264 relations: Aëtius of Amida, Acacia, Adele Berlin, Africa, Africa Inland Mission, African Union, Agave, American Academy of Pediatrics, Aminata Diop, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, Anemia, Anika Rahman, Animism, Anthropology, Arabic, Asia, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Babikr Bedri, Bambara language, Barack Obama, Benin, Benoîte Groult, Beta Israel, Bible, Breast augmentation, Bride price, British Museum, Burkina Faso, Caesarean section, Calamine, Cameroon, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Carla Obermeyer, Central African Republic, Cervix, Chad, Child marriage, Chronic pain, Church of Scotland, Circumcision, City, University of London, Clitoral hood, Clitoral hood reduction, Clitoridectomy, Clitoris, Coffin Texts, Colonial Office, Complication (medicine), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, ..., Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, Criminal Code (Canada), Cultural imperialism, Cultural relativism, Cyst, David Gollaher, Dawoodi Bohra, Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, Demographic and Health Surveys, Desert Flower, Discrimination, Djibouti, Dry sex, Dysmenorrhea, Dyspareunia, Dysuria, East Africa Protectorate, Edna Adan Ismail, Edward Grigg, 1st Baron Altrincham, Efua Dorkenoo, Egypt, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Egyptian Museum, Ellen Gruenbaum, Endometritis, Epidermoid cyst, Episiotomy, Equality Now, Erbil, Eric Silverman, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ethnic group, Fadwa El Guindi, False consciousness, Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003, Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom, Female hysteria, Fibula (brooch), Foot binding, Fran Hosken, Frankincense, Fuambai Ahmadu, Fula people, Galen, Game theory, Gangrene, Gender inequality, General anaesthetic, Geographica, Gerry Mackie, Ghana, Gishiri cutting, Grafton Elliot Smith, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hadith, Hadith terminology, Hedareb people, Hematocolpos, Hematometra, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, Hulda Stumpf, Human anus, Human female sexuality, Human rights, Hymen, Hypersexuality, ICF International, Igbo language, In re Kasinga, Indonesia, Infection, Infertility, Infibulation, Infidel: My Life, Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation, Intersex, Iraq, Iraqi Kurdistan, Isaac Baker Brown, Ivory Coast, J. Marion Sims, James C. Burt, Janice Boddy, João dos Santos, John Arthur, Jomo Kenyatta, Kamba people, Kapchorwa, Karl Ferdinand von Gräfe, Keloid, Kenya, Khalid Adem, Kikuyu Central Association, Kikuyu people, Kirkuk, Kisi people, Kono people, Kurds, Labia majora, Labia minora, Labia stretching, Labiaplasty, Layli Miller-Muro, Levator ani, Levirate marriage, Liberia, List of colonial governors and administrators of Kenya, Local anesthetic, Lydia, Mali, Malicounda Bambara, Maputo Protocol, Marc Armand Ruffer, Marion Stevenson, Martha Nussbaum, Mary Daly, Mauritania, Medical Society of London, Menstruation, Meroë, Meta-analysis, Middle East, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Missionary position, Molly Melching, Moral relativism, Ms. (magazine), Muhammad, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Mummy, Nahid Toubia, National Council of Churches of Kenya, Nawal El Saadawi, Necrotizing fasciitis, Negev Bedouin, Neuroma, Niger, Nigeria, Obioma Nnaemeka, Obstetrical Society of London, Oral tradition, Papyrus, Perineum, Peter Lewis Allen, Philo, Polygyny, Postpartum bleeding, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Pre-eclampsia, Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985, Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation (Scotland) Act 2005, Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography, Quran, Rectovaginal fistula, Religious male circumcision, Rhinoplasty, Rite of passage, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Sande society, Sarcophagus, Senegal, Sepsis, Sierra Leone, Sine qua non, Social exclusion, Social norms approach, Somalia, Somalis, St Mary's Hospital, London, Stenosis, Stillbirth, Strabo, Sudan, Sulaymaniyah, Sunnah, Supreme Revolutionary Council (Somalia), Swiss Medical Weekly, Sylvia Tamale, Systematic review, Tanzania, Tetanus, The Gambia, Tigrayans, Togo, Tostan, Uganda, UNICEF, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Population Fund, United States Agency for International Development, Urethra, Urinary retention, Urinary tract infection, Urination, Vagina, Vesicovaginal fistula, Vicks VapoRub, Violence against women, Vulva, Waris Dirie, Woman at Point Zero, World Conference on Human Rights, World Health Organization, Wound, Xanthus (historian), Yemen, Yuli Tamir, Zarma people. Expand index (214 more) » « Shrink index
Aëtius of Amida (Ἀέτιος Ἀμιδηνός; Latin: Aëtius Amidenus; fl. mid-5th century to mid-6th century) was a Byzantine Greek physician and medical writer, particularly distinguished by the extent of his erudition.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
Adele Berlin is a biblical scholar.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Established in 1895, Africa Inland Mission (AIM) is a nondenominational Christian mission organisation focusing on Africa and islands in the Indian Ocean.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Agave is a genus of monocots native to the hot and arid regions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.
Aminata Diop (born c. 1968) is a Malian woman who in 1989 fled to France to escape a female genital mutilation (FGM) procedure.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Anika Rahman is a Bangladeshi-American lawyer and a leader for human rights and social justice.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Ayaan Hirsi Ali (born Ayaan Hirsi Magan, 13 November 1969) is a Somali-born Dutch-American activist, feminist, author, scholar and former politician.
Babikr Bedri was a Mahdist warrior who later became a social activist and laid the foundations for women's education in the Sudan.
The Bambara (Bamana) language, Bamanankan, is a lingua franca and national language of Mali spoken by perhaps 15 million people, natively by 5 million Bambara people and about 10 million second-language users.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Benoîte Groult (January 31, 1920 – June 20, 2016) was a French journalist, writer, and feminist activist.
Beta Israel (בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as Ethiopian Jews (יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge'ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews whose community developed and lived for centuries in the area of the Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between the Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Breast augmentation and augmentation mammoplasty (colloquially known as a "boob job") are plastic surgery terms for the breast-implant and the fat-graft mammoplasty approaches used to increase the size, change the shape, and alter the texture of the breasts of a woman.
Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.
Calamine, also known as calamine lotion, is a medication used to treat mild itchiness.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure that combines chest compressions often with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.
Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer is a medical anthropologist and epidemiologist specializing in the study of fertility and HIV.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
City, University of London is a public research university in London, United Kingdom.
In female human anatomy, the clitoral hood (also called preputium clitoridis and clitoral prepuce) is a fold of skin that surrounds and protects the glans of the clitoris; it also covers the external shaft of the clitoris, develops as part of the labia minora and is homologous with the foreskin (equally called prepuce) in male genitals.
Clitoral hood reduction, also termed clitoral hoodectomy, clitoral unhooding, clitoridotomy,or (partial) hoodectomy, is a plastic surgery procedure for reducing the size and the area of the clitoral hood (prepuce) in order to further expose the clitoral glans of the clitoris.
Clitoridectomy or clitorectomy is the surgical removal, reduction, or partial removal of the clitoris.
The clitoris is a female sex organ present in mammals, ostriches and a limited number of other animals.
The Coffin Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian funerary spells written on coffins beginning in the First Intermediate Period.
The Colonial Office was a government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of British North America but needed also to oversee the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire.
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly.
The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, also known as the 1951 Refugee Convention, is a United Nations multilateral treaty that defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum.
The Criminal Code (Code criminelThe citation of this Act by this short title is authorised by the French text of of this Act.) is a law that codifies most criminal offences and procedures in Canada.
Cultural imperialism comprises the cultural aspects of imperialism.
Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.
A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue.
David L. Gollaher was the founding President & CEO of the California Healthcare Institute (CHI), 1993-2014, from which he retired to join Gilead Sciences where he heads worldwide Government Affairs and Policy.
The Dawoodi Bohras are a sect within the Ismā'īlī branch of Shia Islam.
The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women was adopted without vote by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993.
The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program is responsible for collecting and disseminating accurate, nationally representative data on health and population in developing countries.
Desert Flower: The Extraordinary Journey of a Desert Nomad is an autobiographical book written by Waris Dirie and Cathleen Miller, published in 1998 about the life of Somali model, Waris Dirie.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Dry sex is the sexual practice of having sexual intercourse without vaginal lubrication.
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.
Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse due to medical or psychological causes.
In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination.
East Africa Protectorate (also known as British East Africa) was an area in the African Great Lakes occupying roughly the same terrain as present-day Kenya (approximately) from the Indian Ocean inland to Uganda and the Great Rift Valley.
Edna Adan Ismail (Edna Aadan Ismaaciil or Adna Aadan Ismaaciil) (born September 8, 1937) was Foreign Minister of Somaliland from 2003 to 2006, and had previously served as Somaliland's Minister of Family Welfare and Social Development.
Edward William Macleay Grigg, 1st Baron Altrincham (8 September 1879 – 1 December 1955) was a British colonial administrator and politician.
Efua Dorkenoo, OBE (6 September 1949 – 18 October 2014), affectionately known as "Mama Efua",, The Times, 29 October 2014.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities.
Ellen Gruenbaum is an American anthropologist.
Endometritis is inflammation of the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus.
An epidermoid cyst or epidermal inclusion cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin.
Episiotomy, also known as perineotomy, is a surgical incision of the perineum and the posterior vaginal wall generally done by a midwife or obstetrician.
Equality Now is a non-governmental organization founded in 1992 whose purpose is to, in its own words, work "for the protection and promotion of the human rights of women and girls around the world".
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
Eric Kline Silverman is an American cultural anthropologist, currently Research Professor of Anthropology at Wheelock College in Boston and a Scholar at the at Brandeis University.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Fadwa El Guindi, born in Egypt in 1941, is a professor of anthropology with a PhD in anthropology from the University of Texas at Austin (1972).
False consciousness is a term used by sociologists and expounded by some Marxists for the way in which material, ideological, and institutional processes in capitalist society mislead members of the proletariat and other class actors.
The Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 (c. 31) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom applying to England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom is the ritual removal of some or all of the external female genitalia of women and girls living in the UK.
Female hysteria was once a common medical diagnosis for women.
A fibula (/ˈfɪbjʊlə/, plural fibulae /ˈfɪbjʊli/) is a brooch or pin for fastening garments.
Foot binding was the custom of applying tight binding to the feet of young girls to modify the shape of their feet.
Fran P. Hosken (Viena Austria 1920 – 2 February 2006) was an American writer, feminist, and social activist.
Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.
Fuambai Sia Ahmadu is a Sierra Leonean-American anthropologist.
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.
Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal.
General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a reversible loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals.
The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.
Gerry Mackie (born 1960s) is an American political scientist, currently associate professor of political science at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD).
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
Gishiri or gishri cutting is a form of female genital mutilation performed commonly by the peoples of the Hausa and Fulani regions of northern Nigeria and southern Niger.
Sir Grafton Elliot Smith, FRS FRCP (15 August 1871 – 1 January 1937) was an Australian-British anatomist, Egyptologist and a proponent of the hyperdiffusionist view of prehistory.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (República da Guiné-Bissau), is a sovereign state in West Africa.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hadith terminology (مُصْطَلَحُ الحَدِيْث) muṣṭalaḥ al-ḥadīth) is the body of terminology in Islam which specifies the acceptability of the sayings (hadith) attributed to the prophet Muhammad other early Islamic figures of significance, such as Muhammad's family and/or successors. Individual terms distinguish between those hadith considered rightfully attributed to their source or detail the faults of those of dubious provenance. Formally, it has been defined by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani as: "knowledge of the principles by which the condition of the narrator and the narrated are determined." This page comprises the primary terminology used within ''hadith'' studies.
The Hedareb or T'bdaweHedareb, t'badwe, to-bedawye and bedawi may refer to the people or their language.
Hematocolpos is a medical condition in which the vagina fills with menstrual blood.
Hematometra or hemometra is a medical condition involving collection or retention of blood in the uterus.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hulda Jane Stumpf (10 January 1867 – 3 January 1930) was an American Christian missionary who was murdered in her home near the Africa Inland Mission station in Kijabe, Kenya, where she worked as a secretary and administrator.
The human anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is the external opening of the rectum.
Human female sexuality encompasses a broad range of behaviors and processes, including female sexual identity and sexual behavior, the physiological, psychological, social, cultural, political, and spiritual or religious aspects of sexual activity.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
The hymen is a membrane that surrounds or partially covers the external vaginal opening.
Hypersexuality is a clinical diagnosis used by mental healthcare professionals to describe extremely frequent or suddenly increased libido.
ICF International, Inc. is a global consulting and technology services company.
Igbo (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh), is the principal native language of the Igbo people, an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria.
The Matter of Kasinga was a legal case decided in June 1996 involving Fauziya Kassindja (surname also spelled as Kasinga), a Togolese teenager seeking asylum in the United States in order to escape a tribal practice of female genital mutilation.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Infibulation is the surgical removal of the external female genitalia and the suturing of the vulva.
Infidel (2006/published in English 2007) is the autobiography of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a Somali-Dutch activist and politician.
The Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (IAC) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) which seeks to change social values and raise consciousness towards eliminating female genital mutilation (FGM) and other traditional practices which affect the health of women and children in Africa.
International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation is a United Nations-sponsored annual awareness day that takes place on February 6 as part of the UN's efforts to eradicate female genital mutilation.
Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
Isaac Baker Brown (1811 – 3 February 1873) was a prominent 19th-century English gynaecologist and obstetrical surgeon.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
James Marion Sims (January 25, 1813 – November 13, 1883) was an American physician and a pioneer in the field of surgery, known as the "father of modern gynecology".
James Caird Burt (August 29, 1921 – 2012) was an American gynecologist who was sometimes nicknamed the "Love Surgeon."Associate Press (December 9, 1988).
Janice Boddy is a Canadian anthropologist, currently Professor of Anthropology at the University of Toronto.
João dos Santos (Évora – Goa, 1622) was a Portuguese Dominican missionary in India and Africa.
John William Arthur (1881, Glasgow – 1952, Edinburgh) was a medical missionary and Church of Scotland minister who served in British East Africa (Kenya) from 1907 to 1937.
Jomo Kenyatta (– 22 August 1978) was a Kenyan anti-colonial activist and politician who governed Kenya as its Prime Minister from 1963 to 1964 and then as its first President from 1964 to his death in 1978.
The Kamba or Akamba people are a Bantu ethnic group - or tribe - who live in the semi-arid formerly Eastern Province of Kenya stretching east from Nairobi to Tsavo and north up to Embu, Kenya.
Kapchorwa is a town in the Eastern Region of Uganda.
Karl Ferdinand von Gräfe, (8 March 1787 – 4 July 1840), was a German surgeon from Warsaw.
Keloid, also known as keloid disorder and keloidal scar, is the formation of a type of scar which, depending on its maturity, is composed mainly of either type III (early) or type I (late) collagen.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Khalid Adem (born 1975) is an Ethiopian who was both the first person prosecuted and first person convicted for female genital mutilation (FGM) in the United States, stemming from charges that he had personally excised his 2-year-old daughter's clitoris with a pair of scissors.
The Kikuyu Central Association (KCA), led by James Beauttah and Joseph Kang'ethe, was a political organisation in colonial Kenya formed in 1924/5 to act on behalf of the Gĩkũyũ community by presenting their concerns to the British government.
The Kikuyu (also Akikûyu/Agikuyu/Gikuyu) is the largest ethnic group in Kenya.
Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.
The Kisi are an ethnic and linguistic group from Njombe Region, Tanzania, on the northwestern shore of Lake Malawi.
The Kono people (pronounced koh noh) are a major ethnic group in Sierra Leone at about 7.6% of the country's total population.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
The labia majora (singular: labium majus) are two prominent longitudinal cutaneous folds that extend downward and backward from the mons pubis to the perineum.
The labia minora, Latin for smaller lips, singular: labium minus "smaller lip", also known as the inner labia, inner lips, vaginal lips or nymphae, are two flaps of skin on either side of the human vaginal opening in the vulva, situated between the labia majora (the Latin for larger lips; also called outer labia, or outer lips).
Labia stretching, also referred to as labia elongation or labia pulling, is the act of lengthening the labia minora (the inner lips of the female genitals) through manual manipulation (pulling) or physical equipment (such as weights).
Labiaplasty (also known as labioplasty, labia minora reduction, and labial reduction) is a plastic surgery procedure for altering the labia minora (inner labia) and the labia majora (outer labia), the folds of skin surrounding the human vulva.
Layli Miller-Muro is an American attorney and activist.
The levator ani is a broad, thin muscle, situated on either side of the pelvis.
Levirate marriage is a type of marriage in which the brother of a deceased man is obliged to marry his brother's widow.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
This page contains a list of chairmen, administrators, commissioners and governors of British colonial Kenya.
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Malicounda Bambara is a village (pop. 1,555) in the M'bour Department of the Thiès Region in western Senegal, located approximately 85 km from the Senegalese capital of Dakar.
The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, better known as the Maputo Protocol, guarantees comprehensive rights to women including the right to take part in the political process, to social and political equality with men, improved autonomy in their reproductive health decisions, and an end to female genital mutilation.
Sir Marc Armand Ruffer CMG (1859, Lyon,France – 15 April 1917, Greece) was an Anglo-German experimental pathologist and bacteriologist.
Marion Scott Stevenson (18 May 1871–1930) was a Scottish missionary with the Church of Scotland Mission in British East Africa (Kenya) from 1907 until 1929.
Martha Craven Nussbaum (born May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher and the current Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, where she is jointly appointed in the Law School and the Philosophy department.
Mary Daly (October 16, 1928 – January 3, 2010) was an American radical feminist philosopher, academic, and theologian.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
The Medical Society of London is one of the oldest surviving medical societies (being organisations of voluntary association, rather than regulation or training) in the United Kingdom.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Meroë (also spelled Meroe; Meroitic: Medewi or Bedewi; Arabic: مرواه and مروى Meruwi; Ancient Greek: Μερόη, Meróē) is an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan, approximately 200 km north-east of Khartoum.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
The missionary position or man-on-top position is a sex position in which generally a woman lies on her back and a man lies on top of her while they face each other and engage in vaginal intercourse.
Molly Melching is the founder and Creative Director of Tostan (meaning "breakthrough" in the Wolof language), a non-governmental organization (NGO) headquartered in Dakar, Senegal whose mission it is to empower African communities to bring about sustainable development and positive social transformation based on respect of human rights.
Moral relativism may be any of several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgments across different people and cultures.
Ms. is an American liberal feminist magazine co-founded by second-wave feminists and sociopolitical activists Gloria Steinem and Dorothy Pitman Hughes.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
The Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) are household surveys implemented by countries under the programme developed by the United Nations Children's Fund to provide internationally comparable, statistically rigorous data on the situation of children and women.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
Nahid Toubia (born 1951)Rahman, Anika and Toubia, Nahid.
The National Council of Churches of Kenya (NCCK), (in Swahili, Jumuia Ya Makanisa Ya Kenya) is a fellowship of Protestant churches and Christian organisations registered in Kenya.
Nawal El Saadawi (نوال السعداوي, born 27 October 1931) is an Egyptian feminist writer, activist, physician, and psychiatrist.
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the death of the body's soft tissue.
The Negev Bedouin (بدو النقب, Badū an-Naqab; הבדואים בנגב Habeduim Banegev) are traditionally pastoral nomadic Arab tribes (Bedouin) living in the Negev region of Israel, and adhere to Islam.
A neuroma (plural: neuromata or neuromas) is a growth or tumor of nerve tissue.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Obioma Nnaemeka (born 1948) is a Nigerian-American academic.
The Obstetrical Society of London existed from 1858 to 1907.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
The perineum is the space between the anus and scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva in the female.
Peter Lewis Allen (born 1957) is a scholar, author, educator, and executive.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.
Postpartum bleeding or postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is often defined as the loss of more than 500 ml or 1,000 ml of blood within the first 24 hours following childbirth.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.
The Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985 (c. 38) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation (Scotland) Act 2005 (asp 8) is an Act of the Scottish Parliament.
The Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography is one of the American Pulitzer Prizes annually awarded for journalism.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
A rectovaginal fistula is a medical condition where there is a fistula or abnormal connection between the rectum and the vagina.
Religious male circumcision generally occurs shortly after birth, during childhood or around puberty as part of a rite of passage.
Rhinoplasty (ῥίς rhis, nose + πλάσσειν plassein, to shape), commonly known as a nose job, is a plastic surgery procedure for correcting and reconstructing the form, restoring the functions, and aesthetically enhancing the nose by resolving nasal trauma (blunt, penetrating, blast), congenital defect, respiratory impediment, or a failed primary rhinoplasty.
A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.
The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI; Coláiste Ríoga na Máinleá in Éirinn) is a professional association and educational institution that is responsible for the medical speciality of surgery throughout the island of Ireland.
Sande, also known as zadεgi, bundu, bundo and bondo, is a women's secret society in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and the Ivory Coast.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Sine qua non or condicio sine qua non (plural: condiciones sine quibus non) is an indispensable and essential action, condition, or ingredient.
Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.
The social norms approach, or social norms marketing, is an environmental strategy gaining ground in health campaigns.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
St Mary's Hospital is an NHS hospital in Paddington, in the City of Westminster, London, founded in 1845.
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.
Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sulaymaniyah (Iraqi:السليمانية, as-Sulaymāniyyah), also called Slemani, is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
The Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) (Gollaha Sare ee Kacaanka, المجلس الثوري الأعلى) was the governmental body that ruled Somalia from 1969 to 1976.
The Swiss Medical Weekly is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by EMH Swiss Medical Publishers.
Sylvia Rosila Tamale is a Ugandan academic, and human rights activist in Uganda.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
Tigrayans (ተጋሩ) also called Agazian, are an ethnolinguistic group primarily inhabiting the Eritrean highlands and the northern Tigray region of Ethiopia.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
Tostan (meaning "breakthrough" in the West African language of Wolof) is a US-registered 501(c)(3) international nongovernmental organization with current operations in over 450 communities in Senegal, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, The Gambia, Mali, and Mauritania.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a subtype of female urogenital fistula (UGF).
Vicks VapoRub ointment is a mentholated topical ointment, part of the Vicks brand of over-the-counter medications owned by the American pharmaceutical company Procter & Gamble.
Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women and girls.
The vulva (wrapper, covering, plural vulvae or vulvas) consists of the external female sex organs.
Waris Dirie (Waris Diiriye) (born 1965) is a Somali model, author, actress and social activist.
Woman at Point Zero (امرأة عند نقطة الصفر, Emra'a enda noktat el sifr) is a novel by Nawal El Saadawi published in Arabic in 1975.
The World Conference on Human Rights was held by the United Nations in Vienna, Austria, on 14 to 25 June 1993.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
Xanthus of Lydia (Ξάνθος ὁ Λυδός, Xanthos ho Lydos) was a native Lydian historian and logographer who, during the mid-fifth century BC, wrote texts on the history of Lydia known as Lydiaca (Λυδιακά).
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yael "Yuli" Tamir (יולי תמיר, born 26 February 1954) is an Israeli academic and former politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the Labor Party between 2003 and 2010, and as Minister of Immigrant Absorption and Education.
The Zarma people are an ethnic group predominantly found in westernmost Niger also found in significant numbers in the adjacent areas of Nigeria and Benin, along with smaller numbers in Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast and Ghana.
Afusat Saliu, CAGeM, Cagem, Campaign Against Female Genital Mutilation, Circumcision of females, Circumcision, female, Defibulation, Deinfibulation, Desexualization, Desexualize, FGC/M, FGM, FGM/C, FGMC, Female Circumcision, Female Excision, Female Genital Cutting, Female Genital Mutilation, Female circumcision, Female circumcison, Female genital cutting, Female genital manipulation, Other Practices of FGC, Pharaonic circumcision, Pharonic circumcision, Reinfibulation, Sunna circumcision, The Origins of Female Genital Mutilation, Type I FGM, Vaginal mutilation.