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Index Fern

A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers. [1]

239 relations: Acid, Adiantum philippense, Air fern, Alois Auer, Alternation of generations, Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, Animal, Annals of Botany, Anthelmintic, Antheridium, Apiaceae, Archegonium, Arecaceae, Arsenic, Asparagus (genus), Asplenium nidus, Asplenium trichomanes, Azolla, Barnes & Noble, Biofertilizer, Biological life cycle, Bird's-nest fern, Blechnoideae, Bog, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Botrychium, Bracken, British Pteridological Society, Brunei, Bullfinch, Calorie, Cambridge University Press, Canary Islands, Carboniferous, Ceratopteridaceae, Chamaebatiaria, Chirosia betuleti, Chromosome, Clade, Cladogram, Cladoxylopsida, Class (biology), Coal, Collecting, Colony (biology), Comptonia (plant), Consensus decision-making, Coral, Cretaceous, Cyathea brownii, ..., Cyathea cooperi, Cyathea medullaris, Cyatheaceae, Cystopteris bulbifera, Decorative arts, Desert, Devonian, Diplazium esculentum, Dryopteris filix-mas, Duke University, Egg cell, Embryophyte, Epiphyte, Equisetaceae, Equisetales, Equisetidae, Equisetopsida, Equisetopsida sensu lato, Equisetum, Ernst Haeckel, Euphyllophyte, Eusporangiate fern, Fad, Fern, Fern ally, Fern bar, Fern flower, Fern spike, Fern sports, Fibrous root system, Fiddlehead fern, Finland, Flagellum, Floristry, Flower, Flowering plant, Forest, Franklin, Virginia, Frond, Gamete, Gametophyte, Glass, Gofio, Green, Guanches, Gymnosperm, Habitat, Headstone, Holocene, Horticulture, Houseplant, Hydrozoa, Infant baptism, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, Invasive species, Isoetes, James L. Reveal, Jellyfish, Kunstformen der Natur, Kupala Night, Leaf, Leptosporangiate fern, Limestone, Lipid, List of freshwater aquarium plant species, Lomariopsidaceae, Lumpers and splitters, Lycopodiophyta, Lycopodiopsida, Lygodium japonicum, Lygodium palmatum, Maarten J. M. Christenhusz, Marattiaceae, Marattiidae, Marchantiophyta, Mark Wayne Chase, Matteuccia, Meiosis, Metal, Microphyll, Microsorum pteropus, Midsummer, Mitosis, Molecular phylogenetics, Monocotyledon, Monotypic taxon, Moss, Mountain, Mycorrhiza, Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward, Nature printing, Nephrolepis, Nephrolepis exaltata, New Scientist, New Zealand, New Zealand lesser short-tailed bat, Nitrogen fixation, Norfolk Island, North America, Oaxaca, Oceania, Onoclea sensibilis, Ophioglossaceae, Ophioglossales, Ophioglossidae, Ophioglossum, Ornamental plant, Osmunda claytoniana, Osmunda regalis, Osmundastrum, Pacific Northwest, Paisley (design), Paraphyly, Photosynthesis, Phylum, Phytotaxa, Pinnation, Plant, Plant morphology, Plant stem, Platycerium, Ploidy, Polypodiaceae, Polypodiidae (plant), Polypodium glycyrrhiza, Pottery, Printing, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protein, Prothallium, Psilotaceae, Psilotopsida, Pteridium aquilinum, Pteridomania, Pteridophyte, Pteris, Ptisana salicina, Rainforest, Rhacophytales, Rhizoid, Rhizome, Root, Rotorua, Rumohra adiantiformis, Salt (chemistry), Salvinia molesta, San Diego, Santa Cruz, California, Sculpture, Seed, Selaginella, Sensu, Sequoia sempervirens, Silver fern flag, Sister group, Slavic paganism, Soil, Sorus, Species, Sperm, Spermatophyte, Sporangium, Spore, Sporophyll, Sporophyte, Stauropteridales, Stolon, Subphylum, Swamp, Systematic Botany, Taxon, Textile, The Ferns of Great Britain and Ireland, Treasure, Tree, Tree fern, Triassic, United States Pharmacopeia, Vascular plant, Vernation, Victorian era, Wardian case, Wattieza, Weed, Will-o'-the-wisp, Wood, Wood mouse, Zygopteridales, Zygote. Expand index (189 more) »


An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Adiantum philippense

Adiantum philippense, (Goyali Lota, Kalijhant in Bengali: গয়ালী লতা, Hamsapadi, Kitamata, Tripadika in Sanskrit, Jarigida in Kannada, Hamsapadi in Hindi), also known as walking maidenhair fern, or black maidenhair, is a species of maidenhair fern (Adiantum) that is widely distributed through the southern hemisphere, notably Asia, Africa, and Madagascar.

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Air fern

Air fern (Sertularia argentea) is a species of marine animal in the family Sertulariidae.

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Alois Auer

Alois Auer (1813 – 11 June 1869) was a printer, inventor and botanical illustrator, most active during the 1840s and 1850s.

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Alternation of generations

Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.

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Angiosperm Phylogeny Group

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, or APG, refers to an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Annals of Botany

Annals of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal, founded in 1887, that publishes research articles, brief communications, and reviews in all areas of botany.

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Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host.

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An antheridium is a haploid structure or organ producing and containing male gametes (called antherozoids or sperm).

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Apiaceae or Umbelliferae, is a family of mostly aromatic flowering plants named after the type genus Apium and commonly known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, or simply as umbellifers.

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An archegonium (pl: archegonia), from the ancient Greek ἀρχή ("beginning") and γόνος ("offspring"), is a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants, producing and containing the ovum or female gamete.

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The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).

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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Asparagus (genus)

Asparagus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Asparagoideae.

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Asplenium nidus

Asplenium nidus is an epiphytic species of fern in the family Aspleniaceae, native to tropical southeastern Asia, eastern Australia, Hawaii, Polynesia, Christmas Island, India, and eastern Africa.

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Asplenium trichomanes

Asplenium trichomanes (commonly known as maidenhair spleenwort) is a small fern in the spleenwort genus Asplenium.

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Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern) is a genus of seven species of aquatic ferns in the family Salviniaceae.

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Barnes & Noble

Barnes & Noble, Inc., a Fortune 500 company, is the bookseller with the largest number of retail outlets in the United States, and a retailer of content, digital media, and educational products.

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A bio fertilizer (also bio-fertilizer) is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seeds, plant surfaces, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant.

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Biological life cycle

In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.

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Bird's-nest fern

Bird's-nest fern is a common name applied to several related species of epiphytic ferns in the genus Asplenium.

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Blechnoideae is a subfamily of between 240 and 260 species of ferns, with a cosmopolitan distribution.

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A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.

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Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society

The Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society is a scientific journal publishing original papers relating to the taxonomy of all plant groups and fungi, including anatomy, biosystematics, cytology, ecology, ethnobotany, electron microscopy, morphogenesis, palaeobotany, palynology and phytochemistry.

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Botrychium is a genus of ferns, seedless vascular plants in the family Ophioglossaceae.

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Bracken (Pteridium) is a genus of large, coarse ferns in the family Dennstaedtiaceae.

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British Pteridological Society

The British Pteridological Society is for fern enthusiasts of the British Isles, and was founded in England in 1891.

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Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

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Bullfinch is a name given to two groups of passerine birds.

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A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Ceratopteridaceae is an improper family name for the clade that is now known to include the two genera Ceratopteris and Acrostichum.

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Chamaebatiaria is a monotypic genus of aromatic shrub in the rose family containing the single species Chamaebatiaria millefolium, which is known by the common names fern bush and desert sweet.

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Chirosia betuleti

The knotting gall, is caused by the fly Chirosia betuleti (Ringdahl, 1935).

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.

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The cladoxylopsids are a group of plants known only as fossils that are thought to be ancestors of ferns and horsetails.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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The hobby of collecting includes seeking, locating, acquiring, organizing, cataloging, displaying, storing, and maintaining items that are of interest to an individual collector.

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Colony (biology)

In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.

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Comptonia (plant)

Comptonia is a monotypic genus (containing only Comptonia peregrina) in the family Myricaceae, order Fagales.

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Consensus decision-making

Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Cyathea brownii

Cyathea brownii, commonly known as the Norfolk tree fern or smooth tree fern, is probably the largest tree fern species in the world.

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Cyathea cooperi

Cyathea cooperi, also known as the Australian tree fern, lacy tree fern, scaly tree fern, or Cooper’s tree fern, is a tree fern native to Australia, in New South Wales and Queensland.

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Cyathea medullaris

Cyathea medullaris, popularly known as the black tree fern, is a large tree fern up to 20 m tall.

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The Cyatheaceae are the scaly tree fern family and include the world's tallest tree ferns, which reach heights up to 20 m. They are also very ancient plants, appearing in the fossil record in the late Jurassic, though the modern genera likely appeared in the Cenozoic.

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Cystopteris bulbifera

Cystopteris bulbifera, with the common name bulblet fern, bulblet bladderfern, or bulblet fragile fern is a fern in the Cystopteridaceae family.

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Decorative arts

The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.

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A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Diplazium esculentum

Diplazium esculentum, the vegetable fern, is an edible fern found throughout Asia and Oceania.

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Dryopteris filix-mas

Dryopteris filix-mas, the male fern, is a common fern of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, native to much of Europe, Asia, and North America.

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Duke University

Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.

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An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it.

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Equisetaceae, sometimes called the horsetail family, is the only extant family of the order Equisetales, with one surviving genus, Equisetum, which comprises about twenty species.

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Equisetales is an order of Equisetopsida with only one living family, the Equisetaceae, containing the genus Equisetum (horsetails).

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Equisetidae is a subclass of Polypodiopsida (ferns).

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Equisetopsida, or Sphenopsida, is a class of vascular plants with a fossil record going back to the Devonian.

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Equisetopsida sensu lato

Equisetopsida is the name of a class of plants that traditionally contains the single genus Equisetum (horsestails).

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Equisetum (horsetail, snake grass, puzzlegrass) is the only living genus in Equisetaceae, a family of vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds.

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Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

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The euphyllophytes are a clade of plants within the tracheophytes (the vascular plants).

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Eusporangiate fern

Eusporangiate ferns are vascular spore plants, whose sporangia arise from several epidermal cells and not from a single cell as in leptosporangiate ferns.

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A fad, trend or craze is any form of collective behavior that develops within a culture, a generation or social group in which a group of people enthusiastically follows an impulse for a finite period.

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A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.

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Fern ally

Fern allies are a diverse group of seedless vascular plants that are not true ferns.

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Fern bar

Fern bar was an American slang term for an upscale or preppy (or yuppie) bar or tavern catering to singles, usually decorated with ferns or other greenery, as well as such decor as fake Tiffany lamps.

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Fern flower

The fern flower is a magic flower in Baltic mythology (paparčio žiedas, papardes zieds), in Estonian mythology (sõnajalaõis) and in Slavic mythology (папараць-кветка, kwiat paproci, цветок папоротника, цвіт папороті).

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Fern spike

In paleontology, a fern spike is the occurrence of abundant fern spores in the fossil record, usually immediately (in a geological sense) after an extinction event.

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Fern sports

Fern sports are plants that show marked change from the normal type or parent stock as a result of mutation.

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Fibrous root system

A fibrous root system is the opposite of a taproot system.

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Fiddlehead fern

Fiddleheads or fiddlehead greens are the furled fronds of a young fern, harvested for use as a vegetable.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

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Floristry is the production, commerce and trade in flowers.

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A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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A forest is a large area dominated by trees.

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Franklin, Virginia

Franklin is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

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A frond is a large, divided leaf.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Gofio is the Canarian name for flour made from roasted grains (typically wheat or certain varieties of maize) or other starchy plants (e.g. beans and, historically, fern root), some varieties containing a little added salt.

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Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.

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Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.

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The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.

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In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.

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A headstone, tombstone, or gravestone is a stele or marker, usually stone, that is placed over a grave.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).

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A houseplant is a plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices.

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Hydrozoa (hydrozoans, from ancient Greek ὕδρα, hydra, "sea serpent" and ζῷον, zoon, "animal") are a taxonomic class of individually very small, predatory animals, some solitary and some colonial, most living in salt water.

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Infant baptism

Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children.

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International Association for Plant Taxonomy

The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) promotes an understanding of plant biodiversity, facilitates international communication of research between botanists, and oversees matters of uniformity and stability in plant names.

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Invasive species

An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.

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Isoetes, commonly known as the quillworts, is a genus of plants in the class Isoetopsida and order Isoetales.

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James L. Reveal

James Lauritz Reveal (March 29, 1941 – January 9, 2015) was a U.S. botanist best known for his contributions to the genus Eriogonum and for his work on suprageneric names.

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Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.

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Kunstformen der Natur

Kunstformen der Natur (known in English as Art Forms in Nature) is a book of lithographic and halftone prints by German biologist Ernst Haeckel.

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Kupala Night

Kupala Night, (Іван Купала; Купалле; Иван-Купала; Noc Kupały), is celebrated in Ukraine, Poland, Belarus and Russia, currently on the night of 6/7 July in the Gregorian calendar, which is 24/25 June in the Julian calendar.

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A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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Leptosporangiate fern

Leptosporangiate ferns are the largest group of living ferns, including some 11000 species worldwide.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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List of freshwater aquarium plant species

Aquatic plants are used to give the freshwater aquarium a natural appearance, oxygenate the water, absorb ammonia, and provide habitat for fish, especially fry (babies) and for invertebrates.

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The Lomariopsidaceae is a family of ferns with a largely tropical distribution.

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Lumpers and splitters

Lumpers and splitters are opposing factions in any discipline that has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories.

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The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called lycophyta or lycopods) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae.

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Lycopodiopsida is a class of herbaceous vascular plants known as the clubmosses and firmosses.

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Lygodium japonicum

Lygodium japonicum is a species of fern that is known by the common names vine-like fern and Japanese climbing fern.

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Lygodium palmatum

Lygodium palmatum is the only species of its genus native to North America.

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Maarten J. M. Christenhusz

Dr Maarten Joost Maria Christenhusz (born 27 April 1976) is a Dutch botanist and plant photographer.

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The order Marattiales is a group of pteridophyta containing the single family, Marattiaceae.

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Marattiidae is a subclass of class Polypodiopsida (ferns).

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The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.

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Mark Wayne Chase

Mark Wayne Chase (born 1951) is a US-born British botanist.

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Matteuccia is a genus of ferns with one species, Matteuccia struthiopteris (common names ostrich fern, fiddlehead fern or shuttlecock fern).

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Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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In plant anatomy and evolution a microphyll is a type of plant leaf with one single, unbranched leaf vein.

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Microsorum pteropus

Microsorum pteropus, commonly known as Java fern after the Indonesian island of Java, can be found in Malaysia, Thailand and some regions of China.

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Midsummer is the period of time centered upon the summer solstice, and more specifically the northern European celebrations that accompany the actual solstice or take place on a day between June 19 and June 25 and the preceding evening.

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In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

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Monotypic taxon

In biology, a monotypic taxon is a taxonomic group (taxon) that contains only one immediately subordinate taxon.

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Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.

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A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.

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A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.

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Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward

Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward (1791 – 4 June 1868 in St Leonard's, Sussex) was an English doctor who popularised a case for growing and transporting plants which was called the Wardian case.

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Nature printing

Nature printing is a printing process, developed in the 18th century, that uses the plants, animals, rocks and other natural subjects to produce an image.

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Nephrolepis is a genus of about 30 species of ferns in the family Nephrolepidaceae (or Dryopteridaceae in some classifications).

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Nephrolepis exaltata

Nephrolepis exaltata, the sword fern, is a species of fern in the family Lomariopsidaceae (sometimes treated in the families Davalliaceae or Oleandraceae, or in its own family, Nephrolepidaceae), native to tropical regions throughout the world.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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New Zealand lesser short-tailed bat

The lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) – pekapeka-tou-poto in Māori – is the only living species of bat in the family Mystacinidae, and is endemic to New Zealand.

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Nitrogen fixation

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.

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Norfolk Island

Norfolk Island (Norfuk: Norf'k Ailen) is a small island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, directly east of mainland Australia's Evans Head, and about from Lord Howe Island.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Oaxaca (from Huāxyacac), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.

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Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.

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Onoclea sensibilis

Onoclea sensibilis, the sensitive fern, also known as the bead fern, is a coarse-textured, medium to large-sized deciduous perennial fern.

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Ophioglossaceae, the adder's-tongue family, is a family of ferns (though some studies have instead suggested a closer relationship to angiosperms), currently thought to be most closely related to Psilotaceae, the two together comprising the class Ophioglossidae as the sibling group to the rest of the ferns.

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Ophioglossales (lit. 'snake-tongue ') are a small group of pteridophyte plants.

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Ophioglossidae is a subclass of Polypodiopsida (ferns).

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Ophioglossum, the adder's-tongue ferns, is a genus of about 25–30 species of ferns in the family Ophioglossaceae, of the order Ophioglossales.

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Ornamental plant

Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, for cut flowers and specimen display.

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Osmunda claytoniana

Osmunda claytoniana, the interrupted fern, is a fern native to Eastern Asia and eastern North America, in the Eastern United States and Eastern Canada.

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Osmunda regalis

Osmunda regalis, or royal fern, is a species of deciduous fern, native to Europe, Africa and Asia, growing in woodland bogs and on the banks of streams.

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Osmundastrum is genus of leptosporangiate ferns in the family Osmundaceae with one accepted species, Osmundastrum cinnamomeum, the cinnamon fern.

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Pacific Northwest

The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.

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Paisley (design)

Paisley or paisley pattern is an ornamental design using the buta (بته) or boteh, a teardrop-shaped motif with a curved upper end.

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Phytotaxa is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for rapid publication on any aspect of systematic botany.

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Pinnation (also called pennation) is the arrangement of feather-like or multi-divided features arising from both sides of a common axis.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plant morphology

Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants.

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Plant stem

A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.

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Platycerium is a genus of about 18 fern species in the polypod family, Polypodiaceae.

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Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.

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Polypodiaceae is a family of polypod ferns, which includes more than 60 genera divided into several tribes and containing around 1,000 species.

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Polypodiidae (plant)

Polypodiidae is a subclass of Polypodiopsida (ferns), and of the four subclasses comprises the vast number of species.

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Polypodium glycyrrhiza

Polypodium glycyrrhiza, commonly known as licorice fern, many-footed fern, and sweet root, is a summer deciduous fern native to western North America, primarily in a narrow strip in southern Alaska, southwestern Yukon Territory, western British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California, though two highly disjunct populations are known from Idaho and Arizona.

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Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.

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Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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A prothallium, or prothallus (from Latin pro.

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Psilotaceae is a family of Pteridophyta (in order Psilotales) consisting of two genera, Psilotum and Tmesipteris with a dozen species.

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Psilotopsida is a class of ferns or fern-like plants, considered to be one of the three classes of eusporangiate ferns.

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Pteridium aquilinum

Pteridium aquilinum (bracken, brake or common bracken), also known as eagle fern, and Eastern brakenfern, is a species of fern occurring in temperate and subtropical regions in both hemispheres.

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Pteridomania or Fern-Fever was a craze for ferns.

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A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).

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Pteris (brake) is a genus of about 300 species of ferns in the Pteridoideae subfamily of the Pteridaceae.

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Ptisana salicina

Ptisana salicina, or king fern, is a species of fern native to Australia, New Zealand and the South Pacific.

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Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.

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Rhacophytales are an extinct group of plants from the Devonian period.

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Rhizoids are protuberances that extend from the lower epidermal cells of bryophytes and algae.

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In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (from script "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.

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In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.

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Rotorua (Te Rotorua-nui-a-Kahumatamomoe "The second great lake of Kahumatamomoe") is a city on the southern shores of Lake Rotorua from which the city takes its name, located in the Bay of Plenty Region of New Zealand's North Island.

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Rumohra adiantiformis

Rumohra adiantiformis, commonly called leatherleaf fern and leather fern,Gilman, E. F. Fact Sheet FPS-515.

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Salvinia molesta

Salvinia molesta, commonly known as giant salvinia, or as kariba weed after it infested a large portion of the reservoir of the same name, is an aquatic fern, native to south-eastern Brazil.

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San Diego

San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a major city in California, United States.

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Santa Cruz, California

Santa Cruz (Holy Cross) is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California.

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Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.

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A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.

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Selaginella is the sole genus of primitive vascular plants in the family Selaginellaceae, the spikemosses or lesser clubmosses.

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Sensu is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of".

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Sequoia sempervirens

Sequoia sempervirens Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607 is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly treated in Taxodiaceae).

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Silver fern flag

A silver fern flag is any flag design that incorporates a silver fern, and is usually a white silver fern on a black background.

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Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.

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Slavic paganism

Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.

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Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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A sorus (pl. sori) is a cluster of sporangia (structures producing and containing spores) in ferns and fungi.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.

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A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.

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In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.

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A sporophyll is a leaf that bears sporangia.

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A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.

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Stauropteridales are an extinct group of plants in the fern division.

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In biology, stolons (from Latin stolō "branch"), also known as runners, are horizontal connections between organisms.

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In zoological nomenclature, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank below the rank of phylum.

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A swamp is a wetland that is forested.

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Systematic Botany

Systematic Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the study of systematic botany.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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The Ferns of Great Britain and Ireland

The Ferns of Great Britain and Ireland was a book published in 1855 that featured 51 plates of nature printing by Henry Bradbury.

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Treasure (from Latin thesaurus from Greek θησαυρός thēsauros, "treasure store") is a concentration of riches — often those that originate from ancient history — that is considered lost and/or forgotten until rediscovered.

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In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.

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Tree fern

The tree ferns are the ferns that grow with a trunk elevating the fronds above ground level.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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United States Pharmacopeia

The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright.

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Vascular plant

Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.

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Vernation (from vernal meaning spring, since that is when leaves spring forth in temperate regions) is the formation of new leaves or fronds.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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Wardian case

The Wardian case was an early type of sealed protective container for plants, an early version of the terrarium.

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Wattieza was a genus of prehistoric trees that existed in the mid-Devonian that belong to the cladoxylopsids, close relatives of the modern ferns and horsetails.

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A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".

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A will-o'-the-wisp, will-o'-wisp or ignis fatuus (Medieval Latin for "foolish fire") is an atmospheric ghost light seen by travellers at night, especially over bogs, swamps or marshes.

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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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Wood mouse

The wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) is a common murid rodent from Europe and northwestern Africa.

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The Zygopteridales is an extinct order of ferns or fern-like plants the grew primarily in the Carboniferous.

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A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fern

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