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Fermentation in food processing

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Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions. [1]

187 relations: Acetic acid, Africa, Alaska, Alcohol, Alkali, Amazake, Americas, Ancient Egypt, Antinutrient, Appam, Arrack, Asia, Asinan, Atchara, Babylon, Bacteria, Bagoong, Beaver, Beer, Bletting, Botulism, Boza, Brandy, Bread, Burong mangga, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carcinogen, Caucasus, Cơm rượu, Central Asia, Chal, Cheese, Cheonggukjang, Chicha, Chocolate, Chorizo, Choujiu, Cider, Clostridium botulinum, Corn smut, Crème fraîche, Dansul, Dhokla, Doenjang, Dosa, Douchi, East Asia, Eduard Buchner, Eskimo, ..., Esophageal cancer, Essential amino acid, Ethanol, Ethanol fermentation, Ethyl carbamate, Europe, Fermentation, Fermentation in winemaking, Fermentation lock, Fermented bean curd, Fermented milk products, Fesikh, Filmjölk, Fish sauce, Food microbiology, Fruit wine, Garri, Garum, Georgia (country), Germany, Gin, Grain whisky, Gundruk, Hákarl, Hibiscus, Humboldt University of Berlin, Idli, Industrial fermentation, Industrial microbiology, Injera, Iran, Iru (food), Jeotgal, Jiahu, Juice, Kefir, Kimchi, Kombucha, Kumis, Kvass, Lactic acid, Lactic acid fermentation, Lactobacillales, Lahoh, Lahpet, Leavening agent, List of Neolithic cultures of China, Louis Pasteur, Lupinus, Mageu, Makgeolli, Malt whisky, Mead, Microorganism, Middle East, Miso, Mixed pickle, Muktuk, Murri (condiment), Nata de coco, Nattō, Nem, Ngari Prefecture, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Oceania, Ogi (food), Ogiri, Olive, Oncom, Organic acid, Paneer, Pepperoni, Perry, Pickled cucumber, Pickling, Plastic container, Poi (food), Potato, Prahok, Prosciutto, Pu'er tea, Pulque, Quark (dairy product), Rakı, Rakfisk, Rượu nếp, Rejuvelac, Rice wine, Sake, Salami, Saucisson, Sauerkraut, Sea lion, Shrimp paste, Sikhye, Sinki (food), Skyr, Smetana (dairy product), Soju, Som moo, Sourdough, South Asia, South Asian pickles, Southeast Asia, Sowans, Soy sauce, Stinky tofu, Sudan, Sugar, Sujuk, Surströmming, Sushi, Tabasco sauce, Tapai, Tempeh, Tibicos, Tongba, Torshi, Tupí, Vanilla, Vegetable oil, Vișinată, Vinegar, Vitalism, Vodka, Walrus, Whale, Wine, World Health Organization, Yeast, Yeast in winemaking, Yogurt, Zagros Mountains, Zha cai, Zymase, Zymology. Expand index (137 more) »

Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Alaska

Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alkali

In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Amazake

is a traditional sweet, low- or non-alcohol (depending on recipes) Japanese drink made from fermented rice.

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Americas

The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Antinutrient

Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients.

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Appam

Appam is a type of pancake, originating from the Indian subcontinent, made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk.

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Arrack

Arrack, also spelt arak, is a distilled alcoholic drink typically produced in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, made from either the fermented sap of coconut flowers, sugarcane, grain (e.g. red rice) or fruit, depending upon the country of origin.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Asinan

Asinan is a pickled (through brined or vinegared) vegetable or fruit dish, commonly found in Indonesia.

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Atchara

Atchara (also spelled achara or atsara), is a pickle made from grated unripe papaya popular in the Philippines.

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Babylon

Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bagoong

Bagoóng (Ilocano: bugguong) is a Philippine condiment partially or completely made of either fermented fish (bagoóng isdâ) or krill (bagoóng alamáng) with salt.

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Beaver

The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.

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Beer

Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Bletting

Bletting is a process of softening that certain fleshy fruits undergo, beyond ripening.

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Botulism

Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

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Boza

Boza, also bosa (from boza), is a popular fermented beverage in Kazakhstan, Turkey, Kyrgyzstan, Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Azerbaijan and other parts of the Caucasus, Uzbekistan and Romania, Serbia.

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Brandy

Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.

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Bread

Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

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Burong mangga

Burong mangga is a Filipino food made by mixing sugar, salt, and water to mangoes that have previously been salted.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carcinogen

A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.

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Caucasus

The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Cơm rượu

Cơm rượu also known as rượu nếp cái is a traditional dessert from Southern Vietnam, made from glutinous rice.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Chal

Chal, or shubat (шұбат), is a Turkic (especially Turkmen and Kazakh) beverage of fermented camel milk, sparkling white with a sour flavor, popular in Central Asia — particularly in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.

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Cheese

Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.

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Cheonggukjang

Cheonggukjang is a fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine.

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Chicha

In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented (alcoholic) or non-fermented beverage usually derived from grains, maize, or fruit.

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Chocolate

Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.

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Chorizo

Chorizo (or, from Spanish; or) or Chouriço (from Portuguese) is a type of pork sausage.

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Choujiu

Choujiu is a type of Chinese fermented alcoholic beverage brewed from glutinous rice.

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Cider

Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.

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Clostridium botulinum

Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum.

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Corn smut

Corn smut is a plant disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis that causes smut on maize and teosinte.

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Crème fraîche

Crème fraîche (English pronunciation:,, lit. "fresh cream") is a dairy product, a soured cream containing 10–45% butterfat, with a pH of around 4.5.

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Dansul

Dansul or gamju, translated as sweet wine, is a milky (or cloudy) rice wine made with rice, glutinous rice, and nuruk (fermentation starter).

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Dhokla

Dhokla (ઢોકળા ḍhōkḷā) is a vegetarian food item that originates from the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Doenjang

Doenjang ("thick sauce") or soybean paste is a type of fermented bean paste made entirely of soybean and brine.

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Dosa

Dosa is a type of pancake from the Indian subcontinent, made from a fermented batter.

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Douchi

Douchi, or tochi is a type of fermented and salted black soybean.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Eduard Buchner

Eduard Buchner (20 May 1860 – 13 August 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation.

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Eskimo

Eskimo is an English term for the indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia (Russia) to across Alaska (of the United States), Canada, and Greenland.

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Esophageal cancer

Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.

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Essential amino acid

An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethanol fermentation

Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.

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Ethyl carbamate

Ethyl carbamate (also called urethane) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH2OC(O)NH2.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fermentation

Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Fermentation in winemaking

The process of fermentation in winemaking turns grape juice into an alcoholic beverage.

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Fermentation lock

A fermentation lock or airlock is a device used in beer brewing and wine making that allows carbon dioxide released during fermentation to escape the fermenter, while not allowing air to enter the fermenter, thus avoiding oxidation.

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Fermented bean curd

Fermented tofu (also called fermented bean curd, tofu cheese, soy cheese or preserved tofu) is a Chinese condiment consisting of a form of processed, preserved tofu used in East Asian cuisine.

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Fermented milk products

Fermented milk products, also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc.

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Fesikh

Fesikh (فسيخ) is a traditional celebratory Egyptian fish dish.

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Filmjölk

Filmjölk, also known as fil, is a traditional fermented milk product from Sweden, and a common dairy product within the Nordic countries.

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Fish sauce

Fish sauce is a condiment made from fish coated in salt and fermented from weeks to up to two years.

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Food microbiology

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that inhabit, create, or contaminate food, including the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage, pathogens that may cause disease especially if food is improperly cooked or stored, those used to produce fermented foods such as cheese, yogurt, bread, beer, and wine, and those with other useful roles such as producing probiotics.

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Fruit wine

Fruit wines are fermented alcoholic beverages made from a variety of base ingredients (other than grapes); they may also have additional flavors taken from fruits, flowers, and herbs.

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Garri

The word Garri originates from the Hausa Language in Northern Nigeria.

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Garum

Garum was a fermented fish sauce used as a condiment in the cuisines of ancient Greece, Rome, and later Byzantium.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gin

Gin is liquor which derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries (Juniperus communis).

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Grain whisky

Grain whisky ordinarily refers to any whisky made, at least in part, from grains other than malted barley, such as whisky made using maize (corn), wheat or rye.

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Gundruk

Gundruk (गुन्द्रुक, (Pickled Leafy Vegetables)) is fermented leafy green vegetable and is a popular food in Nepal and claimed to be one of the national dishes.

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Hákarl

Kæstur hákarl (Icelandic for "fermented shark") is a national dish of Iceland consisting of a Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) or other sleeper shark which has been cured with a particular fermentation process and hung to dry for four to five months.

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Hibiscus

Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae.

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Humboldt University of Berlin

The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.

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Idli

Idli or idly are a type of savoury rice cake, originating from the Indian subcontinent, popular as breakfast foods throughout India and northern Sri Lanka.

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Industrial fermentation

Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as eukaryotic cells like CHO cells and insect cells, to make products useful to humans.

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Industrial microbiology

Industrial microbiology is a branch of biotechnology that applies microbial sciences to create industrial products in mass quantities.

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Injera

Injera (Amharic: ənǧära እንጀራ; sometimes transliterated as enjera; or "taita"; Tigrinya: ጣይታ; Somali: Canjeero) is a sourdough-risen flatbread with a slightly spongy texture.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iru (food)

Irú is a type of fermented and processed locust beans (Parkia biglobosa) used as a condiment in cooking.

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Jeotgal

Jeotgal or jeot, translated as salted seafood, is a category of salted fermented dishes made with seafood such as shrimps, oysters, clams, fish, and roes.

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Jiahu

Jiahu was the site of a Neolithic settlement based in the central plain of ancient China, near the Yellow River.

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Juice

Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables.

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Kefir

Kefir or kephir, alternatively milk kefir or búlgaros, is a fermented milk drink that originated in the Caucasus Mountains made with kefir "grains", a yeast/bacterial fermentation starter.

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Kimchi

Kimchi (gimchi), a staple in Korean cuisine, is a traditional side dish made from salted and fermented vegetables, most commonly napa cabbage and Korean radishes, with a variety of seasonings including chili powder, scallions, garlic, ginger, and jeotgal (salted seafood).

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Kombucha

Kombucha (also tea mushroom, Manchurian mushroom, formal name: Medusomyces gisevii) is a variety of fermented, lightly effervescent sweetened black or green tea drinks commonly intended as functional beverages for their supposed health benefits.

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Kumis

Kumis (also spelled kumiss or koumiss or kumys, see other transliterations and cognate words below under terminology and etymology - Қымыз, qımız) is a fermented dairy product traditionally made from mare's milk.

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Kvass

Kvass is a traditional Slavic and Baltic beverage commonly made from rye bread, known in many Eastern European countries and especially in Ukraine and Russia as black bread.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.

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Lactic acid fermentation

Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.

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Lactobacillales

Lactobacillales or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an order of Gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, nonrespiring, either rod- or coccus-shaped bacteria that share common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and milk products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation. This trait has, throughout history, linked LAB with food fermentations, as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. Proteinaceous bacteriocins are produced by several LAB strains and provide an additional hurdle for spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. The industrial importance of the LAB is further evidenced by their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, due to their ubiquitous appearance in food and their contribution to the healthy microflora of human mucosal surfaces. The genera that comprise the LAB are at its core Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus, as well as the more peripheral Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Oenococcus, Sporolactobacillus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella; these belong to the order Lactobacillales.

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Lahoh

Lahoh, also Luḥūḥ (لحوح, לחוח), is a spongy, pancake-like bread originating in Djibouti, Somalia, and Yemen.

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Lahpet

Lahpet, also spelled laphat, laphet, lephet, leppet, or letpet in English, is Burmese for fermented or pickled tea.

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Leavening agent

A leaven, often called a leavening agent (and also known as a raising agent), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture.

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List of Neolithic cultures of China

This is a list of Neolithic cultures of China that have been unearthed by archaeologists.

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Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

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Lupinus

Lupinus, commonly known as lupin or lupine (North America), is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.

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Mageu

Mageu (Setswana spelling), Mahleu (Sesotho spelling) Maxau (Khoekhoe spelling), maHewu, amaRhewu (Xhosa spelling) or amaHewu (Zulu and Northern Ndebele spelling) is a traditional Southern African non-alcoholic drink among many of the Khoekhoe -Damara and Nama people, Sotho people, Tswana people and Nguni people made from fermented mealie pap.

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Makgeolli

Makgeolli (막걸리), sometimes anglicized to makkoli, is a Korean alcoholic beverage.

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Malt whisky

Malt whisky is whisky that is made from a fermented mash consisting primarily of malted barley.

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Mead

Mead (archaic and dialectal meath or meathe, from Old English medu) is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops.

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Microorganism

A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Miso

is a traditional Japanese seasoning produced by fermenting soybeans with salt and koji (the fungus Aspergillus oryzae) and sometimes rice, barley, or other ingredients.

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Mixed pickle

Mixed pickles are pickles made from a variety of vegetables mixed in the same pickling process.

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Muktuk

Muktuk is the traditional Inuit and Chukchi meal of frozen whale skin and blubber.

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Murri (condiment)

Murrī or Almorí (in Andalusia) was a condiment made of fermented barley or fish used in medieval Byzantine and Arab cuisine.

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Nata de coco

Nata de coco (also marketed as "coconut gel") is a chewy, translucent, jelly-like food produced by the fermentation of coconut water, which gels through the production of microbial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum.

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Nattō

is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

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Nem

Nem (Vietnamese: món nem) refers to various dishes in Vietnamese, depending on the locality.

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Ngari Prefecture

Ngari Prefecture is a prefecture of China's Tibet Autonomous Region.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Oceania

Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.

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Ogi (food)

Ogi is a fermented cereal pudding from Nigeria, typically made from maize, sorghum, or millet.

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Ogiri

Ogiri is a flavoring made of fermented oil seeds, such as sesame seeds or egusi seeds.

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Olive

The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.

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Oncom

Oncom is one of the traditional staple foods of West Javan (Sundanese) cuisine, Indonesia.

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Organic acid

An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.

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Paneer

Paneer is a fresh cheese common in South Asia, especially in India.

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Pepperoni

Pepperoni (also known as pepperoni sausage) is an American variety of salami, made from cured pork and beef mixed together and seasoned with paprika or other chili pepper.

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Perry

Perry is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented pears, similar to the way cider is made from apples.

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Pickled cucumber

A pickled cucumber (commonly known as a pickle in the United States and Canada and a gherkin in Britain, Ireland, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) is a cucumber that has been pickled in a brine, vinegar, or other solution and left to ferment for a period of time, by either immersing the cucumbers in an acidic solution or through souring by lacto-fermentation.

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Pickling

Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.

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Plastic container

Plastic containers are containers made exclusively or partially of plastic.

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Poi (food)

Poi is primarily the traditional staple food in native cuisine of Hawaii, made from the underground plant stem or corm of the taro plant (known in Hawaiian as kalo).

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Potato

The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Prahok

Prahok (ប្រហុក) is a crushed, salted and fermented fish paste (usually of mudfish) that is used in Cambodian cuisine as a seasoning or a condiment.

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Prosciutto

Prosciutto (Pronunciation of "Prosciutto". Cambridge dictionaries online.) is an Italian dry-cured ham that is usually thinly sliced and served uncooked; this style is called prosciutto crudo in Italian (or simply crudo) and is distinguished from cooked ham, prosciutto cotto.

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Pu'er tea

Pu'er or pu-erh is a variety of fermented tea produced in Yunnan province, China.

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Pulque

Pulque (occasionally referred to as agave wine) is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented sap of the maguey (agave) plant.

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Quark (dairy product)

Quark or quarg is a type of fresh dairy product made by warming soured milk until the desired amount of curdling is met, and then straining it.

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Rakı

Raki or rakı is an unsweetened, occasionally (depending on area of production) anise-flavored, alcoholic drink that is popular in Albania and Greece (where it is distinctly different and comes as an unflavoured distillate, unlike its Turkish counterpart), Iran, Turkic countries, and in the Balkan countries as an apéritif.

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Rakfisk

Rakfisk Norwegian fish dish made from trout or sometimes char, salted and fermented for two to three months, or even up to a year, then eaten without cooking.

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Rượu nếp

Rượu nếp (sometimes also called rượu nếp bắc, literally "northern glutinous rice wine" or rượu nếp cẩm, "black glutinous rice wine") is a pudding or drink from northern Vietnam.

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Rejuvelac

Rejuvelac is kind of grain water invented and promoted by Ann Wigmore.

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Rice wine

Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage fermented and distilled from rice, traditionally consumed in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.

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Sake

, also spelled saké, also referred to as a Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice that has been polished to remove the bran.

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Salami

Salami (singular salame) is a type of cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat, typically beef or pork.

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Saucisson

Saucisson, or "saucisson sec," is a variety of thick, dry cured sausage that originates in France.

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Sauerkraut

Sauerkraut is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria.

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Sea lion

Sea lions are sea mammals characterized by external ear flaps, long foreflippers, the ability to walk on all fours, short, thick hair, and a big chest and belly.

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Shrimp paste

Shrimp paste or shrimp sauce is a fermented condiment commonly used in Southeast Asian, Northeastern South Asian and Southern Chinese cuisines.

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Sikhye

Sikhye (also spelled shikhye or shikeh; also occasionally termed dansul or gamju) is a traditional sweet Korean rice beverage, usually served as a dessert.

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Sinki (food)

Sinki (सिन्की) is a preserved vegetable, similar to gundruk.

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Skyr

Skyr is an Icelandic cultured dairy product.

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Smetana (dairy product)

Smetana is one of the names for a range of sour creams from Central and Eastern Europe.

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Soju

Soju (from Korean) is a clear, colorless distilled beverage of Korean origin.

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Som moo

Som moo (ສົ້ມໝູ; literally "sour pork"), Naem (แหนม), Mu som (หมูส้ม), or Chinsom (จิ๊นส้ม), is a type of preserved pork sausage that is a traditional celebratory food from Vietnam.

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Sourdough

Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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South Asian pickles

South Asian pickles are foods pickled from certain varieties of vegetables and fruits, finely chopped and marinated in brine or edible oils along with various Indian spices.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Sowans

Sowans or sowens (from sùghan), also called virpa, is a Scottish dish made using the starch remaining on the inner husks of oats after milling.

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Soy sauce

Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.

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Stinky tofu

Stinky tofu is a Taiwanese form of fermented tofu that has a strong odor.

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Sudan

The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Sujuk

Sucuk is a dry, spicy sausage which is eaten from the Balkans to the Middle East and Central Asia.

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Surströmming

Surströmming (Swedish for "sour herring") is a type of fermented Baltic Sea herring.

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Sushi

is a Japanese dish of specially prepared, usually with some sugar and salt, combined with a variety of, such as seafood, vegetables, and occasionally tropical fruits.

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Tabasco sauce

Tabasco sauce is a brand of hot sauce made exclusively from tabasco peppers (Capsicum frutescens var. tabasco), vinegar, and salt.

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Tapai

Tapai (also tapay or tape), is traditional fermented rice found throughout much of Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia, especially in Austronesian cultures.

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Tempeh

Tempeh (témpé) is a traditional soy product originating from Indonesia.

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Tibicos

Tibicos are a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts held in a polysaccharide biofilm matrix created by the bacteria.

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Tongba

Tongba (तोङवा) is a millet-based alcoholic beverage found in the eastern mountainous region of Nepal and the neighbouring Darjeeling and Sikkim.

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Torshi

Torshi (Aramaic:ܡܟ̇ܠܠArabic: مخلل mukhallal, Persian: ترشى torshi; Kurdish: ترشى Tirşîn, tirşî, trshin; turşu; τουρσί toursi; туршия turshiya; Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: turšija/туршија; Albanian: turshi Hebrew: חמוצים, khamusim) are the pickled vegetables of the cuisines of many Balkan and Middle East countries.

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Tupí

Tupí, also known as formatge de tupí, is a fermented cheese of a certain area of the Pyrenees and Pre-Pyrenees made from cows' or sheep's milk.

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Vanilla

Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).

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Vegetable oil

Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.

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Vișinată

Vișinată is a Romanian alcoholic beverage produced from sour cherries (vișine in Romanian), sugar and alcohol.

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Vinegar

Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.

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Vitalism

Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".

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Vodka

Vodka (wódka, водка) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.

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Walrus

The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Whale

Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.

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Wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Yeast

Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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Yeast in winemaking

The role of yeast in winemaking is the most important element that distinguishes wine from grape juice.

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Yogurt

Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.

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Zagros Mountains

The Zagros Mountains (کوه‌های زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.

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Zha cai

Zha cai (榨菜 literally "pressed vegetable") is a type of pickled mustard plant stem originating from Chongqing, China.

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Zymase

Zymase is an enzyme complex that catalyzes the fermentation of sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide.

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Zymology

Zymology, also known as zymurgy (from the Greek: ζύμωσις+ἔργον, "the workings of fermentation") is an applied science which studies the biochemical process of fermentation and its practical uses.

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Ferment (food), Fermentation (food), Fermentation (foods), Fermentation(food), Fermented food, Fermented foods, Food fermentation.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermentation_in_food_processing

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