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Fault (geology)

Index Fault (geology)

In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement. [1]

91 relations: Active fault, Alpine Fault, Bolide, Breccia, Caldera, Carbonate rock, Cataclasite, Chesapeake Bay impact crater, Clastic rock, Clay, Conglomerate (geology), Crust (geology), Décollement, Dead Sea Transform, Deformation (mechanics), Detachment fault, Discontinuity (geotechnical engineering), Ductility (Earth science), Earthquake, Erosion, Extensional fault, Fabric (geology), Fault block, Fault breccia, Fault gouge, Fault scarp, Flint, Foundation (engineering), Fracture, Friction, Geologic map, Geologic time scale, Geologist, Geology, Geomorphology, Geotechnical engineering, Graben, Horst (geology), Hydrothermal circulation, IRIS Consortium, Klippe, Lithosphere, Mantle (geology), Matrix (geology), Mid-ocean ridge, Middle East, Mineral, Mitigation of seismic motion, Mountain formation, Mylonite, ..., Nappe, New Zealand, Niger Delta, Nodule (geology), Ore, Organic compound, Orogeny, Oxide minerals, Paleoseismology, Piercing point, Plane (geometry), Plate tectonics, Pleistocene, Porphyroclast, Potential energy, Pseudotachylite, Radiocarbon dating, Rheology, Ring dike, Rock (geology), Rock microstructure, Rollover anticlines, Sedimentary rock, Seismic hazard, Seismic wave, Shear (geology), Slope stability analysis, Soil, Stress (mechanics), Striation (geology), Strike and dip, Subduction, Tectonics, Thrust fault, Transform fault, Tsunami, Tunnel, Ultrafine particle, United States Geological Survey, University of California, Santa Barbara, Vein (geology). Expand index (41 more) »

Active fault

An active fault is a fault that is likely to become the source of another earthquake sometime in the future.

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Alpine Fault

The Alpine Fault is a geological fault, specifically a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island.

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Bolide

A bolide (French via Latin from the Greek βολίς bolís, "missile") is an extremely bright meteor, especially one that explodes in the atmosphere.

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Breccia

Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.

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Caldera

A caldera is a large cauldron-like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir.

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Carbonate rock

Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate minerals.

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Cataclasite

Cataclasite is a type of cataclastic rock that is formed by fracturing and comminution during faulting.

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Chesapeake Bay impact crater

The Chesapeake Bay impact crater was formed by a bolide that impacted the eastern shore of North America about 35.5 ± 0.3 million years ago, in the late Eocene epoch.

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Clastic rock

Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.

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Clay

Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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Conglomerate (geology)

Conglomerate is a coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rock that is composed of a substantial fraction of rounded to subangular gravel-size clasts, e.g., granules, pebbles, cobbles, and boulders, larger than in diameter.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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Décollement

Décollement (from the French décoller, 'to detach from') is a gliding plane between two rock masses, also known as a basal detachment fault.

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Dead Sea Transform

The Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system, also sometimes referred to as the Dead Sea Rift, is a series of faults that run from the Maras Triple Junction (a junction with the East Anatolian Fault in southeastern Turkey) to the northern end of the Red Sea Rift (just offshore of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula).

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Deformation (mechanics)

Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.

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Detachment fault

Detachment faulting is associated with large-scale extensional tectonics.

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Discontinuity (geotechnical engineering)

A discontinuity in geotechnical engineering (in geotechnical literature often denoted by joint) is a plane or surface that marks a change in physical or chemical characteristics in a soil or rock mass.

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Ductility (Earth science)

In Earth science, as opposed to Materials Science, Ductility refers to the capacity of a rock to deform to large strains without macroscopic fracturing.

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Earthquake

An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

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Erosion

In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).

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Extensional fault

An extensional fault is a fault caused by stretching of the Earth's crust.

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Fabric (geology)

In geology, a rock's fabric describes the spatial and geometric configuration of all the elements that make it up.

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Fault block

Fault blocks are very large blocks of rock, sometimes hundreds of kilometres in extent, created by tectonic and localized stresses in the Earth's crust.

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Fault breccia

Fault breccia (or; Italian for "breach"), or tectonic breccia, is a breccia (a rock type consisting of angular clasts) that was formed by tectonic forces.

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Fault gouge

Fault gouge is a tectonite (a rock formed by tectonic forces) with a very small grain size.

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Fault scarp

A fault scarp is a small step or offset on the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other.

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Flint

Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.

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Foundation (engineering)

A foundation (or, more commonly, base) is the element of an architectural structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the ground.

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Fracture

A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress.

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Friction

Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

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Geologic map

A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose map made to show geological features.

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Geologic time scale

The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.

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Geologist

A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it.

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Geology

Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Geomorphology

Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.

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Geotechnical engineering

Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials.

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Graben

In geology, a graben is a depressed block of the Earth's crust bordered by parallel faults.

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Horst (geology)

In physical geography and geology, a horst is a raised fault block bounded by normal faults.

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Hydrothermal circulation

Hydrothermal circulation in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, water,Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and θέρμη, heat). Hydrothermal circulation occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust.

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IRIS Consortium

IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) is a university research consortium dedicated to exploring the Earth's interior through the collection and distribution of seismographic data.

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Klippe

window or fenster. The klippe is the isolated block of the nappe overlying autochthonous material. A klippe (German for cliff or crag) is a geological feature of thrust fault terrains.

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Lithosphere

A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.

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Mantle (geology)

The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.

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Matrix (geology)

The matrix or groundmass of rock is the finer-grained mass of material wherein larger grains, crystals or clasts are embedded.

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Mid-ocean ridge

A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Mineral

A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Mitigation of seismic motion

Mitigation of seismic motion is an important factor in earthquake engineering and construction in earthquake-prone areas.

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Mountain formation

Mountain formation refers to the geological processes that underlie the formation of mountains.

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Mylonite

Mylonite is a fine-grained, compact metamorphic rock produced by dynamic recrystallization of the constituent minerals resulting in a reduction of the grain size of the rock.

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Nappe

In geology, a nappe or thrust sheet is a large sheetlike body of rock that has been moved more than or above a thrust fault from its original position.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Niger Delta

The Niger Delta is the delta of the Niger River sitting directly on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean in Nigeria.

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Nodule (geology)

In sedimentology and geology, a nodule is small, irregularly rounded knot, mass, or lump of a mineral or mineral aggregate that typically has a contrasting composition, such as a pyrite nodule in coal, a chert nodule in limestone, or a phosphorite nodule in marine shale, from the enclosing sediment or sedimentary rock.

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Ore

An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Orogeny

An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.

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Oxide minerals

The oxide mineral class includes those minerals in which the oxide anion (O2−) is bonded to one or more metal ions.

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Paleoseismology

Paleoseismology looks at geologic sediments and rocks, for signs of ancient earthquakes.

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Piercing point

In geology, a piercing point is defined as a feature (usually a geologic feature, preferably a linear feature) that is cut by a fault, then moved apart.

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Plane (geometry)

In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Pleistocene

The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.

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Porphyroclast

autochthonous Western Gneiss Region and rocks of the allochthonous Blåhø nappe on Otrøy, Caledonides, Central Norway. A porphyroclast is a clast or mineral fragment in a metamorphic rock, surrounded by a groundmass of finer grained crystals.

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Potential energy

In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.

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Pseudotachylite

Pseudotachylite or Pseudotachylyte (original spelling) is a cohesive glassy or very fine-grained rock that occurs as veins and often contains inclusions of wall-rock fragments.

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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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Rheology

Rheology (from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.

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Ring dike

A ring dike or ring dyke is an intrusive igneous body that is circular, oval or arcuate in plan and has steep contacts.

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Rock (geology)

Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Rock microstructure

Rock microstructure includes the texture of a rock and the small scale rock structures.

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Rollover anticlines

Rollover anticlines are anticlines related to extensional normal faults.

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Sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

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Seismic hazard

A seismic hazard is the probability that an earthquake will occur in a given geographic area, within a given window of time, and with ground motion intensity exceeding a given threshold.

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Seismic wave

Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, and are a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, magma movement, large landslides and large man-made explosions that give out low-frequency acoustic energy.

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Shear (geology)

sinistral shear sense''', Starlight Pit, Fortnum Gold Mine, Western Australia Shear is the response of a rock to deformation usually by compressive stress and forms particular textures.

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Slope stability analysis

Slope stability analysis is performed to assess the safe design of a human-made or natural slopes (e.g. embankments, road cuts, open-pit mining, excavations, landfills etc.) and the equilibrium conditions.

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Soil

Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Stress (mechanics)

In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.

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Striation (geology)

In structural geology, striations are linear furrows generated from fault movement.

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Strike and dip

Strike and dip refer to the orientation or attitude of a geologic feature.

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Subduction

Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.

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Tectonics

Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.

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Thrust fault

A thrust fault is a break in the Earth's crust, across which older rocks are pushed above younger rocks.

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Transform fault

A transform fault or transform boundary is a plate boundary where the motion is predominantly horizontal.

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Tsunami

A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.

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Tunnel

A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.

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Ultrafine particle

Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are particulate matter of nanoscale size (less than 0.1 μm or 100 nm in diameter).

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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University of California, Santa Barbara

The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.

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Vein (geology)

In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.

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Brittle deformation, Dextral fault, Dip-slip, Dip-slip fault, Dip-slip faults, Earthquake fault, Earthquake hotspot, Fault (seismology), Fault Zone, Fault activity, Fault line, Fault lines, Fault plane, Fault trough, Fault zone, Fault(geology), Fault-line, Faulting, Faultline, Faultzone, Foot wall, Footwall, Geologic fault, Geologic fault line, Geologic faults, Geological fault, Geological fault line, Ground faulting, Hanging wall, Hangingwall, Normal fault, Oblique-slip, Oblique-slip fault, Planar fracture, Reverse fault, Right lateral fault, Seismic fault, Seismological fault, Shatter belt, Sinistral fault, Slip fault, Step-fault, Stike-slip fault, Strike slip fault, Strike slip faults, Strike-slip, Strike-slip Fault, Strike-slip earthquake, Strike-slip fault, Strike-slip faulting, Synthetic and antithetic faults, Tear fault, Tectonic fault, Thrust plane, Transcurrent fault, Wrench fault.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fault_(geology)

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