The Satanic Verses, The Times of India, Time (magazine), Tunisia, Ulama, United Arab Emirates, United States, University of Virginia, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, Yusuf al-Qaradawi. Expand index (66 more) » « Shrink index
Abdel Bari Zamzami Ben Seddik (Arabic: عبد الباري الزمزمي بن الصديق, also spelled Abdelbari Zemzami; 1943 – 10 February 2016) was a Moroccan cleric of the moderate way and was among the most controversial religious figures in the Maghreb.
Abdulaziz Sachedina is Professor and International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT) Chair in Islamic Studies at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Al-Azhar Mosque (جامع الأزهر, الأزهر, "mosque of the most resplendent") is an Egyptian mosque in Islamic Cairo.
Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
(الجماعة الإسلامية, "the Islamic Group"; also transliterated El Gama'a El Islamiyya; also called "Islamic Groups" and transliterated Gamaat Islamiya, al Jamaat al Islamiya) is an Egyptian Sunni Islamist movement, and is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Union.
Al-Sayyid Ali al-Husseini al-Sistani (السيد علي الحسيني السيستاني), or Sayyed Ali Hosseini Sistani (سید علی حسینی سیستانی), commonly known as Ayatollah Sistani in the Western world (born August 4, 1930 in Mashhad), is an Iranian Shia marja in Iraq and the head of many of the seminaries (Hawzahs) in Najaf.
Amir al-Mu'minin (أمير المؤمنين), usually translated "Commander of the Faithful" or "Leader of the Faithful", is the Arabic style of some Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Asharq al-Awsat (الشرق الأوسط, meaning "The Middle East") is an Arabic international newspaper headquartered in London.
Brian Whitaker has been a journalist for the British newspaper The Guardian since 1987 and was its Middle East editor from 2000 to 2007.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Cairo University (جامعة القاهرة, known as the Egyptian University from 1908 to 1940, and King Fuad I University from 1940 to 1952) is Egypt's premier public university.
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".
Combatant is a term of art which describes the legal status of an individual who has the right to engage in hostilities during an international armed conflict.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Council of Senior Scholars (Majlis Hay'at Kibar al-‘Ulama - مجلس هيئة كبار العلماء, also known as the Senior Council of Ulema) is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's highest religious body, and advises the king on religious matters.
Jamia Darul Uloom Karachi (جامعہ دارالعلوم کراچی, Jāmi‘ah-yi Dāru’l-‘Ulūm-i Karāchī; جامعة دار العلوم كراتشي, Jāmi‘ah Dār al-‘Ulūm Karātshī) is an Islamic seminary in Karachi, Pakistan.
Mufti Ebrahim Desai is a prominent South African Mufti of Indian origin- and a teacher of Islamic law.
An edict is a decree or announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism, but it can be under any official authority.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Farag Foda (also Farag Fouda, فرج فوده, or; 1946 – 9 June 1992), was a prominent professor, writer, columnist, and human rights activist.
(فرض) or (فريضة) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty commanded by Allah (God).
Osama bin Laden authored two fatāwā in the late 1990s.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools bans wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public (e.g., government-operated) primary and secondary schools.
Sheikh Gad al-Haq Ali Gad al-Haq (جاد الحق علي جاد الحق) (5 April 1917 – 15 March 1996) was Grand Imam of Al-Azhar from 1982 to 1996.
The Grand Mufti (مفتي عام, "general expounder" or كبير المفتين, "the great of expounders") is the highest official of religious law in a Sunni or Ibadi Muslim country.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Haram (حَرَام) is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden".
An ijazah (الإِجازَة., "permission", "authorization", "license") is a license authorizing its holder to transmit a certain text or subject, which is issued by someone already possessing such authority.
Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim scholars basically on religious issues.
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
Indonesian Ulema Council (Majelis Ulama Indonesia - MUI) is Indonesia's top Muslim clerical body.
Islamic Fiqh Academy (Arabic: مجمع الفقه الاسلامي الدولي) is an Academy for advanced study of Islam based in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Islamonline is a global Islamic website on the Internet providing services to Muslims and non-Muslims in several languages.
Islamopedia Online is a website dedicated to providing a comprehensive database of information regarding Islam, its most influential leaders, and translations of current topics and religious opinions.
IslamQA is a website providing information regarding Islam in accordance with the Salafi school of thought.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jamia Uloom-e-Islamia (جامعہ علوم اسلامیہ, Jāmi‘ah ‘Ulūm-i Islāmīyah / جامعۃ العلوم الاسلامیہ, Jāmi‘atul-‘Ulūmul-Islāmīyah) is an Islamic School situated in Banoori Town, Karachi, Pakistan.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Michael Safran (born 13 August 1972) is an Australian radio personality, satirist, documentary maker and author, known for combining humour with religious, political and ethnic issues.
John Safran vs God is an eight-part television documentary series by John Safran which was broadcast on SBS TV of Australia in 2004.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law.
In law, a legal opinion is in certain jurisdictions a written explanation by a judge or group of judges that accompanies an order or ruling in a case, laying out the rationale and legal principles for the ruling.
A fatwa (فتوى), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
In Islamic terminology, something which is makruh (Arabic: مكروه, transliterated: makrooh or makrūh) is a disliked or offensive act (literally "detestable" or "abominable").
Under United States legal practice, a memorandum opinion is usually unpublished and cannot be cited as precedent.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A misyar marriage' (nikah al-misyar or more often زواج المسيار zawaj al-misyar "traveller's marriage") is a type of Sunni marriage contract (some aspects are similar to mutah marriage in Shia Islam).
Mohammed VI (محمد السادس,; born 21 August 1963) is the King of Morocco.
Moral authority is authority premised on principles, or fundamental truths, which are independent of written, or positive, laws.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mubah (Arabic: مباح) is an Arabic word meaning "permitted", which has technical uses in Islamic law.
A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Saalih Al-Munajjid (محمد صالح المنجد) (born June 7, 1960) is an Islamic scholar known for founding the website IslamQA.info, which provides answers to questions in line with the Salafi school of thought.
Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy (محمد سيد طنطاوي; 28 October 1928 – 10 March 2010), also referred to as Tantawi, was an influential Islamic scholar in Egypt.
Mullah (ملا, Molla, ملا / Mollâ, Molla, মোল্লা) is derived from the Arabic word مَوْلَى mawlā, meaning "vicar", "master" and "guardian".
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
The Muslim World League (Rabitat al-Alam al-Islami, رابطة العالم الاسلامي) is Pan-Islamic NGO based in Makkah, Saudi Arabia that propagates Islamic teachings.
Mustahabb is an Islamic term referring to recommended, favoured or virtuous actions.
Nahdlatul Ulama (also Nahdatul Ulama or NU) is a traditionalist Sunni Islam movement in Indonesia following the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Omar Bakri Muhammad (عمر بکری فستق; born Omar Bakri Fostock in 1958) is a Syrian Salafi Islamist militant leader, born in Aleppo, Syria.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta (also the General Presidency of Scholarly Research and Ifta in Arabic, al-Lajnah ad-Daa'imah lil-Buhooth al-'Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa اللجنة الدائمة للبحوث العلمية والإفتاء) is an Islamic organization in Saudi Arabia established by the King that issues rulings in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) and prepares research papers for the Council of Senior Scholars, which advises the king on religious matters.
is a media franchise managed by The Pokémon Company, a Japanese consortium between Nintendo, Game Freak, and Creatures.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Posek (פוסק, pl. Poskim) is the term in Jewish law for "decisor"—a legal scholar who decides the Halakha in cases of law where previous authorities are inconclusive or in those situations where no halakhic precedent exists.
Principles of Islamic jurisprudence otherwise known as Uṣūl al-fiqh (أصول الفقه) is the study and critical analysis of the origins, sources, and principles upon which Islamic jurisprudence is based.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Responsa (Latin: plural of responsum, "answers") comprise a body of written decisions and rulings given by legal scholars in response to questions addressed to them.
John Henry Michael McManus (born 21 January 1974), better known by the stage name Rove McManus, is an Australian triple Gold Logie award-winning television presenter, producer, comedian and media personality.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Sadakat Kadri (born 1964 in London) is a lawyer, author, travel writer and journalist.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
A school of thought (or intellectual tradition) is a collection or group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, discipline, belief, social movement, economics, cultural movement, or art movement.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shaykh al-Islām (شيخ الإسلام, Šayḫ al-Islām; Şeyḫülislām) was used in the classical era as an honorific title for outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both.
Smoking in Syria is steadily increasing in popularity amongst the Syrian population, mainly in the forms of cigarettes or Narghiles.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review.
Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.
Taqlid or taqleed (Arabic تَقْليد taqlīd) is an Islamic terminology denoting the conformity of one person to the teaching of another.
Taslima Nasrin (also Taslima Nasreen, born 25 August 1962) is a Bangladeshi-Swedish author and former physician who has been living in exile since 1994.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Satanic Verses is Salman Rushdie's fourth novel, first published in 1988 and inspired in part by the life of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? (abbreviated WWTBAM and informally known as simply Millionaire) is an international television game show franchise of British origin, created by David Briggs, Mike Whitehill and Steven Knight.
Yusuf al-Qaradawi (translit; or Yusuf al-Qardawi; born 9 September 1926) is an Egyptian Islamic theologian based in Doha, Qatar, and chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars.