474 relations: A Room of One's Own, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Abolitionism in the United States, Abortion-rights movements, Abstentionism, Activism, Adolf Hitler, Africana womanism, Agency (sociology), Alabama Civil Rights & Civil Liberties Law Review, Amelia Jones, American Anthropologist, Anarcha-feminism, Anarchism, Anita Hill, Anne Fausto-Sterling, Anti-corporate activism, Anwar Sadat, Arab nationalism, Arlie Russell Hochschild, ARTnews, Atheist feminism, Audio engineer, Audre Lorde, August Bebel, Australasia, Bechdel test, Bell hooks, Benito Mussolini, Bernice Johnson Reagon, Betty Friedan, Bill Cosby sexual assault cases, Bill of rights, Birth control, Bisexuality, Black feminism, Book of Judges, Books of Kings, Bracha L. Ettinger, Broadview Press, Buddhist feminism, Camille Paglia, Campus sexual assault, Canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden, Carol Hanisch, Carole Pateman, Catharine MacKinnon, Catherine Breillat, Cathy Young, Cato Institute, ..., Charles Fourier, Chela Sandoval, Cherríe Moraga, Chicana feminism, Child sexual abuse, Christian egalitarianism, Christian feminism, Christian views on marriage, Christina Hoff Sommers, Civil and political rights, Civil rights movement, Claire Denis, Claire Johnston, Clara Zetkin, Clarence Thomas Supreme Court nomination, Class conflict, Class discrimination, Colonization, Columbia University, Communist Party of China, Communist Party of Spain, Conducting, Conservatism, Constance Markievicz, Continental Europe, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Cordelia Fine, CounterPunch, Coverture, Cris Williamson, Custody of Infants Act 1839, Cyberfeminism, Dale Spender, Daphne Patai, Deconstruction, Delusions of Gender, Dianic Wicca, Difference feminism, Differences (journal), Discourse, Division of labour, Dolores Ibárruri, Domestic violence, Duke University Press, Easter Rising, Ecofeminism, Ecology, Economic, social and cultural rights, Edinburgh International Film Festival, Egyptian Feminist Union, Elaine Showalter, Elections in Switzerland, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Elizabeth Clarke Wolstenholme Elmy, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Emmeline Pankhurst, English-speaking world, Equal pay for equal work, Equal Rights Amendment, Essentialism, Eurocentrism, European Economic Community, Evelyn Fox Keller, Everyday Sexism Project, Existentialism, Facebook, Family law, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Fascist Manifesto, Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland, Female education, Female genital mutilation, Femininity, Feminism and modern architecture, Feminism in China, Feminism in Egypt, Feminism in France, Feminism in Latin America, Feminism in New Zealand, Feminism in the Netherlands, Feminism in the United Kingdom, Feminism in the United States, Feminist anthropology, Feminist businesses, Feminist economics, Feminist film theory, Feminist literary criticism, Feminist movement, Feminist philosophy, Feminist sex wars, Feminist sociology, Feminist Studies, Feminist theology, Feminist theory, Feminist views on sexuality, Feministing, Fernand Grenier, First-wave feminism, Forbes, Fourth-wave feminism, Free the Nipple (campaign), French legislative election, November 1946, French post-structuralist feminism, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gender, Gender & Society, Gender equality, Gender inequality, Gender inequality in China, Gender neutrality in English, Gender role, Glass ceiling, Global issue, Gloria E. Anzaldúa, Good News Publishers, Gynocriticism, Hadith, Hardcore punk, Harvey Weinstein sexual abuse allegations, Hélène Cixous, History of feminism, Holly Near, Homophobia, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Huda Sha'arawi, Hundred Days' Reform, Ideology, In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens, Incest, Index of feminism articles, Indigenous feminism, Individualism, Individualist feminism, Instagram, Intersectionality, Ipsos, Iran's Family Protection Law, Iranian Constitutional Revolution, Iranian Revolution, Irish Citizen Army, Irish elections, 1921, Irish republicanism, Islam and secularism, Islamic feminism, Islamism, Jane Campion, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Jehan Sadat, Jewish feminism, Jimmy Savile sexual abuse scandal, Joanna Russ, Johns Hopkins University Press, Journal of Women's History, Judy Chicago, Julia Kristeva, Jurisprudence, Kaja Silverman, Kathryn Bigelow, Kindred (novel), Kira Cochrane, Labour economics, Labour Party (UK), Laura Mulvey, Lawrence Summers, Le Populaire (Senegalese newspaper), Lew Rockwell, LGBT literature, Liberal feminism, Liechtenstein, Liechtenstein referendums, 1968, Liechtenstein referendums, 1973, Liechtenstein women's suffrage referendum, 1971, Liechtenstein women's suffrage referendum, 1984, Lipstick feminism, Lisa Randall, List of conservative feminisms, List of film periodicals, Literary criticism, Literary genre, Literature, Luce Irigaray, Lucretia Mott, Male privilege, Marcia Citron, Margaret Atwood, Margaret Sanger, Margie Adam, Marie Stopes, Marital rape, Marriage, Married Women's Property Act 1870, Married Women's Property Act 1882, Marxism, Marxist feminism, Mary Wollstonecraft, Masculism, Matrix of domination, Mattress Performance (Carry That Weight), Maxine Hong Kingston, Me Too movement, Meera Nanda, Meg Christian, Men's liberation movement, Men's studies, Meninism, Merriam-Webster, Mina Kruseman, Minyan, Misandry, Misogyny, Mitzvah, Mixing console, Ms. (magazine), Muhammad, Mujeres Libres, Multiculturalism, Multiracial feminist theory, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, Music industry, Musicology, National Organization for Women, National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, Nazism, Neo-Confucianism, Neoliberalism, New musicology, New South Wales, New York University Press, Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, No More Page 3, Noretta Koertge, North Carolina, Objectification, Octavia E. Butler, Ohio State University Press, Olympia, Washington, One Billion Rising, Opposition to pornography, Oppression, Ordination of women, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Pamela Abbott, Parental leave, Patriarchy, Patty Jenkins, PDF, Peace movement, Peggy Phelan, Philosophy of law, Political movement, Post-structural feminism, Post-structuralism, Post–World War II baby boom, Postcolonial feminism, Postcolonial literature, Postcolonialism, Postfeminism, Posthuman, Postmodern feminism, Pro-feminism, Promoter (entertainment), Property, Protofeminism, Provisional Government of the French Republic, Psychology's Feminist Voices, Punk subculture, Qasim Amin, Qing dynasty, Quakers, Radical feminism, Radical Women, Rape, Rape culture, Rebecca Walker, Record producer, Representation of the People Act 1918, Reproductive rights, Revolutionary, Rhetoric of science, Right to education, Right to property, Right to sexuality, Right to work, Riot grrrl, Rita Gross, Roe v. Wade, Role of women in Nicaraguan Revolution, Rosemary Hennessy, Ruth Hubbard, SAGE Publications, Sally Potter, Sandra Harding, Sara Ahmed, Science, Sciences Po, Second Dáil, Second-wave feminism, Self-sustainability, Separatist feminism, Session musician, Sex assignment, Sex differences in humans, Sex industry, Sex Roles (journal), Sex-positive feminism, Sexism, Sexual and reproductive health and rights, Sexual harassment, Sexual objectification, Sexual revolution, Sexualization, Simone de Beauvoir, Social change, Social conditioning, Social constructionism, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social integration, Social justice, Social media, Social movement, Social status, Socialism, Socialist feminism, Socialization, South End Press, Spanish Civil War, Standpoint feminism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, State (polity), State feminism, Stereotype, Stop Bild Sexism, Straw feminism, Street harassment, Stuttgart, Suffrage, Suffragette, SUNY Press, Supreme Court of the United States, Susan B. Anthony, Susan Haack, Susan McClary, Sweet Honey in the Rock, Technician, Tender years doctrine, Teresa de Lauretis, The Atlantic, The Dinner Party, The Female Man, The Feminine Mystique, The Guardian, The Handmaid's Tale, The Journal of Higher Education, The Left Hand of Darkness, The New York Times, The Second Sex, Thealogy, Third World, Third-wave feminism, Time (magazine), Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century, Time Person of the Year, Trans woman, Transfeminism, Transmisogyny, Transnational feminism, Trial of Jian Ghomeshi, Tumblr, Twitter, Underground music, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Nations General Assembly, United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, University of Alabama School of Law, University of Kentucky, Ursula K. Le Guin, Utopian socialism, Vagina and vulva in art, Victoria (Australia), Victoria Woodhull, Violence against women, Virago Press, Virginia Woolf, Voltairine de Cleyre, Wage, Weinstein effect, Western canon, Western world, Who Stole Feminism?, Womanism, Women in Africa, Women in Arab societies, Women in Buddhism, Women in Christianity, Women in France, Women in Iran, Women in Judaism, Women in music, Women in speculative fiction, Women in Switzerland, Women in the Bible, Women in the Quran, Women's education in Iran, Women's history, Women's liberation movement, Women's music, Women's rights, Women's rights in Iran, Women's rights movement in Iran, Women's studies, Women's suffrage, Women's suffrage in Switzerland, Women's writing (literary category), WordPress, Workplace harassment, YesAllWomen, YouTube, 10 Hours of Walking in NYC as a Woman, 2012 Delhi gang rape, 2014 Isla Vista killings, 2017 Westminster sexual scandals, 2017 Women's March, 2018 Women's March. 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A Room of One's Own is an extended essay by Virginia Woolf.
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects (1792), written by the 18th-century British proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy.
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
Abortion-rights movements, also referred to as pro-choice movements, advocate for legal access to induced abortion services.
Abstentionism is standing for election to a deliberative assembly while refusing to take up any seats won or otherwise participate in the assembly's business.
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
"Africana womanism" is a term coined in the late 1980s by Clenora Hudson-Weems intended as an ideology applicable to all women of African descent.
In social science, agency is the capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices.
The Alabama Civil Rights & Civil Liberties Law Review is a student-run law review published by the University of Alabama School of Law.
Amelia Jones (born July 14, 1961) is an American art historian and art theorist, art critic, author, professor and curator.
American Anthropologist is the flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association (AAA), published quarterly by Wiley.
Anarcha-feminism, also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism, combines anarchism with feminism.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anita Faye Hill (born July 30, 1956) is an American attorney and academic.
Anne Fausto-Sterling (born July 30, 1944) is the Nancy Duke Lewis Professor of Biology and Gender Studies at Brown University.
Anti-corporate activism holds that the influence of big business corporations is a detriment to the public good and to the democratic process.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
Arlie Russell Hochschild (born January 15, 1940) is an American sociologist and academic.
ARTnews is an American visual-arts magazine, based in New York City.
Atheist feminism is a branch of feminism that advocates atheism.
An audio engineer (also sometimes recording engineer or a vocal engineer) helps to produce a recording or a performance, editing and adjusting sound tracks using equalization and audio effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound.
Audre Lorde (born Audrey Geraldine Lorde; February 18, 1934 – November 17, 1992) was an American writer, feminist, womanist, librarian, and civil rights activist.
Ferdinand August Bebel (22 February 1840 – 13 August 1913) was a German socialist politician, writer, and orator.
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
The Bechdel test is a method for evaluating the portrayal of women in fiction.
Gloria Jean Watkins (born September 25, 1952), better known by her pen name bell hooks, is an American author, feminist, and social activist.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bernice Johnson Reagon (born Bernice Johnson on October 4, 1942) is a song leader, composer, scholar, and social activist, who in the early 1960s was a founding member of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee's (SNCC) Freedom Singers in the Albany Movement.
Betty Friedan (February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American writer, activist, and feminist.
American comedian Bill Cosby has been the subject of publicized sexual assault allegations, with the earliest incidents allegedly taking place in the mid-1960s.
A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity; this latter aspect is sometimes alternatively termed pansexuality. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.
Black feminism is a school of thought stating that sexism, class oppression, gender identity and racism are inextricably bound together.
The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
The two Books of Kings, originally a single book, are the eleventh and twelfth books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger (ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is an Israeli-born painter.
Broadview Press is an independent academic publisher that focuses on the humanities.
Buddhist feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Buddhism.
Camille Anna Paglia (born April 2, 1947) is an American academic and social critic.
Campus sexual assault is defined as the sexual assault of a student attending an institution of higher learning, such as a college or university.
The canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden (in English sometimes Appenzell Inner-Rhodes) is the smallest canton of Switzerland by population and the second smallest by area, with canton of Basel-City being the smallest.
Carol Hanisch is a radical feminist and was an important member of New York Radical Women and Redstockings.
Carole Pateman (born 11 December 1940) is a feminist and political theorist.
Catharine Alice MacKinnon (born October 7, 1946) is an American scholar, lawyer, teacher, writer, and activist.
Catherine Breillat (French; born 13 July 1948) is a French filmmaker, novelist and professor of auteur cinema at the European Graduate School.
Catherine Alicia Young (born Yekaterina Yung Екатерина Юнг; born February 10, 1963) is a Russian-born American journalist.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
François Marie Charles Fourier (7 April 1772 – 10 October 1837) was a French philosopher, influential early socialist thinker and one of the founders of utopian socialism.
Chela Sandoval (born July 31, 1956), associate professor of Chicana Studies at University of California, Santa Barbara, is a noted theorist of postcolonial feminism and third world feminism.
Cherríe Lawrence Moraga (born September 25, 1952) is a Chicana writer, feminist activist, poet, essayist, and playwright.
Chicana feminism, also called Xicanisma, is a sociopolitical movement in the United States that analyzes the historical, cultural, spiritual, educational, and economic intersections of Mexican-American women that identify as Chicana.
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
Christian egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level), also known as biblical equality, is a Christian form of egalitarianism.
Christian feminism is an aspect of feminist theology which seeks to advance and understand the equality of men and women morally, socially, spiritually, and in leadership from a Christian perspective.
Marriage is the legally or formally recognized intimate and complementing union of two people as spousal partners in a personal relationship (historically and in most jurisdictions specifically a union between a man and a woman).
Christina Marie Hoff Sommers (born September 28, 1950) is an American author, philosopher specialising in ethics, and resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), a conservative think tank.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
Claire Denis (born 21 April 1946) is a French film director and writer.
Claire Johnston (1940–1987) was a feminist film theoretician.
Clara Zetkin (née Eissner; 5 July 1857 – 20 June 1933) was a German Marxist theorist, activist, and advocate for women's rights.
On July 1, 1991, President George H. W. Bush nominated Clarence Thomas for the Supreme Court of the United States to replace Thurgood Marshall, who had announced his retirement.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
Class discrimination, also known as classism, is prejudice or discrimination on the basis of social class.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España; PCE) is a historically Marxist-Leninist party that, since 1986, is part of the United Left coalition.
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
Constance Georgine Markievicz, known as Countess Markievicz (Markiewicz; née Gore-Booth; 4 February 1868 – 15 July 1927) was an Irish Sinn Féin and Fianna Fáil politician, revolutionary nationalist, suffragette and socialist.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly.
Cordelia Fine is a Canadian-born British philosopher, psychologist and writer.
CounterPunch is a magazine published six times per year in the United States that covers politics in a manner its editors describe as "muckraking with a radical attitude".
Coverture (sometimes spelled couverture) was a legal doctrine whereby, upon marriage, a woman's legal rights and obligations were subsumed by those of her husband, in accordance with the wife's legal status of feme covert.
Cris Williamson is an American feminist singer-songwriter, who achieved fame as a recording artist, and who was a pioneer as a visible lesbian political activist, during a time when few who were not connected to the Lesbian community were aware of Gay and Lesbian issues.
Custody of Infants Act of 1839 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Cyberfeminism is used to describe the philosophies and methodologies of contemporary feminist communities whose interests are cyberspace, the Internet and technology.
Dale Spender (born 22 September 1943)The Bibliography of Australian Literature: P–Z edited by John Arnold, John Hay (page 409).
Daphne Patai (born 1943) is an American scholar and author.
Deconstruction is a critique of the relationship between text and meaning originated by the philosopher Jacques Derrida.
Delusions of Gender: How Our Minds, Society, and Neurosexism Create Difference is a 2010 book by Cordelia Fine, written to debunk the idea that men and women are hardwired with different interests.
Dianic Wicca, also known as Dianic Witchcraft, and, to some also as "Dianism," "Dianic Feminist Witchcraft," or simply "Feminist Witchcraft"' is a neopagan religion of female-centered goddess ritual and tradition.
Taking for granted an equal moral status as persons, difference feminism asserts that there are differences between men and women but that no value judgment can be placed upon them.
Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies (stylized "differences") is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1989 by Naomi Schor and Elizabeth Weed.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Isidora Dolores Ibárruri Gómez (9 December 189512 November 1989) – known as "La Pasionaria" (English: "the Passionflower") – was a Spanish Republican heroine of the Spanish Civil War and communist politician of Basque origin, known for her famous slogan ¡No Pasarán! ("They shall not pass") during the Battle for Madrid in November 1936.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916.
The term Ecofeminism is used to describe a feminist approach to understanding ecology.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Economic, social and cultural rights are socio-economic human rights, such as the right to education, right to housing, right to adequate standard of living, right to health and the right to science and culture.
The Edinburgh International Film Festival (EIFF) is an annual fortnight of cinema screenings and related events taking place each June.
The Egyptian Feminist Union was the first nationwide feminist movement in Egypt.
Elaine Showalter (born January 21, 1941) is an American literary critic, feminist, and writer on cultural and social issues.
Elections in Switzerland gives information on election and election results in Switzerland.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was an American suffragist, social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement.
Elizabeth Clarke Wolstenholme Elmy (1833–1918) was a British feminist women's suffragist campaigner, essayist and poet, who also wrote under the pseudonyms E and Ignota.
Elizabeth Ann Fox-Genovese (May 28, 1941 – January 2, 2007) was an American historian best known for her works on women and society in the Antebellum South.
Emmeline Pankhurst (née Goulden; 15 July 1858 – 14 June 1928) was a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote.
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.
Equal pay for equal work is the concept of labor rights that individuals in the same workplace be given equal pay.
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex; it seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce, property, employment, and other matters.
Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.
Eurocentrism (also Western-centrism) is a worldview centered on and biased towards Western civilization.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
Evelyn Fox Keller (born March 20, 1936) is an American physicist, author and feminist.
The Everyday Sexism Project is a website founded on 16 April 2012 by Laura Bates, a British feminist writer.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations.
Farrar, Straus and Giroux (FSG) is an American book publishing company, founded in 1946 by Roger W. Straus, Jr. and John C. Farrar.
The Manifesto of the Italian Fasci of Combat (Il manifesto dei fasci italiani di combattimento), commonly known as the Fascist Manifesto, was the initial declaration of the political stance of the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento ("Italian League of Combat") the movement founded in Milan by Benito Mussolini in 1919 and an early exponent of Fascism.
The Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland (Bundesgericht, Tribunal fédéral, Tribunale federale, Tribunal federal) is the supreme court of the Swiss Confederation.
Female education is a catch-all term of a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Femininity (also called girlishness, womanliness or womanhood) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and women.
Feminist theory as it relates to architecture has forged the way for the rediscovery of such female architects as Eileen Gray.
Feminism in China began in the 20th century in tandem with the Chinese Revolution.
Feminism in Egypt has involved a number of social and political groups throughout its history.
Feminism in France refers to the history of feminist thought and movements in France.
Feminism is a collection of movements and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve equal political, economic, cultural, personal, and social rights for women.
Feminism in New Zealand began in 1840, when the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi created New Zealand as part of the British Empire under Queen Victoria.
Feminism in the Netherlands began as part of the first-wave feminism movement during the 19th century.
As in other countries, feminism in the United Kingdom seeks to establish political, social, and economic equality for women.
Feminism in the United States refers to the collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending a state of equal political, economic, cultural, and social rights for women in the United States.
Feminist anthropology is a four-field approach to anthropology (archeological, biological, cultural, linguistic) that seeks to transform research findings, anthropological hiring practices, and the scholarly production of knowledge, using insights from feminist theory.
Feminist businesses are companies established by activists involved in the feminist movement.
Feminist economics is the critical study of economics including its methodology, epistemology, history and empirical research, attempting to overcome alleged androcentric (male and patriarchal) biases.
Feminist film theory is a theoretical film criticism derived from feminist politics and feminist theory.
Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism informed by feminist theory, or more broadly, by the politics of feminism.
The feminist movement (also known as the women's movement, or simply feminism) refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence, all of which fall under the label of feminism and the feminist movement.
Feminist philosophy is an approach to philosophy from a feminist perspective and also the employment of philosophical methods to feminist topics and questions.
The feminist sex wars, also known as the lesbian sex wars, or simply the sex wars or porn wars, are terms used to refer to collective debates amongst feminists regarding a number of issues broadly relating to sexuality and sexual activity.
Feminist sociology is a conflict theory and theoretical perspective which observes gender in its relation to power, both at the level of face-to-face interaction and reflexivity within a social structure at large.
Feminist Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering women's studies that was established in 1972.
Feminist theology is a movement found in several religions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, and New Thought, to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of those religions from a feminist perspective.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.
Feminist views on sexuality widely vary.
Feministing.com is a feminist blog founded in 2004 by Jessica Valenti and Vanessa Valenti.
Fernand Grenier (June 28, 1927 – January 19, 1988) was a Canadian politician from Quebec.
First-wave feminism was a period of feminist activity and thought that occurred during the 19th and early 20th century throughout the Western world.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
Fourth-wave feminism is the resurgence of interest in feminism that began around 2012 and is associated with the use of social media.
Free the Nipple is a topfreedom campaign created in 2012 during pre-production of a 2014 film of the same name.
Legislative election was held in France on 10 November 1946 to elect the first National Assembly of the Fourth Republic.
French post-structuralist feminism takes post-structuralism and combines it with feminist views and looks to see if a literary work has successfully used the process of mimesis on the image of the female.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
Gender & Society is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research in the field of gender studies.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal.
Until 1978, China was a socialist planned economy that promoted gender equality.
Gender-neutral language is language that minimizes assumptions about the social gender or biological sex of people referred to in speech or writing.
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
A glass ceiling is a metaphor used to represent an invisible barrier that keeps a given demographic (typically applied to minorities) from rising beyond a certain level in a hierarchy.
Informally, a global issue is issue that any social, economic, political or environmental problem that adversely affects the global community and our environment, possibly in a catastrophic way.
Gloria Evangelina Anzaldúa (September 26, 1942 – May 15, 2004) was an American scholar of Chicana cultural theory, feminist theory, and queer theory.
Good News Publishers is a non-profit evangelical Christian business that publishes and distributes Christian books and gospel tracts.
Gynocriticism or gynocritics is the term coined in the seventies by Elaine Showalter to describe a new literary project intended to construct "a female framework for the analysis of women's literature".
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hardcore punk (often abbreviated to hardcore) is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s.
In October 2017, The New York Times and The New Yorker reported that dozens of women accused the American film producer Harvey Weinstein of rape, sexual assault and sexual abuse over a period of at least 30 years.
Hélène Cixous (born 5 June 1937) is a professor, French feminist writer, poet, playwright, philosopher, literary critic and rhetorician.
The history of feminism is the chronological narrative of the movements and ideologies aimed at equal rights for women.
Holly Near (born June 6, 1949 in Ukiah, California) is an American singer-songwriter, actress, teacher, and activist.
Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT).
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Huda (or Hoda) Sha‘rawi (هدى شعراوي (Egyptian Arabic:Hoda El-Shaarawi هدي الشعراوي), ALA-LC: Hudá Sha‘rāwī; June 23, 1879 – December 12, 1947) was a pioneering Egyptian feminist leader, nationalist, and founder of the Egyptian Feminist Union.
The Hundred Days' Reform was a failed 104-day national, cultural, political, and educational reform movement from 11 June to 22 September 1898 in late Qing dynasty China.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
Published in 1983, In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens: Womanist Prose is a collection composed of 36 separate pieces written by Alice Walker.
Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.
This is an index of articles related to the issue of feminism, women's liberation, the women's movement, and women's rights.
Indigenous feminism is an intersectional theory and practice of feminism that focuses on decolonization and indigenous sovereignty.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Individualist feminism, sometimes also grouped with libertarian feminism, is feminist ideas which emphasize individualism.
Instagram is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, and launched in October 2010 exclusively on iOS.
Intersectionality is an analytic framework which attempts to identify how interlocking systems of power impact those who are most marginalized in society.
Ipsos Group S.A. is a global market research and a consulting firm with worldwide headquarters in Paris, France.
In 1967, Iran adopted a set of progressive family laws, the Family Protection Act, which granted women family rights; these were expanded in the Family Protection Law of 1975.
The Persian Constitutional Revolution (مشروطیت Mashrūtiyyat, or انقلاب مشروطه Enghelāb-e Mashrūteh), also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, took place between 1905 and 1911.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Irish Citizen Army, or ICA, was a small paramilitary group of trained trade union volunteers from the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union (ITGWU) established in Dublin for the defence of workers' demonstrations from the police.
Two elections in Ireland took place in 1921, as a result of the Government of Ireland Act 1920 to establish the House of Commons of Northern Ireland and the House of Commons of Southern Ireland.
Irish republicanism (poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.
The definition and application of secularism, especially the place of religion in society, varies among Muslim countries as it does among western countries.
A combination of Islam and feminism has been advocated as "a feminist discourse and practice articulated within an Islamic paradigm" by Margot Badran in 2002.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Dame Elizabeth Jane Campion (born 30 April 1954) is a New Zealand screenwriter, producer, and director.
Jean Bethke Elshtain (January 6, 1941 – August 11, 2013) was an American ethicist, political philosopher, and public intellectual.
Jehan Sadat (جيهان السادات Jihān es-Sadāt; born 29 August 1933), a human rights activist, is the widow of Anwar Sadat, and was First Lady of Egypt from 1970 until Sadat's assassination in 1981.
Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to make the religious, legal, and social status of Jewish women equal to that of Jewish men in Judaism.
Jimmy Savile (1926–2011) was an English media personality who was well known in the United Kingdom for his eccentricities and, at the time of his death, was generally respected for his charitable work.
Joanna Russ (February 22, 1937 – April 29, 2011) was an American writer, academic and radical feminist.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
The Journal of Women's History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1989 covering women's history.
Judy Chicago (born Judith Sylvia Cohen; July 20, 1939) is an American feminist artist, art educator, and writer known for her large collaborative art installation pieces about birth and creation images, which examine the role of women in history and culture.
Julia Kristeva (Юлия Кръстева; born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
Kaja Silverman (born September 16, 1947) is an American art historian and critical theorist.
Kathryn Ann Bigelow (born November 27, 1951) is an American director, producer, and writer.
Kindred is a novel by American writer Octavia E. Butler that incorporates time travel and is modeled on slave narratives.
Kira Cochrane (born 1977) is a British journalist and novelist.
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Laura Mulvey (born 15 August 1941) is a British feminist film theorist.
Lawrence Henry Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist, former Vice President of Development Economics and Chief Economist of the World Bank (1991–93),, Data & Research office, The World Bank, retrieved March 31, 2017, World Bank Live, The World Bank, retrieved March 31, 2017 Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, retrieved March 31, 2017 senior U.S. Treasury Department official throughout President Clinton's administration (ultimately Treasury Secretary, 1999–2001), U.S. Treasury Department, Last Updated: 11/20/2010, retrieved March 31, 2017 and former director of the National Economic Council for President Obama (2009–2010).
Le Populaire is a major independent daily newspaper in Senegal.
Llewellyn Harrison Rockwell Jr. (born July 1, 1944) is an American author, editor, and political consultant.
LGBTQ literature may refer to.
Liberal feminism is an individualistic form of feminist theory, which focuses on women's ability to maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Two referendums were held in Liechtenstein in 1968.
Three referendums were held in Liechtenstein during 1973.
A referendum on the introduction of women's suffrage was held in Liechtenstein on 28 February 1971.
A referendum on the introduction of women's suffrage in national elections was held in Liechtenstein on 1 July 1984.
Lipstick feminism is a variety of third-wave feminism that seeks to embrace traditional concepts of femininity, including the sexual power of women, alongside feminist ideas.
Lisa Randall (born June 18, 1962) is an American theoretical physicist working in particle physics and cosmology.
Some variants of feminism are considered more conservative than others.
Film periodicals combine discussion of individual films, genres and directors with in-depth considerations of the medium and the conditions of its production and reception.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Luce Irigaray (born 3 May 1930) is a Belgian-born French feminist, philosopher, linguist, psycholinguist, psychoanalyst and cultural theorist.
Lucretia Mott (née Coffin; January 3, 1793 – November 11, 1880) was a U.S. Quaker, abolitionist, women's rights activist, and social reformer.
Male privilege is a concept within sociology for examining social, economic, and political advantages or rights that are available to men solely on the basis of their sex.
Marcia Judith Citron (born 1945) is an American professor of musicology at Rice University in Houston, Texas.
Margaret Eleanor Atwood (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian poet, novelist, literary critic, essayist, inventor, teacher and environmental activist.
Margaret Higgins Sanger (born Margaret Louise Higgins, September 14, 1879September 6, 1966, also known as Margaret Sanger Slee) was an American birth control activist, sex educator, writer, and nurse.
Margie Adam (born 1947 in Lompoc, California, U.S.) is an American musician and composer.
Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (15 October 1880 – 2 October 1958) was a British author, palaeobotanist and campaigner for eugenics and women's rights.
Marital rape (or spousal rape) is the act of sexual intercourse with one's spouse without the spouse's consent.
Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).
The Married Women's Property Act 1870 (33 & 34 Vict. c.93) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that allowed married women to be the legal owners of the money they earned and to inherit property.
The Married Women's Property Act 1882 (45 & 46 Vict. c.75) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that significantly altered English law regarding the property rights of married women, which besides other matters allowed married women to own and control property in their own right.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Marxist feminism is feminism focused on investigating and explaining the ways in which women are oppressed through systems of capitalism and private property.
Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.
Masculism or masculinism may variously refer to advocacy of the rights or needs of men and boys; and the adherence to or promotion of attributes (opinions, values, attitudes, habits) regarded as typical of men and boys.
The matrix of domination or matrix of oppression is a sociological paradigm that explains issues of oppression that deal with race, class, and gender, which, though recognized as different social classifications, are all interconnected.
Mattress Performance (Carry That Weight) (2014–2015) was a work of endurance performance art by Emma Sulkowicz, conducted as their senior thesis during the final year of their visual arts degree at Columbia University in New York City.
Maxine Hong Kingston (born Maxine Ting Ting Hong;Huntley, E. D. (2001). Maxine Hong Kingston: A Critical Companion. p. 1. October 27, 1940) is a Chinese American author and Professor Emerita at the University of California, Berkeley, where she graduated with a BA in English in 1962.
The Me Too movement (or "#MeToo", with local alternatives in other languages) is an international movement against sexual harassment and assault.
Meera Nanda (born 1954) is an Indian writer and philosopher of science based in the United States, who has authored several works critiquing the influence of Hindutva, postcolonialism and postmodernism on science, and the flourishing of pseudoscience and vedic science.
Meg Christian (born 1946 in Lynchburg, Virginia) is an American folk singer associated with the women's music movement.
The consciousness and philosophy of men's liberation is critical of the restraints which a society imposes on men, informed by academic thought ranging from Plato to Paine to Marx to current male-oriented, rights based activism.
Men's studies, often called men and masculinities in academic settings, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning men, masculinity, feminism, gender, and politics.
Meninism is a men's rights movement.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Wilhelmina Jacoba Pauline Rudolphine "Mina" Kruseman (25 September 1839 – 1922) was a 19th-century Dutch feminist, actrice and author who used to call herself Oristorio di Frama.
In Judaism, a minyan (מִנְיָן lit. noun count, number; pl. minyanim) is the quorum of ten Jewish adults required for certain religious obligations.
Misandry is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against men or boys.
Misogyny is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls.
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word (meaning "commandment",,, Biblical:; plural, Biblical:; from "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God.
In sound recording and reproduction, and sound reinforcement systems, a mixing console is an electronic device for combining sounds of many different audio signals.
Ms. is an American liberal feminist magazine co-founded by second-wave feminists and sociopolitical activists Gloria Steinem and Dorothy Pitman Hughes.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Mujeres Libres (Free Women) was an anarchist women's organization in Spain that aimed to empower working class women.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
Multiracial feminist theory is a feminist theory thought to have gained momentum in the 1970s by feminist women of color.
The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (MOCA) is a contemporary art museum with three locations in greater Los Angeles, California.
The music industry consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows, audio and video recordings, compositions and sheet music, and the organizations and associations that aid and represent music creators.
Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music.
The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an American feminist organization founded in 1966.
The National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS), also known as the Suffragists (not to be confused with the suffragettes) was an organisation of women's suffrage societies in the United Kingdom.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
New musicology is a wide body of musicology since the 1980s with a focus upon the cultural study, aesthetics, criticism, and hermeneutics of music.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
New York University Press (or NYU Press) is a university press that is part of New York University.
The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex.
No More Page 3 was a campaign to stop The Sun newspaper from including pictures of topless glamour models on its Page 3; it ended when the topless feature was discontinued.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
In social philosophy, objectification is the act of treating a person, or sometimes an animal, as an object or a thing.
Octavia Estelle Butler (June 22, 1947February 24, 2006) was an African American science fiction writer.
The Ohio State University Press, founded in 1957, is the university press of The Ohio State University.
Olympia is the capital of the U.S. state of Washington and the county seat of Thurston County. It was incorporated on January 28, 1859. The population was 46,479 as of the 2010 census, making it the 24th largest city in the state. The city borders Lacey to the east and Tumwater to the south. Olympia is a cultural center of the southern Puget Sound region. Olympia is located southwest of Seattle, the largest city in the state of Washington.
One Billion Rising is a global movement, founded by Eve Ensler, to end rape and sexual violence against women.
Reasons for opposition to pornography include religious objections, feminist concerns, and claims of harmful effects, such as pornography addiction.
Oppression can refer to an authoritarian regime controlling its citizens via state control of politics, the monetary system, media, and the military; denying people any meaningful human or civil rights; and terrorizing the populace through harsh, unjust punishment, and a hidden network of obsequious informants reporting to a vicious secret police force.
The ordination of women to ministerial or priestly office is an increasingly common practice among some major religious groups of the present time, as it was of several pagan religions of antiquity and, some scholars argue, in early Christian practice.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pamela Abbott, FAcSS (born 27 June 1947) is an academic in sociology, gender and development studies.
Parental leave or family leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Patricia Lea Jenkins (born July 24, 1971) is an American film director and screenwriter.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, and is often linked to the goal of achieving world peace.
Peggy Phelan (born April 23rd 1959)) is an American feminist scholar. She is one of the founders of Performance Studies International, the former chair of New York University's Department of Performance Studies from 1993 to 1996, Stanford's Theatre and Performance Studies Department (then called the Drama Department) from 2007-2011, and continues as the Ann O’Day Maples Professor of the Arts, Professor of Theater & Performance Studies and English, and the Denning Family Director of the Stanford Arts Institute. Phelan's work is primarily concerned with the investigation of performance as a live event. She argued that the ephemerality of performance is crucial to its force. While most of her initial work was rooted in feminist post-structuralism and psychoanalysis, her more recent work is concerned with media, photography, and visual arts. She has written on the selfie, and on Reagan and Warhol. Her most widely recognized essay is "The Ontology of Performance," originally published in Unmarked: the politics of performance (1993).
Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence that seeks to answer basic questions about law and legal systems, such as "What is law?", "What are the criteria for legal validity?", "What is the relationship between law and morality?", and many other similar questions.
In the social sciences, a political movement is a social group that operates together to obtain a political goal, on a local, regional, national, or international scope.
Poststructural feminism is a branch of feminism that engages with insights from post-structuralist thought.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
The end of World War II brought a baby boom to many countries, especially Western ones.
Postcolonial feminism is a form of feminism that developed as a response to feminism focusing solely on the experiences of women in Western cultures.
Postcolonial literature is the literature of countries that were colonised, mainly by European countries.
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.
The term postfeminism (alternatively rendered as post-feminism) is used to describe reactions against contradictions and absences in feminism, especially second-wave feminism and third-wave feminism.
Posthuman or post-human is a concept originating in the fields of science fiction, futurology, contemporary art, and philosophy that literally means a person or entity that exists in a state beyond being human.
Postmodern feminism is an approach to feminist theory that incorporates postmodern and post-structuralist theory, seeing itself as moving beyond the modernist polarities of liberal feminism and radical feminism.
Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement.
An entertainment promoter in industries like music, wrestling, and sports is an individual or organization in the business of marketing and promoting live events such as concerts/gigs, sports events, professional wrestling (wrestling events), festivals, raves, and nightclubs.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Protofeminism is a philosophical tradition that anticipates modern feminism in an era when the concept of feminism was still unknown, i.e. before the 20th century.
The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations ''Overlord'' and ''Dragoon'', and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic.
Psychology’s Feminist Voices (PFV) is an online, multimedia digital archive containing the stories of women of psychology’s past and contemporary feminist psychologists who have shaped and continue to transform the discipline of psychology.
Punk subculture includes a diverse array of ideologies, fashion, and other forms of expression, visual art, dance, literature and film.
Qasim Amin (Egyptian Arabic: قاسم أمين; 1) (December 1865, in AlexandriaPolitical and diplomatic history of the Arab world, 1900-1967, Menahem Mansoor – April 22, 1908 in Cairo) was an Egyptian jurist, Islamic Modernist and one of the founders of the Egyptian national movement and Cairo University.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that calls for a radical reordering of society in which male supremacy is eliminated in all social and economic contexts.
Radical Women (RW) is a socialist feminist grassroots activist organization that provides a radical voice within the feminist movement, a feminist voice within the Left, and trains women to be leaders in the movements for social and economic justice.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
Rape culture is a sociological concept for a setting in which rape is pervasive and normalized due to societal attitudes about gender and sexuality.
Rebecca Walker (born November 17, 1969 as Rebecca Leventhal) is an American writer, feminist, and activist.
A record producer or track producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album.
The Representation of the People Act 1918 was an Act of Parliament passed to reform the electoral system in Great Britain and Ireland.
Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world.
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.
Rhetoric of science is a body of scholarly literature exploring the notion that the practice of science is a rhetorical activity.
The right to education has been recognized as a human right in a number of international conventions, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights which recognizes a right to free, compulsory primary education for all, an obligation to develop secondary education accessible to all, in particular by the progressive introduction of free secondary education, as well as an obligation to develop equitable access to higher education, ideally by the progressive introduction of free higher education.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
The right to sexuality incorporates the right to express one's sexuality and to be free from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation.
The right to work is the concept that people have a human right to work, or engage in productive employment, and may not be prevented from doing so.
Riot grrrl is an underground feminist punk movement that began in the early 1990s in Washington state (particularly Olympia) and the greater Pacific Northwest.
Rita M. Gross (July 6, 1943 – November 11, 2015) was an American Buddhist feminist scholar of religions and author.
Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), is a landmark decision issued in 1973 by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of the constitutionality of laws that criminalized or restricted access to abortions.
Women that joined the Sandanista movement in the revolutionary Nicaragua essentially fought a double battle: to secure national freedom from the Somoza dictatorship, and to advance gender equality.
Rosemary Hennessy (2 March 1950), is a Professor of English and Director of the Center for the Study of Women, Gender, and Sexuality at Rice University.
Ruth Hubbard (March 3, 1924 – September 1, 2016) was a professor of biology at Harvard University, where she was the first woman to hold a tenured professorship position in biology.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Charlotte Sally Potter, OBE (born 19 September 1949) is an English film director and screenwriter.
Sandra G. Harding (born 1935) is an American philosopher of feminist and postcolonial theory, epistemology, research methodology, and philosophy of science.
Sara Ahmed (30 August 1969) is a British-Australian scholar whose area of study includes the intersection of feminist theory, queer theory, critical race theory and postcolonialism.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
The Paris Institute of Political Studies (Institut d'études politiques de Paris), commonly referred as Sciences Po, is a highly selective French university (legally a grande école).
The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16 August 1921 until 8 June 1922.
Second-wave feminism is a period of feminist activity and thought that began in the United States in the early 1960s and lasted roughly two decades.
Self-sustainability (also called self-sufficiency) is the state of not requiring any aid, support, or interaction for survival; it is a type of personal or collective autonomy.
Separatist feminism is a form of radical feminism that holds that opposition to patriarchy is best done through focusing exclusively on women and girls.
Session musicians, studio musicians, or backing musicians are musicians hired to perform in recording sessions or live performances.
Sex assignment (sometimes known as gender assignment) is the determination of an infant's sex at birth.
Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields.
The sex industry (also called the sex trade) consists of businesses which either directly or indirectly provide sex-related products and services or adult entertainment.
Sex Roles is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer.
Sex-positive feminism, also known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that began in the early 1980s centering on the idea that sexual freedom is an essential component of women's freedom.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexual and reproductive health and rights or SRHR is the concept of human rights applied to sexuality and reproduction.
Sexual harassment is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors.
Sexual objectification is the act of treating a person as a mere object of sexual desire.
The sexual revolution, also known as a time of sexual liberation, was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the United States and subsequently, the wider world, from the 1960s to the 1980s.
Sexualization (or sexualisation) is to make something sexual in character or quality, or to become aware of sexuality, especially in relation to men and women.
Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (or;; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.
Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society.
Social conditioning is the sociological process of training individuals in a society to respond in a manner generally approved by the society in general and peer groups within society.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Social integration is the process during which newcomers or minorities are incorporated into the social structure of the host society.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
A social movement is a type of group action.
Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Socialist feminism rose in the 1960s and 1970s as an offshoot of the feminist movement and New Left that focuses upon the interconnectivity of the patriarchy and capitalism.
In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society.
South End Press was a non-profit book publisher run on a model of participatory economics.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Standpoint feminism is a theory that feminist social science should be practiced from the standpoint of women or particular groups of women, as some scholars (e.g. Patricia Hill Collins and Dorothy Smith) say that they are better equipped to understand some aspects of the world.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
State feminism is feminism created or approved by the government of a state or nation.
In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.
Stop Bild Sexism (Schluss mit dem Bild-Sexismus) is a campaign opposing what its organizers describe as the objectification of women in Bild-Zeitung, the most popular newspaper in Germany.
Straw feminism is a straw man argument whereby exaggerated or fabricated elements of feminism are used in an attempt to refute and/or derail feminist arguments.
Street harassment is a form of sexual harassment that consists of unwanted comments, gestures, honking, wolf-whistlings, catcalling, exposure, following, persistent sexual advances, and touching by strangers in public areas such as streets, shopping malls, and public transportation.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
Suffragettes were members of women's organisations in the late-19th and early-20th centuries who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for women's suffrage, the right to vote in public elections.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Susan B. Anthony (February 15, 1820 – March 13, 1906) was an American social reformer and women's rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement.
Susan Haack (born 1945) is Distinguished Professor in the Humanities, Cooper Senior Scholar in Arts and Sciences, Professor of Philosophy, and Professor of Law at the University of Miami.
Susan Kaye McClary (born 2 October 1946) is a musicologist associated with the "New Musicology".
Sweet Honey in the Rock is an all-woman, African-American a cappella ensemble.
A technician is a worker in a field of technology who is proficient in the relevant skill and technique, with a relatively practical understanding of the theoretical principles.
The tender years doctrine is a legal principle in family law since the late nineteenth century.
Teresa de Lauretis (born 1938 in Bologna) is an Italian author and Distinguished Professor Emerita of the History of Consciousness at the University of California, Santa Cruz.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Dinner Party is an installation artwork by feminist artist Judy Chicago.
The Female Man is a feminist science fiction novel written by Joanna Russ.
The Feminine Mystique is a book written by Betty Friedan which is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Handmaid's Tale is a dystopian novel by Canadian author Margaret Atwood,.
The Journal of Higher Education is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering higher education.
The Left Hand of Darkness is a science fiction novel by U.S. writer Ursula K. Le Guin, published in 1969.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Second Sex (Le Deuxième Sexe) is a 1949 book by the French existentialist Simone de Beauvoir, in which the author discusses the treatment of women throughout history.
Thealogy (a neologism derived from Ancient Greek θεά meaning "Goddess" and λόγος, -logy, meaning "study of") is generally understood as a discourse that reflects upon the meaning of Goddess (thea) in contrast to God (theo).
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Third-wave feminism is an iteration of the feminist movement that began in the early 1990s United States and continued until the fourth wave began around 2012.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century is a compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people, published in Time magazine in 1999.
Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse...
A trans woman (sometimes trans-woman or transwoman) is a woman who was assigned male at birth.
Transfeminism, also written trans feminism, has been defined by scholar and activist Emi Koyama as "a movement by and for trans women who view their liberation to be intrinsically linked to the liberation of all women and beyond." Koyama notes that it "is also open to other queers, intersex people, trans men, non-trans women, non-trans men and others who are sympathetic toward needs of trans women and consider their alliance with trans women to be essential for their own liberation." Transfeminism has also been defined more generally as "an approach to feminism that is informed by trans politics." In 2006, the first book on transfeminism, Trans/Forming Feminisms: Transfeminist Voices Speak Out edited by Krista Scott-Dixon, was published by Sumach Press.
Transmisogyny (sometimes trans-misogyny) is the intersection of transphobia and misogyny.
Transnational feminism refers to both a contemporary feminist paradigm and the corresponding activist movement.
In late 2014, Canadian radio host Jian Ghomeshi, was arrested and charged with four counts of sexual assault, and one count of overcoming resistance by choking, in relation to three complainants.
Tumblr is a microblogging and social networking website founded by David Karp in 2007, and owned by Oath Inc. The service allows users to post multimedia and other content to a short-form blog.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
Underground music comprises musical genres beyond mainstream culture.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of 21 U.S. Senators whose role is to oversee the Department of Justice (DOJ), consider executive nominations, and review pending legislation.
The University of Alabama School of Law (also known as Alabama Law) located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama is a nationally ranked top-tier law school (First Tier) and the only public law school in the state.
The University of Kentucky (UK) is a public co-educational university in Lexington, Kentucky.
Ursula Kroeber Le Guin (October 21, 1929 – January 22, 2018) was an American novelist.
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.
The vagina and vulva have been depicted in art from prehistory to the contemporary art era of the 21st century.
Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.
Victoria Claflin Woodhull, later Victoria Woodhull Martin (September 23, 1838 – June 9, 1927), was an American leader of the women's suffrage movement.
Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women and girls.
Virago is London based British publishing company committed to publishing women's writing and books on feminist topics.
Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.
Voltairine de Cleyre (November 17, 1866June 20, 1912) was an American anarchist, known for being a prolific writer and speaker, and opposing capitalism, the state, marriage, and the domination of religion over sexuality and women's lives.
A wage is monetary compensation (or remuneration, personnel expenses, labor) paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done.
The "Weinstein effect" is a global trend in which people come forward to accuse famous or powerful men of sexual misconduct.
The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Who Stole Feminism? How Women Have Betrayed Women is a 1994 book about American feminism by Christina Hoff Sommers, a writer who was at that time a philosophy professor at Clark University.
Womanism is a social theory based on the discovery of the limitations of the second-wave feminism movement in regards to the history and experiences of black women, and other women of marginalized groups.
Women in Africa are women who were born in, who live in, and are from the continent of Africa.
The Feminist (history as gender struggle) view of women in the Arab world, and in other areas of the world, is that such women have throughout history experienced discrimination and have been subject to restrictions of their freedoms and rights.
Women in Buddhism is a topic that can be approached from varied perspectives including those of theology, history, anthropology and feminism.
The roles of women in Christianity can vary considerably today as they have varied historically since the third century New Testament church.
The roles of women in France have changed throughout history.
Women in Iran discusses the history, contribution, aspects, and roles of women in Iran.
The role of women in Judaism is determined by the Hebrew Bible, the Oral Law (the corpus of rabbinic literature), by custom, and by cultural factors.
Women in music describes the role of women as composers, songwriters, instrumental performers, singers, conductors, music scholars, music educators, music critics/music journalists and other musical professions.
In 1948, 10–15% of science fiction writers were female.
Women in Switzerland are women who live in and are from Switzerland.
Women in the Bible are victors, victims, leaders, servants, and more.
Women in the Qur'an are important characters and subjects of discussion in the stories and morals taught in Islam.
Formal education for women in Iran began in 1907 with the establishment of the first primary school for girls.
Women's history is the study of the role that women have played in history and the methods required to do so.
The women's liberation movement (also Women's Liberation Movement, WLM) was a political alignment of women and feminist intellectualism that emerged in the late 1960s, and continued to the 1980s, primarily in the industrialized nations of the Western world, and which effected great change (political, intellectual, cultural) throughout the world.
Women's music (also womyn's music or wimmin's music) is the music by women, for women, and about women.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
In the Annals of history dating back to the great Achaemenid Empire (2000 – 550 BCE), women in Iran have, for the most part, been subordinate to men.
The Iranian women's movement (Persian: جنبش زنان ایران), is based on the Iranian women's social movement for women's rights.
Women's studies is an academic field that draws on feminist and interdisciplinary methods in order to place women’s lives and experiences at the center of study, while examining social and cultural constructs of gender; systems of privilege and oppression; and the relationships between power and gender as they intersect with other identities and social locations such as race, sexual orientation, socio-economic class, and disability.
Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.
Women in Switzerland gained the right to vote in federal elections after a referendum in February 1971.
The academic discipline of Women's Writing as a discrete area of literary studies is based on the notion that the experience of women, historically, has been shaped by their gender, and so women writers by definition are a group worthy of separate study: "Their texts emerge from and intervene in conditions usually very different from those which produced most writing by men." It is not a question of the subject matter or political stance of a particular author, but of her gender, i.e. her position as a woman within the literary world.
WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL.
Workplace harassment is the belittling or threatening behavior directed at an individual worker or a group of workers Recently, matters of workplace harassment have gained interest among practitioners and researchers as it is becoming one of the most sensitive areas of effective workplace management.
#YesAllWomen is a Twitter hashtag and social media campaign in which users share examples or stories of misogyny and violence against women.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
10 Hours of Walking in NYC as a Woman is a video created for Hollaback! by Rob Bliss Creative and featuring 24-year-old actress Shoshana Roberts, and released on October 27, 2014.
The 2012 Delhi gang rape case involved a rape and fatal assault that occurred on 16 December 2012 in Munirka, a neighbourhood in South Delhi.
On, 2014, in Isla Vista, California, 22-year-old Elliot Rodger killed six people and injured fourteen others near the campus of University of California, Santa Barbara, before killing himself inside his vehicle.
A series of allegations concerning the involvement of British politicians in cases of sexual harassment and assault arose in October and November 2017.
The Women's March was a worldwide protest on January 21, 2017, to advocate legislation and policies regarding human rights and other issues, including women's rights, immigration reform, healthcare reform, reproductive rights, the natural environment, LGBTQ rights, racial equality, freedom of religion, and workers' rights.
The 2018 Women's March was a reprise protest march that occurred January 20, 2018 on the anniversary of the 2017 Women's March.
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