224 relations: Administrative Procedure Act (United States), Air navigation, Ajit Pai, All-Channel Receiver Act, AM broadcasting, Amateur radio, American Broadcasting Company, Analog television, Anti-competitive practices, Associated Press, AT&T, AT&T Corporation, ATSC standards, Bakersfield, California, Band III, Barack Obama, Barriers to entry, BitTorrent, Bleep censor, Breakup of the Bell System, BREN Tower, Brendan Carr (lawyer), Broadband, Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act of 2005, Broadcast license, Broadcast Standards and Practices, Burden of proof (law), Cable television, Carterfone, CBS, Censorship of broadcasting in the United States, Chain broadcasting, Chief information officer, City of license, CNET, Comcast, Comcast Corp. v. FCC, Commerce Clause, Commercial broadcasting, Communications Act of 1934, Community radio, Competition, Competitive local exchange carrier, Congressional Research Service, Consumer privacy, Consumer protection, Coupon-eligible converter box, Declan McCullagh, Denver, Digital audio broadcasting, ..., Digital audio radio service, Digital radio, Digital television, Digital television adapter, Digital television transition in the United States, Digital Video Broadcasting, Disability rights movement, Diversity (politics), DuMont Television Network, DVB-S, E-commerce, Ed Markey, Edwin C. Johnson, El Diario La Prensa, Electromagnetic interference, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electronic media, Entrepreneurship, FCC fairness doctrine, FCC Record, FCC v. Pacifica Foundation, Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Communications Commission, Federal government of the United States, Federal judiciary of the United States, Federal Radio Commission, Federal Register, File sharing, Fine (penalty), First Amendment to the United States Constitution, FM broadcast band, Fred Upton, Frequency administration, Frequency allocation, Fresno, California, Frieda B. Hennock, General Services Administration, George W. Bush, Google, Government Performance and Results Act, HD Radio, Hearing (law), Homeland security, HuffPost, IBiquity, IHeartMedia, In-band adjacent-channel, Incumbent local exchange carrier, Independent agencies of the United States government, Information technology, Innovation, Intellectual property, Interlocutory, International Telecommunication Union, Internet, Internet service provider, Interstate Commerce Commission, Investment, ITU Radio Regulations, James Lawrence Fly, Janet Jackson, Jessica Rosenworcel, Julius Genachowski, Kevin Martin (FCC), KWGN-TV, L band, Landline, League of United Latin American Citizens, List of chairmen of the Federal Communications Commission, List of telecommunications regulatory bodies, Lists of landmark court decisions, Local Community Radio Act, Loran-C, Low-power broadcasting, Mark Lloyd, Media (communication), Media market, Media regulation, Michael O'Rielly, Michigan, Microsoft, Mignon Clyburn, Minority business enterprise, Mobile network operator, Mobile telephony, Mobile television, Morality, Multipath interference, National broadband plan, National Institute for Latino Policy, National Security Agency, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Natural monopoly, NBC, Net neutrality, Net neutrality in the United States, Non-commercial educational, Non-directional beacon, North America, Notice of proposed rulemaking, Office of Inspector General (United States), Open spectrum, Open standard, Organizational culture, PDF, Pennsylvania Avenue, Peoria, Illinois, Plain old telephone service, Political party, President of the United States, Public broadcasting, Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, Public health, Public security, Public, educational, and government access, Radio, Radio frequency, Radio masts and towers, Radio personality, Radiotelephone, Reason (magazine), Regional Bell Operating Company, Repeater, Ronald Reagan, Rosel H. Hyde, S band, Sam Brownback, Satellite radio, Satellite television, Sexual harassment, Sideband, South Plains College, Southwest, Washington, D.C., Stakeholder (corporate), Statute, Super Bowl XXXVIII, Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy, Supreme Court of the United States, Technical Advisory Council, Telecommunication, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Television antenna, Television network, Telford Taylor, Terrestrial television, Territories of the United States, The New York Times, The Washington Examiner, The Washington Post, Title 47 CFR Part 15, Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Tom Wheeler, Transmitter, U.S. state, Ultra high frequency, United States Congress, United States Department of Commerce, United States Department of Justice, United States dollar, United States Government Publishing Office, United States House of Representatives, United States Navy, United States Senate, United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, University of North Texas Libraries, Vendor lock-in, Very high frequency, Very low frequency, Washington, D.C., Wi-Fi, Wired (magazine), World War II, 111th United States Congress, 1978 Broadcast Policy Statement on minority ownership. 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The Administrative Procedure Act (APA),, is the United States federal statute that governs the way in which administrative agencies of the federal government of the United States may propose and establish regulations.
The basic principles of air navigation are identical to general navigation, which includes the process of planning, recording, and controlling the movement of a craft from one place to another.
Ajit Varadaraj Pai (born January 10, 1973) is a telecommunications director who serves as the Chairman of the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
The All-Channel Receiver Act of 1962 (ACRA), commonly known as the All-Channels Act, was passed by the United States Congress in 1961, to allow the Federal Communications Commission to require that all television set manufacturers must include UHF tuners, so that new UHF-band TV stations (then channels 14 to 83) could be received by the public.
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions.
Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, describes the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication.
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio.
Anti-competitive practices are business, government or religious practices that prevent or reduce competition in a market (see restraint of trade).
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are a set of standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks.
Bakersfield is a city in and the county seat of Kern County, California, United States.
Band III is the name of the range of radio frequencies within the very high frequency (VHF) part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 174 to 240 megahertz (MHz).
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
In theories of competition in economics, a barrier to entry, or an economic barrier to entry, is a cost that must be incurred by a new entrant into a market that incumbents do not have or have not had to incur.
BitTorrent (abbreviated to BT) is a communication protocol for peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) which is used to distribute data and electronic files over the Internet.
A bleep censor is the replacement of a profanity or classified information with a beep sound (usually a) in television and radio.
The breakup of the Bell System was mandated on January 8, 1982, by an agreed consent decree providing that AT&T Corporation would, as had been initially proposed by AT&T, relinquish control of the Bell Operating Companies that had provided local telephone service in the United States and Canada up until that point.
BREN Tower was a guyed steel framework mast, high, on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, USA.
Brendan Carr is an American lawyer who currently serves as a member of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types.
The Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act of 2005 (S.193.ENR) is an enrolled bill, passed by both Houses of the 109th United States Congress, to increase the fines and penalties for violating the prohibitions against the broadcast of obscene, indecent, or profane language.
A broadcast license is a type of spectrum license granting the licensee permission to use a portion of the radio frequency spectrum in a given geographical area for broadcasting purposes.
In the United States, Standards and Practices (also referred to as Broadcast Standards and Practices) is the name traditionally given to the department at a television network which is responsible for the moral, ethical, and legal implications of the program that network airs.
The burden of proof (onus probandi) is the obligation of a party in a trial to produce the evidence that will prove the claims they have made against the other party.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.
The Carterfone is a device invented by Thomas Carter.
CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.
Censorship of broadcasting is imposed in the United States on the grounds of national security and to prevent offense.
Chain Broadcasting is the act of connecting two or more radio stations of a broadcast network to broadcast the same program at the same time.
Chief information officer (CIO), chief digital information officer (CDIO) or information technology (IT) director, is a job title commonly given to the most senior executive in an enterprise responsible for the traditional information technology and computer systems that support enterprise goals.
In American, Canadian and Philippine broadcasting, a city of license or community of license is the community that a radio station or television station is officially licensed to serve by that country's broadcast regulator.
CNET (stylized as c|net) is an American media website that publishes reviews, news, articles, blogs, podcasts and videos on technology and consumer electronics globally.
Comcast Corporation (formerly registered as Comcast Holdings)Before the AT&T merger in 2001, the parent company was Comcast Holdings Corporation.
The Commerce Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3).
Commercial broadcasting (also called private broadcasting) is the broadcasting of television programs and radio programming by privately owned corporate media, as opposed to state sponsorship.
The Communications Act of 1934 is a United States federal law, signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 19, 1934, and codified as Chapter 5 of Title 47 of the United States Code, et seq.
Community radio is a radio service offering a third model of radio broadcasting in addition to commercial and public broadcasting.
Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.
A competitive local exchange carrier (CLEC), in the United States and Canada, is a telecommunications provider company (sometimes called a "carrier") competing with other, already established carriers (generally the incumbent local exchange carrier (ILEC)).
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
Consumer privacy is a form of information privacy concerned with the legal and political issues arising from the interaction of the public's expectation of privacy with the collection and dissemination of data by businesses or merchants.
In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for this (a list including most or all developed countries with free market economies) consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace.
A coupon-eligible converter box (CECB) was a digital television adapter that met eligibility specifications for subsidy "coupons" from the United States government.
Declan McCullagh is an American entrepreneur, journalist, and software engineer.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
Digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services, used in many countries across Europe, Asia, and the Pacific.
Digital audio radio service (DARS) refers to any type of digital radio program service.
Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit and/or receive across the radio spectrum.
Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television signals, including the sound channel, using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier television technology, analog television, in which the video and audio are carried by analog signals.
A digital television adapter (DTA), commonly known as a converter box, is a television tuner that receives a digital television (DTV) transmission, and converts the digital signal into an analog signal that can be received and displayed on an analog television set.
The DTV (an abbreviation of digital television, also called digital broadcast) transition in the United States was the switchover from analog (the traditional method of transmitting television signals) to exclusively digital broadcasting of free over-the-air television programming.
Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) is a set of internationally open standards for digital television.
The disability rights movement is a global social movement to secure equal opportunities and equal rights for all people with disabilities.
In sociology and political studies, diversity is the degree of differences in identifying features among the members of a purposefully defined group, such as any group differences in racial or ethnic classifications, age, gender, religion, philosophy, physical abilities, socioeconomic background, sexual orientation, gender identity, intelligence, mental health, physical health, genetic attributes, personality, behavior or attractiveness.
The DuMont Television Network (also known as the DuMont Network, simply DuMont/Du Mont, or (incorrectly) Dumont) was one of the world's pioneer commercial television networks, rivalling NBC and CBS for the distinction of being first overall in the United States.
Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite (DVB-S) is the original DVB standard for Satellite Television and dates from 1995, in its first release, while development lasted from 1993 to 1997.
E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.
Edward John Markey (born July 11, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic Party serving as the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts since 2013.
Edwin Carl Johnson (January 1, 1884 – May 30, 1970) was a Democrat who served as both governor and U.S. senator from the U.S. state of Colorado.
El Diario Nueva York is the largest and the oldest Spanish-language daily in the United States.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical audience to access the content.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
The fairness doctrine of the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC), introduced in 1949, was a policy that required the holders of broadcast licenses both to present controversial issues of public importance and to do so in a manner that was—in the FCC's view—honest, equitable, and balanced.
The FCC Record, also known as the Federal Communications Commission Record and variously abbreviated as FCC Rcd. and F.C.C.R., is the comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), published since 1986.
Federal Communications Commission v. Pacifica Foundation, is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision that defined the power of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) over indecent material as applied to broadcasting.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three co-equal branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.
The Federal Radio Commission (FRC) was a government body that regulated radio use in the United States from its creation in 1926 until its replacement by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1934.
The Federal Register (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices.
File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents or electronic books.
A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence.
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.
The FM broadcast band, used for FM broadcast radio by radio stations, differs between different parts of the world.
Frederick Stephen Upton (born April 23, 1953) is the U.S. Representative for, serving since 1987.
In telecommunication, frequency assignment authority is the power granted for the administration, designation or delegation to an agency or administrator via treaty or law, to specify frequencies, frequency channels or frequency bands, in the electromagnetic spectrum for use in radiocommunication services, radio stations or ISM applications.
Frequency allocation (or spectrum allocation or spectrum management) is the allocation and regulation of the electromagnetic spectrum into radio frequency bands, which is normally done by governments in most countries.
Fresno (Spanish for "ash tree") is a city in California, United States, and the county seat of Fresno County.
Frieda Barkin Hennock (27 December 1904 – 20 June 1960) was the first female commissioner of the Federal Communications Commission and a central figure in the creation of an enduring system of educational television in the United States.
The General Services Administration (GSA), an independent agency of the United States government, was established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA) is a United States law enacted in 1993,Congress, U. S., and An Act.
HD Radio is a trademarked term for iBiquity's in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" immediately above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD (digital radio with less noise) or as a standard broadcast (analog radio with standard sound quality).
In law, a hearing is a proceeding before a court or other decision-making body or officer, such as a government agency or a Parliamentary committee.
Homeland security is an American umbrella term for "the national effort to ensure a homeland that is safe, secure, and resilient against terrorism and other hazards where American interests, aspirations, and ways of life can thrive to the national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States, reduce the vulnerability of the U.S. to terrorism, and minimize the damage from attacks that do occur".
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
iBiquity Digital Corporation is a company formed by the merger of USA Digital Radio and Lucent Digital Radio, with the goal of creating an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system for the United States and around the world.
iHeartMedia, Inc., formerly CC Media Holdings, Inc., is an American mass media corporation headquartered in San Antonio, Texas.
IBAC is a method of placing digital communication signals on channels in the existing analog communication bands.
An incumbent local exchange carrier (ILEC) is a local telephone company which held the regional monopoly on landline service before the market was opened to competitive local exchange carriers, or the corporate successor of such a firm.
Independent agencies of the United States federal government are those agencies that exist outside the federal executive departments (those headed by a Cabinet secretary) and the Executive Office of the President.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
Interlocutory is a legal term which can refer to an order, sentence, decree, or judgment, given in an intermediate stage between the commencement and termination of a cause of action, used to provide a temporary or provisional decision on an issue.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) was a regulatory agency in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
The ITU Radio Regulations (short: RR) regulates on law of nations scale radiocommunication services and the utilisation of radio frequencies.
James Lawrence "Larry" Fly (February 22, 1898 – January 6, 1966) was an American lawyer, famous as chairman of the Federal Communications Commission and, later, director of the American Civil Liberties Union.
Janet Damita Jo Jackson (born May 16, 1966) is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and actress.
Jessica Rosenworcel (born July 12, 1971) is an American lawyer who currently serves as a member of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
Julius Genachowski (born August 19, 1962) is an American lawyer and businessman.
Kevin Jeffrey Martin (born December 14, 1966) is a former member and Chairman of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), an independent agency of the United States government.
KWGN-TV, virtual channel 2 (UHF digital channel 34), is a CW-affiliated television station licensed to Denver, Colorado, United States.
The L band is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) designation for the range of frequencies in the radio spectrum from 1 to 2 gigahertz (GHz).
A landline telephone (also known as land line, land-line, main line, home phone, landline, fixed-line, and wireline) is a phone that uses a metal wire or optical fiber telephone line for transmission as distinguished from a mobile cellular line, which uses radio waves for transmission.
The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) is the oldest surviving Latino civil rights organization in the U.S. It was established on February 17, 1929, in Corpus Christi, Texas, largely by Hispanic veterans of World War I who sought to end ethnic discrimination against Latinos in the United States.
The following is a list of the chairmen of the Federal Communications Commission.
This article is a list of the legal regulatory bodies that govern telecommunications systems in different countries.
Landmark court decisions, in present-day common law legal systems, establish precedents that determine a significant new legal principle or concept, or otherwise substantially affect the interpretation of existing law.
The Local Community Radio Act is an act of broadcast law in the United States, explicitly authorizing the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to license local low-power broadcasting in the FM broadcast band (LPFM).
Loran-C was a hyperbolic radio navigation system which allowed a receiver to determine its position by listening to low frequency radio signals transmitted by fixed land-based radio beacons.
Low-power broadcasting refers to a broadcast station operating at a low electrical power to a smaller service area than "full power" stations within the same region, but often distinguished from "micropower broadcasting" (more commonly "microbroadcasting") and broadcast translators.
Mark Lloyd was associate general counsel and Chief Diversity Officer at the Federal Communications Commission of the United States from 2009-2012.
Media are the collective communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data.
A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area (DMA), television market area, or simply market is a region where the population can receive the same (or similar) television and radio station offerings, and may also include other types of media including newspapers and Internet content.
Media regulation is the control or guidance of mass media by governments and other bodies.
Michael O'Rielly is a commissioner of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), an independent agency of the United States government.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Mignon L. Clyburn (born March 22, 1962) is a commissioner at the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), serving in that position since she was nominated by President Barack Obama and confirmed by the Senate in 2009.
A Minority Business Enterprise (MBE) is an American term which is defined as a business which is at least 51% owned, operated and controlled on a daily basis by one or more (in combination) American citizens of the following ethnic minority and/or gender (e.g. woman-owned) and/or military veteran classifications.
A mobile network operator or MNO, also known as a wireless service provider, wireless carrier, cellular company, or mobile network carrier, is a provider of wireless communications services that owns or controls all the elements necessary to sell and deliver services to an end user including radio spectrum allocation, wireless network infrastructure, back haul infrastructure, billing, customer care, provisioning computer systems and marketing and repair organizations.
Mobile telephony is the provision of telephone services to phones which may move around freely rather than stay fixed in one location.
Mobile television is television watched on a small handheld or mobile device.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Multipath interference is a phenomenon in the physics of waves whereby a wave from a source travels to a detector via two or more paths and, under the right condition, the two (or more) components of the wave interfere.
Broadband is a term normally considered to be synonymous with a high-speed connection to the internet.
The National Institute for Latino Policy (NiLP) was established in 1982 as the Institute for Puerto Rican Policy (IPR) in New York City, United States as a non-profit and nonpartisan policy center focusing on critical Latino policy issues.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce that serves as the President's principal adviser on telecommunications policies pertaining to the United States' economic and technological advancement and to regulation of the telecommunications industry.
A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
Net neutrality is the principle that Internet service providers treat all data on the Internet equally, and not discriminate or charge differently by user, content, website, platform, application, type of attached equipment, or method of communication.
In the United States, net neutrality, the principle that Internet service providers treat all data on the Internet the same, and not discriminate, has been an issue of contention between network users and access providers since the 1990s.
The term non-commercial educational (NCE) applies to a radio station or TV station that does not accept on-air advertisements (TV ads or radio ads), as defined in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
A non-directional (radio) beacon (NDB) is a radio transmitter at a known location, used as an aviation or marine navigational aid.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
A notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) is a public notice issued by law when one of the independent agencies of the United States government wishes to add, remove, or change a rule or regulation as part of the rulemaking process.
In the United States, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is a generic term for the oversight division of a federal or state agency aimed at preventing inefficient or illegal operations within their parent agency.
Open spectrum (also known as free spectrum) is a movement to get the Federal Communications Commission to provide more unlicensed radio-frequency spectrum that is available for use by all.
An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process).
Organizational culture encompasses values and behaviours that "contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization".
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Pennsylvania Avenue is a street in Washington, D.C. that connects the White House and the United States Capitol.
Peoria is the county seat of Peoria County, Illinois, and the largest city on the Illinois River.
Plain old telephone service or plain ordinary telephone service (POTS) is a retronym for voice-grade telephone service employing analog signal transmission over copper loops.
A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service.
The Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 set up public broadcasting in the United States, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) and, eventually, the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), and National Public Radio (NPR).
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Public security is the function of governments which ensures the protection of citizens, persons in their territory, organizations, and institutions against threats to their well-being – and to the prosperity of their communities.
Public, educational, and government access television (also PEG-TV, PEG channel, PEGA, Local-access television) refers to three different cable television narrowcasting and specialty channels.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television.
A radio personality (American English) or radio presenter (British English), commonly referred to as a "disc jockey" or "DJ" for short, is a person who has an on-air position in radio broadcasting.
A radiotelephone (or radiophone) is a communications system for transmission of speech over radio.
Reason is an American libertarian monthly magazine published by the Reason Foundation.
The Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOC) are the result of United States v. AT&T, the U.S. Department of Justice antitrust suit against the former American Telephone & Telegraph Company (later known as AT&T Corp.). On January 8, 1982, AT&T Corp.
In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Rosel H. Hyde (April 12, 1900 – December 19, 1992) served as chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) twice under the four different presidents.
The S band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum covering frequencies from 2 to 4 gigahertz (GHz).
Samuel Dale Brownback (born September 12, 1956) is an American attorney, politician, and diplomat serving as the United States Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom since 2018.
Satellite radio is defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)'S ITU Radio Regulations (RR) as a broadcasting-satellite service.
Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.
Sexual harassment is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors.
In radio communications, a sideband is a band of frequencies higher than or lower than the carrier frequency, containing power as a result of the modulation process.
South Plains College (SPC) is a college located in Levelland, Texas.
Southwest (SW or S.W.) is the southwestern quadrant of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, and is located south of the National Mall and west of South Capitol Street.
In a corporation, as defined in its first usage in a 1963 internal memorandum at the Stanford Research Institute, a stakeholder is a member of the "groups without whose support the organization would cease to exist".
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
Super Bowl XXXVIII was an American football game between the National Football Conference (NFC) champion Carolina Panthers and the American Football Conference (AFC) champion New England Patriots to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion for the 2003 season.
Super Bowl XXXVIII – which was broadcast live on February 1, 2004 from Houston, Texas on the CBS television network in the United States – was noted for a controversial halftime show in which Janet Jackson's breast, adorned with a nipple shield, was exposed by Justin Timberlake for about half a second, in what was later referred to as a "wardrobe malfunction".
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The Technical Advisory Council (TAC) is a federal advisory committee of the Federal Communications Commission and the FCC's Office of Engineering and Technology (OET).
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was the first significant overhaul of telecommunications law in more than sixty years, amending the Communications Act of 1934.
A television antenna, or TV aerial, is an antenna specifically designed for the reception of over-the-air broadcast television signals, which are transmitted at frequencies from about 41 to 250 MHz in the VHF band, and 470 to 960 MHz in the UHF band in different countries.
A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay television providers.
Telford Taylor (February 24, 1908 – May 23, 1998) was an American lawyer best known for his role in the Counsel for the Prosecution at the Nuremberg Trials after World War II, his opposition to Senator Joseph McCarthy in the 1950s, and his outspoken criticism of U.S. actions during the Vietnam War in the 1960s and 1970s.
Terrestrial or broadcast television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial (Earth based) transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna.
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States (U.S.) federal government.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Washington Examiner is an American political journalism website and weekly magazine based in Washington, D.C. that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 47, Part 15 (47 CFR 15) is an oft-quoted part of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations regarding unlicensed transmissions.
The Code of Federal Regulations, Telecommunications, containing the U.S. federal regulations for telecommunications can be found under Title 47 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations.
Thomas Edgar Wheeler (born April 5, 1946) is an American businessman and politician.
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation is a standing committee of the United States Senate.
The University of North Texas Libraries is an American academic research library system that serves the constituent colleges and schools of University of North Texas in Denton.
In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in or customer lock-in, makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs.
Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meter.
Very low frequency or VLF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kilohertz (kHz), corresponding to wavelengths from 100 to 10 kilometers, respectively.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The One Hundred Eleventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government from January 3, 2009, until January 3, 2011.
The 1978 Broadcast Policy Statement on minority ownership is a publicly issued statement by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regarding the state of minority and gender based ownership, the implications of previous ownership policies, and by taking affirmative action set into place two new additional policy measures aimed at progressing and encouraging continued diversity in media ownership.
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