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Index Fear

Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events. [1]

202 relations: Acrophobia, Acute stress reaction, Adaptation, Adrenaline, Aggression, Amygdala, Androstadienone, Androstenone, Anger, Angst, Anthropophobia, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Appeal to fear, Approach-avoidance conflict, Aquaphobia, Arachnophobia, Autonomic nervous system, Autophobia, BALB/c, Behavior, Behavioural despair test, Beta blocker, Biological specificity, Bipolar disorder, Brainstem, Bridge, C-Fos, Cenozoic, Cerebellum, Chimpanzee, Classical conditioning, Claustrophobia, Clonidine, Cockroach, Cognition, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Comorbidity, Conditional gene knockout, Coping Cat, Corticosterone, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, Cortisol, CP-154,526, Culture of fear, Death anxiety (psychology), Demon, Discover (magazine), ..., Display rules, Driving phobia, Ecosystem, Ecosystem health, Electromyography, Empathy, End time, Endorphins, Equanimity, Evil, Evil clown, Evolution, Evolutionary psychology, Exposure therapy, Face perception, Failure, Fear conditioning, Fear of crime, Fear of flying, Fear of intimacy, Fiction, Fight-or-flight response, Fitness (biology), Food web, Frank Kermode, Fusiform gyrus, Future, Gallup (company), Gang, Gender neutrality, Ghost, Global catastrophic risk, Glucocorticoid, Goose bumps, Habituation, Happiness, Hero, Hippocampus, Horror and terror, Human, Human nature, Hyperglycemia, Hyperventilation, Hypodermic needle, Hypothalamus, Hysteria, Immune system, Indigestion, Inferior parietal lobule, Interleukin 1 beta, Intrinsic and extrinsic properties, Irrationality, Isoamyl acetate, John B. Watson, Joy, Keystone species, Laziness, Learning, Limbic system, Little Albert experiment, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mammal, MAPK7, Memory consolidation, Mesozoic, Michael Fanselow, Midazolam, Moral absolutism, Moral universalism, Multilevel model, Mythology, Mythopoeic thought, Natural selection, Neolithic, Neuroplasticity, Night terror, Nightmare, Nociception, Norepinephrine, Nuclear warfare, Olfactory bulb, Ontogenetic parade, Operant conditioning, Ophidiophobia, Organism, Pain tolerance, Paleolithic, Panic, Panic attack, Panic disorder, Paralysis, Paranoia, Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, Parenting, Paul Ekman, Perception, Phenelzine, Pheromone, Phobia, Phobophobia, Pituitary gland, Poliomyelitis, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prairie dog, Prefrontal cortex, Preparedness (learning), Proinflammatory cytokine, Propranolol, Psychological trauma, Psychologist, Public speaking, Rationality, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Risk, Robert C. Bolles, Robert Plutchik, S.M. (patient), Sadness, Self-efficacy, Sensory cortex, Septum, Shelly Kagan, Simian, Snake, Social anxiety, Social anxiety disorder, Social rejection, Social support, Species richness, Spider, Startle response, Stathmin, Stimulus (physiology), Stria terminalis, Superior temporal gyrus, Sympathetic nervous system, Tend and befriend, Terror management theory, Terrorism, Test (assessment), Thalamus, The Story of the Youth Who Went Forth to Learn What Fear Was, Threat, Toxoplasmosis, Tunnel, Urbach–Wiethe disease, Volatility (chemistry), Voodoo death, War, Water, Worry, Yale University. Expand index (152 more) »


Acrophobia is an extreme or irrational fear or phobia of heights, especially when one is not particularly high up.

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Acute stress reaction

Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychological shock, mental shock, or simply shock) is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event, or witnessing a traumatic event that induces a strong emotional response within the individual.

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In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.

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Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.

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The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Androstadienone, also known as androsta-4,16-dien-3-one, is an endogenous steroid that has been described as having potent pheromone-like activities in humans.

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No description.

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Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.

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Angst means fear or anxiety (anguish is its Latinate equivalent, and anxious, anxiety are of similar origin).

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Anthropophobia or AnthrophobiaWen-Shing Tseng, Handbook of Cultural Psychiatry, San Diego: Academic Press, 2001,, (literally "fear of humans", from άνθρωπος, ánthropos, "human" and φόβος, phóbos, "fear"), also called interpersonal relation phobia or social phobia, is pathological fear of people or human company.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.

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Appeal to fear

An appeal to fear (also called argumentum ad metum or argumentum in terrorem) is a fallacy in which a person attempts to create support for an idea by attempting to increase fear towards an alternative.

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Approach-avoidance conflict

Approach-avoidance conflicts as elements of stress were first introduced by psychologist Kurt Lewin, one of the founders of modern social psychology.

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Aquaphobia or waterfright is a persistent and abnormal fear of water.

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Arachnophobia is the irrational fear of spiders and other arachnids such as scorpions.

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Autonomic nervous system

The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.

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Autophobia, also called monophobia, isolophobia, or eremophobia, is the specific phobia of isolation; a morbid fear of being egotistical, or a dread of being alone or isolated.

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BALB/c is an albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived.

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Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

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Behavioural despair test

The behavioural despair test (or Porsolt forced swimming test) is a test, centered on a rodent's response to the threat of drowning, whose result has been interpreted as measuring susceptibility to negative mood.

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Beta blocker

Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

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Biological specificity

In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.

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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.

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The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, c-Fos is a proto-oncogene that is the human homolog of the retroviral oncogene v-fos.

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The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.

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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.

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Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).

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| Name.

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Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.

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Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.

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In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.

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Conditional gene knockout

Conditional gene knockout is a technique used to eliminate a specific gene in a certain tissue, such as the liver.

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Coping Cat

Coping Cat is a CBT manualized and comprehensive treatment program for children from 7 to 13 years old with separation anxiety disorder, related anxiety disorders, and/or social phobia.

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Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.

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Corticotropin-releasing hormone

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.

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Corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonist

A Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist (CRH antagonist) is a specific type of receptor antagonist that blocks the receptor sites for Corticotropin-releasing hormone (also known as Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)), which synchronizes the behavioral, endocrine, autonomic, and immune responses to stress by controlling the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA Axis).

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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CP-154,526 is a potent and selective antagonist of the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 developed by Pfizer.

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Culture of fear

Popularized by the American sociologist Barry Glassner, culture of fear (or climate of fear) is the concept that people may incite fear in the general public to achieve political or workplace goals through emotional bias.

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Death anxiety (psychology)

Death anxiety is anxiety caused by thoughts of death.

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A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.

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Discover (magazine)

Discover is an American general audience science magazine launched in October 1980 by Time Inc.

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Display rules

Display rules are a social group or culture's informal norms that distinguish how one should express themselves.They can be described as culturally prescribed rules that people learn early on in their lives by interactions and socializations with other people.

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Driving phobia

A driving phobia, also called vehophobia or a fear of driving, can be severe enough to be considered an intense, persistent fear or phobia.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Ecosystem health

Ecosystem health is a metaphor used to describe the condition of an ecosystem.

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Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.

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Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.

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End time

The end time (also called end times, end of time, end of days, last days, final days, or eschaton) is a future time-period described variously in the eschatologies of several world religions (both Abrahamic and non-Abrahamic), which believe that world events will reach a final climax.

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Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals.

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Equanimity (Latin: æquanimitas, having an even mind; aequus even; animus mind/soul) is a state of psychological stability and composure which is undisturbed by experience of or exposure to emotions, pain, or other phenomena that may cause others to lose the balance of their mind.

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Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.

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Evil clown

The evil clown is a subversion of the traditional comic clown character, in which the playful trope is instead rendered as disturbing through the use of horror elements and dark humor.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Exposure therapy

Exposure therapy is a technique in behavior therapy thought to help treat anxiety disorders.

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Face perception

Face perception is an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain.

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Failure is the state or condition of not meeting a desirable or intended objective, and may be viewed as the opposite of success.

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Fear conditioning

Fear conditioning is a behavioral paradigm in which organisms learn to predict aversive events.

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Fear of crime

The fear of crime refers to the fear of being a victim of crime as opposed to the actual probability of being a victim of crime.

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Fear of flying

Fear of flying is a fear of being on an airplane (aeroplane), or other flying vehicle, such as a helicopter, while in flight.

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Fear of intimacy

Fear of intimacy is generally a social phobia and anxiety disorder resulting in difficulty forming close relationships with another person.

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Fiction is any story or setting that is derived from imagination—in other words, not based strictly on history or fact.

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Fight-or-flight response

The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

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Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.

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Food web

A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.

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Frank Kermode

Sir John Frank Kermode, FBA (29 November 1919 – 17 August 2010) was a British literary critic best known for his work The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction, published in 1967 (revised 2000), and for his extensive book-reviewing and editing.

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Fusiform gyrus

The fusiform gyrus, also known as the (discontinuous) occipitotemporal gyrus, is part of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe in Brodmann area 37.

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The future is what will happen in the time after the present.

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Gallup (company)

Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.

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A gang is a group of associates, friends or members of a family with a defined leadership and internal organization that identifies with or claims control over territory in a community and engages, either individually or collectively, in illegal, and possibly violent, behavior.

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Gender neutrality

Gender neutrality (adjective form: gender-neutral), also known as gender-neutralism or the gender neutrality movement, describes the idea that policies, language, and other social institutions should avoid distinguishing roles according to people's sex or gender, in order to avoid discrimination arising from the impression that there are social roles for which one gender is more suited than another.

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In folklore, a ghost (sometimes known as an apparition, haunt, phantom, poltergeist, shade, specter or spectre, spirit, spook, and wraith) is the soul or spirit of a dead person or animal that can appear to the living.

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Global catastrophic risk

A global catastrophic risk is a hypothetical future event which could damage human well-being on a global scale, even crippling or destroying modern civilization.

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Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

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Goose bumps

Goose bumps are the bumps on a person's skin at the base of body hairs which may involuntarily develop when a person is cold or experiences strong emotions such as fear, euphoria or sexual arousal.

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Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.

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In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.

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A hero (masculine) or heroine (feminine) is a real person or a main character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength; the original hero type of classical epics did such things for the sake of glory and honor.

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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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Horror and terror

The distinction between horror and terror is a standard literary and psychological concept applied especially to Gothic and horror fiction.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human nature

Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.

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Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.

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Hyperventilation (a.k.a. overbreathing) occurs when the rate or tidal volume of breathing eliminates more carbon dioxide than the body can produce.

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Hypodermic needle

Hypodermic needle features A hypodermic needle (from Greek ὑπο- (under-), and δέρμα (skin)), one of a category of medical tools which enter the skin, called sharps, is a very thin, hollow tube with a sharp tip that contains a small opening at the pointed end.

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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Hysteria, in the colloquial use of the term, means ungovernable emotional excess.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia, is a condition of impaired digestion.

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Inferior parietal lobule

The inferior parietal lobule (subparietal district) lies below the horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus, and behind the lower part of the postcentral sulcus.

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Interleukin 1 beta

Interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) also known as leukocytic pyrogen, leukocytic endogenous mediator, mononuclear cell factor, lymphocyte activating factor and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene.

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Intrinsic and extrinsic properties

An intrinsic property is a property of a system or of a material itself or within.

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Irrationality is cognition, thinking, talking, or acting without inclusion of rationality.

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Isoamyl acetate

Isoamyl acetate, also known as isopentyl acetate, is an organic compound that is the ester formed from isoamyl alcohol and acetic acid.

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John B. Watson

John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.

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The word joy means a feeling of great pleasure and happiness.

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Keystone species

A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.

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Laziness (also known as indolence) is disinclination to activity or exertion despite having the ability to act or exert oneself.

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Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.

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Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.

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Little Albert experiment

The Little Albert experiment was a controlled experiment showing empirical evidence of classical conditioning in humans.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 also known as MAP kinase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK7 gene.

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Memory consolidation

Memory consolidation is a category of processes that stabilize a memory trace after its initial acquisition.

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The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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Michael Fanselow

Michael S. Fanselow is an American psychologist, currently the Distinguished Professor at University of California, Los Angeles, specializing in learning and behavior and behavioral neuroscience, and is also a published author of 4 books, having a total number of 655 library holdings, the highest book is held in 513 libraries worldwide.

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Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.

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Moral absolutism

Moral absolutism is an ethical view that particular actions are intrinsically right or wrong.

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Moral universalism

Moral universalism (also called moral objectivism or universal morality) is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals", regardless of culture, race, sex, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature.

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Multilevel model

Multilevel models (also known as hierarchical linear models, nested data models, mixed models, random coefficient, random-effects models, random parameter models, or split-plot designs) are statistical models of parameters that vary at more than one level.

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Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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Mythopoeic thought

Mythopoeic thought is a hypothetical stage of human thought preceding modern thought, proposed by Henri Frankfort and his wife Henriette Antonia Frankfort in the 1940s.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.

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Night terror

Night terror, also known as sleep terror, is a sleep disorder, causing feelings of terror or dread, and typically occurs during the first hours of stage 3–4 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.

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A nightmare, also called a bad dream, Retrieved July 11, 2016.

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Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli.

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Nuclear warfare

Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.

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Olfactory bulb

The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.

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Ontogenetic parade

In developmental psychology, the ontogenetic parade is the term introduced by Isaac Marks for the predictable pattern of the development of normal childhood fears: emergence, plateau, and decline.

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Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.

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Ophidiophobia or ophiophobia is a particular type of specific phobia, the abnormal fear of snakes.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Pain tolerance

Pain tolerance is the maximum level of pain that a person is able to tolerate.

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The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Panic is a sudden sensation of fear, which is so strong as to dominate or prevent reason and logical thinking, replacing it with overwhelming feelings of anxiety and frantic agitation consistent with an animalistic fight-or-flight reaction.

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Panic attack

Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.

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Panic disorder

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.

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Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.

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Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.

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Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN, PVA, or PVH) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus.

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Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood.

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Paul Ekman

Paul Ekman (born February 15, 1934) is an American psychologist and professor emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco who is a pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions.

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Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

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Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.

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A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

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A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.

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Phobophobia is the fear of phobia(s) and, more specifically, of the internal sensations associated with that phobia and anxiety, which binds it closely to other anxiety disorders, especially with generalized anxiety disorders (free floating fears) and panic attacks.

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Pituitary gland

An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.

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Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

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Prairie dog

Prairie dogs (genus Cynomys) are herbivorous burrowing rodents native to the grasslands of North America.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Preparedness (learning)

In psychology, preparedness is a concept developed to explain why certain associations are learned more readily than others.

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Proinflammatory cytokine

A proinflammatory cytokine or more simply an inflammatory cytokine is a type of signaling molecule (a cytokine) that is excreted from immune cells like helper T cells (Th) and macrophages, and certain other cell types that promote inflammation.

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Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.

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Psychological trauma

Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.

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A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.

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Public speaking

Public speaking (also called oratory or oration) is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience.

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Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.

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Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is a technique commonly used in molecular biology to detect RNA expression.

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Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.

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Robert C. Bolles

Robert C. Bolles (April 24, 1928 – April 8, 1994) was an American psychologist and author who conducted work on experimental psychology.

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Robert Plutchik

Robert Plutchik (21 October 1927 – 29 April 2006) was professor emeritus at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and adjunct professor at the University of South Florida.

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S.M. (patient)

S.M., also sometimes referred to as SM-046, is a female patient first described in 1994 who has had exclusive and complete bilateral amygdala destruction since late childhood as a consequence of an extremely rare genetic condition known as Urbach–Wiethe disease.

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Sadness is an emotional pain associated with, or characterized by, feelings of disadvantage, loss, despair, grief, helplessness, disappointment and sorrow.

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Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief in his or her innate ability to achieve goals.

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Sensory cortex

The sensory cortex can refer informally to the primary somatosensory cortex, or it can be used as a term for the primary and secondary cortices of the different senses (two cortices each, on left and right hemisphere): the visual cortex on the occipital lobes, the auditory cortex on the temporal lobes, the primary olfactory cortex on the uncus of the piriform region of the temporal lobes, the gustatory cortex on the insular lobe (also referred to as the insular cortex), and the primary somatosensory cortex on the anterior parietal lobes.

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In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.

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Shelly Kagan

Shelly Kagan is Clark Professor of Philosophy at Yale University, where he has taught since 1995.

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The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are monkeys and apes, cladistically including: the New World monkeys or platyrrhines, and the catarrhine clade consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes (including humans).

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Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.

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Social anxiety

Social anxiety can be defined as nervousness in social situations.

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Social anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.

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Social rejection

Social rejection occurs when an individual is deliberately excluded from a social relationship or social interaction.

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Social support

Social support is the perception and actuality that one is cared for, has assistance available from other people, and most popularly, that one is part of a supportive social network.

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Species richness

Species richness is the number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region.

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Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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Startle response

In animals, including humans, the startle response is a largely unconscious defensive response to sudden or threatening stimuli, such as sudden noise or sharp movement, and is associated with negative affect.

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Stathmin, also known as metablastin and oncoprotein 18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STMN1 gene.

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Stimulus (physiology)

In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.

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Stria terminalis

The stria terminalis (or terminal stria) is a structure in the brain consisting of a band of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus.

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Superior temporal gyrus

The superior temporal gyrus is one of three (sometimes two) gyri in the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is located laterally to the head, situated somewhat above the external ear.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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Tend and befriend

Tend-and-befriend is a behavior exhibited by some animals, including humans, in response to threat.

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Terror management theory

In social psychology, terror management theory (TMT) proposes a basic psychological conflict that results from having a self-preservation instinct, whilst realizing that death is inevitable and to some extent unpredictable.

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Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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Test (assessment)

A test or examination (informally, exam or evaluation) is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs).

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The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

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The Story of the Youth Who Went Forth to Learn What Fear Was

"The Story of the Youth Who Went Forth to Learn What Fear Was" or "The Story of a Boy Who Went Forth to Learn Fear" (Märchen von einem, der auszog das Fürchten zu lernen) is a German folktale collected by the Brothers Grimm.

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A threat is a communicated intent to inflict harm or loss on another person.

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Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

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A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.

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Urbach–Wiethe disease

Urbach–Wiethe disease (also known as lipoid proteinosis and hyalinosis cutis et mucosae) is a rare recessive genetic disorder, with approximately 400 reported cases since its discovery.

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Volatility (chemistry)

In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.

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Voodoo death

Voodoo death, a term coined by Walter Cannon in 1942 also known as psychogenic death or psychosomatic death, is the phenomenon of sudden death as brought about by a strong emotional shock, such as fear.

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War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Worry refers to the thoughts, images, and emotions of a negative nature in a repetitive, uncontrollable manner that results from a proactive cognitive risk analysis made to avoid or solve anticipated potential threats and their potential consequences.

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Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fear

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