215 relations: Aarskog–Scott syndrome, Aboriginal Australians, Abstraction, Activities of daily living, Adaptive behavior, Advocacy, Agenesis of the corpus callosum, Alcohol (drug), Alcoholic Beverage Labeling Act, Alcoholic drink, Alcoholism, Ale, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Anger management, Animal testing, Anterior commissure, Artifact (error), Atrial septal defect, Attachment theory, Attention, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Australians, Autonomic nervous system, Autopsy, Behavior modification, Behaviorism, Bible, Birth defect, Blood alcohol content, Blood–brain barrier, Brain damage, Brainstem, Breastfeeding, Case management (mental health), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system, Cerebellar hypoplasia, Cerebellum, Cerebral hemisphere, Chorionic villus sampling, Cleft lip and cleft palate, Coarctation of the aorta, Cognition, Communication, Community practice, Concussion, Conduct disorder, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Corpus callosum, ..., Craniofacial, David Weyhe Smith, Decision-making, Delayed gratification, Dendrite, Developmental coordination disorder, Developmental disability, Developmental psychology, Developmental stage theories, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Drug rehabilitation, DSM-IV codes, Encephalopathy, English Standard Version, Epilepsy, Eponym, Erik Erikson, Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Ethnic group, Executive functions, Expressive language disorder, Fertilisation, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Fetal hydantoin syndrome, Fetus, Fever, Fine motor skill, Gait (human), Generalization, Gestational age, Glutathione peroxidase, Gothenburg, Gross motor skill, Health education, Hearing loss, Heart murmur, Henry H. Goddard, Heterotopia (medicine), Hippocampus, Horseshoe kidney, Human body weight, Human development (biology), Human eye, Human height, Hydrocephalus, ICD-10, ICD-10 Chapter XVII: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities, Individualized Education Program, Intellectual disability, Intelligence quotient, Interdisciplinarity, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Jean Piaget, John Bowlby, Joint, Kidney, Language, Learning disability, Learning theory (education), Likert scale, Lip, Liver, Liverpool, London, Major depressive disorder, Malnutrition, Martin Martin, Maximum life span, Medical imaging, Memory, Meninges, Mental disorder, Microcephaly, Miscarriage, Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder, Motor skill, Multisensory integration, Nantes, National Academy of Medicine, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Neural tube defect, Neurodevelopmental disorder, Neuroglia, Neurology, Neuron, New South Wales, Nonverbal communication, Noonan syndrome, Norm-referenced test, Obstetrics and gynaecology, Occupational therapy, Olfactory bulb, Oppositional defiant disorder, Optic nerve hypoplasia, Orbitofrontal cortex, Outcome-based education, Palpebral fissure, Parent–child interaction therapy, Parenting, Parenting styles, Pediatrics, Peripheral nervous system, Personal boundaries, Phalanx bone, Phenylketonuria, Philtrum, Photosensitivity, Physician, Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Polymorphism (biology), Population, Porencephaly, Postpartum period, Pregnancy, Preterm birth, Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Psychological testing, Psychologist, Psychology, Ptosis (eyelid), Public health, Public policy, Public service, Reactive attachment disorder, Recreational drug use, Seattle, Sensory processing, Sensory processing disorder, Short-term memory, Single transverse palmar crease, Smoking, Smoking and pregnancy, Social learning (social pedagogy), Social skills, Social work, South Australia, Special education, Speech-language pathology, Spina bifida, Standard deviation, Standard drink, Standardized test, Sterling Clarren, Stillbirth, Strabismus, Sudden infant death syndrome, Superoxide dismutase, Surgeon General of the United States, Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services, Syndrome, Teratology, Tetralogy of Fallot, The Kallikak Family, Tocolytic, Toluene toxicity, Toxicology, Traumatic brain injury, University of Washington, Ventricular septal defect, Victoria (Australia), Visual acuity, Visual impairment, Western Australia, Williams syndrome. Expand index (165 more) » « Shrink index
Aarskog–Scott syndrome is a rare disease inherited as X-linked and characterized by short stature, facial abnormalities, skeletal and genital anomalies.
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.
Adaptive behavior refers to behavior that enables a person (usually used in the context of children) to get along in his or her environment with greatest success and least conflict with others.
Advocacy is an activity by an individual or group which aims to influence decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions.
Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is a rare birth defect (congenital disorder) in which there is a complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
The Alcoholic Beverage Labeling Act (ABLA) of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988,,, is a United States federal law requiring that (among other provisions) the labels of alcoholic beverages carry a government warning.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Ale is a type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anger management is a psycho-therapeutic program for anger prevention and control.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
The anterior commissure (also known as the precommissure) is a white matter tract (a bundle of axons) connecting the two temporal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres across the midline, and placed in front of the columns of the fornix.
In natural science and signal processing, an artifact is any error in the perception or representation of any information, introduced by the involved equipment or technique(s).
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a heart defect in which blood flows between the atria (upper chambers) of the heart.
Attachment theory is a psychological model that attempts to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans.
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are people associated with Australia, sharing a common history, culture, and language (Australian English).
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
Behavior modification refers to behavior-change procedures that were employed during the 1970s and early 1980s.
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Blood alcohol content (BAC), also called blood alcohol concentration, blood ethanol concentration, or blood alcohol level, is most commonly used as a metric of alcohol intoxication for legal or medical purposes.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Case management is the coordination of community-based services by a professional or team to provide people the quality mental health care that is customized accordingly to an individual's setbacks or persistent challenges and aid them to their recovery.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebellar hypoplasia is characterized by reduced cerebellar volume even though cerebellar shape is (near) normal.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS), sometimes called "chorionic villous sampling" (as "villous" is the adjectival form of the word "villus"), is a form of prenatal diagnosis to determine chromosomal or genetic disorders in the fetus.
Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP).
Coarctation of the aorta (CoA or CoAo), also called aortic narrowing, is a congenital condition whereby the aorta is narrow, usually in the area where the ductus arteriosus (ligamentum arteriosum after regression) inserts.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
Community practice also known as macro practice is a branch of social work in the United States of America that focuses on larger social systems and social change, and is tied to the historical roots of United States social work.
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.
Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a very rare genetic disorder present from birth, but not always diagnosed at birth.
The corpus callosum (Latin for "tough body"), also callosal commissure, is a wide commissure, a flat bundle of commissural fibers, about 10 cm long beneath the cerebral cortex in the brains of placental mammals.
Craniofacial (cranio- combining form meaning head or skull + -facial combining form referring to the facial structures grossly) is an adjective referring to the parts of the head enclosing the brain and the face.
David Weyhe Smith (September 24, 1926 – January 23, 1981) was an American pediatrician and dysmorphologist.
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.
Delayed gratification, or deferred gratification, describes the process that the subject undergoes when the subject resists the temptation of an immediate reward in preference for a later reward.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), also known as developmental dyspraxia or simply dyspraxia, is a chronic neurological disorder beginning in childhood.
Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Developmental stage theories are theories that divide child development into distinct stages which are characterized by qualitative differences in behaviour.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is the processes of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and street drugs such as cocaine, heroin or amphetamines.
DSM-IV codes are the classification found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, also known as DSM-IV-TR, a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that includes all currently recognized mental health disorders.
Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.
The English Standard Version (ESV) is an English translation of the Bible published in 2001 by Crossway.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.
Erik Homberger Erikson (born Erik Salomonsen; 15 June 1902 – 12 May 1994) was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human beings.
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, as articulated in the second half of the 20th century by Erik Erikson, in collaboration with Joan Erikson, is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages, in which a healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy to late adulthood.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
Expressive language disorder is a communication disorder in which there are difficulties with verbal and written expression.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.
Fetal hydantoin syndrome, also called fetal dilantin syndrome is a group of defects caused to the developing fetus by exposure to teratogenic effects of phenytoin or carbamazepine.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Fine motor skill (or dexterity) is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers—with the eyes.
Human gait refers to locomotion achieved through the movement of human limbs.
A generalization (or generalisation) is the formulation of general concepts from specific instances by abstracting common properties.
Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the woman's last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main biological role is to protect the organism from oxidative damage.
Gothenburg (abbreviated Gbg; Göteborg) is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries.
Gross motor skills are the abilities usually acquired during adulthood and older age as part of a child's motor learning.
Health education is a profession of educating people about health.
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that are loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope.
Henry Herbert Goddard (August 14, 1866 – June 18, 1957) was a prominent American psychologist and eugenicist during the early 20th century.
In medicine, heterotopia is the presence of a particular tissue type at a non-physiological site, but usually co-existing with original tissue in its correct anatomical location.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Horseshoe kidney, also known as ren arcuatus (in Latin), renal fusion or super kidney, is a congenital disorder affecting about 1 in 600 people, more common in men.
Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
The Individualized Education Program, also called the IEP, is a document that is developed for each public school child who needs special education.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development.
Edward John Mostyn Bowlby CBE, MA (Cantab), BChir, MD, MRCP, FRCP, FRCPsych, Hon ScD (26 February 1907 – 2 September 1990) was a British psychologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst, notable for his interest in child development and for his pioneering work in attachment theory.
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.
Learning theories are conceptual frameworks that describe how students absorb, process, and retain knowledge during learning.
A Likert scale (but more commonly pronounced) is a psychometric scale commonly involved in research that employs questionnaires.
Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Martin Martin (Scottish Gaelic: Màrtainn Màrtainn) (? – 9 October 1718) was a Scottish writer best known for his work A Description of the Western Islands of Scotland (1703; second edition 1716).
Maximum life span (or, for humans, maximum reported age at death) is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population have been observed to survive between birth and death.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Microcephaly is a medical condition in which the brain does not develop properly resulting in a smaller than normal head.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder (DSM-IV 315.32) is a communication disorder in which both the receptive and expressive areas of communication may be affected in any degree, from mild to severe.
A motor skill is a learned ability to cause a predetermined movement outcome with maximum certainty.
Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system.
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, supports and conducts biomedical and behavioral research on the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems.
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects in which an opening in the spinal cord or brain remains from early in human development.
Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
Nonverbal communication (NVC) between people is communication through sending and receiving wordless cues.
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a relatively common autosomal dominant congenital disorder and is named after Jacqueline Noonan, a pediatric cardiologist.
A norm-referenced test (NRT) is a type of test, assessment, or evaluation which yields an estimate of the position of the tested individual in a predefined population, with respect to the trait being measured.
Obstetrics and gynecology (commonly known as OB-GYN, OBG, O&G or obs and gynae in the USA, and referred to as gynae in the UK) is the medical specialty that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (obstetrics) and the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts (gynecology).
Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.
The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is defined by the DSM-5 as "a pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness" in children and adolescents.
Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a medical condition arising from the underdevelopment of the optic nerve(s).
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.
Outcome-based education (OBE) is an educational theory that bases each part of an educational system around goals (outcomes).
The palpebral fissure is the elliptic space between the medial and lateral canthi of the two open lids.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an intervention developed by Sheila Eyberg (1988) to treat children between ages 2 and 7 with disruptive behavior problems.
Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood.
A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Personal boundaries are guidelines, rules or limits that a person creates to identify reasonable, safe and permissible ways for other people to behave towards them and how they will respond when someone passes those limits.
The phalanges (singular: phalanx) are digital bones in the hands and feet of most vertebrates.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism that results in decreased metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.
The philtrum (philtrum, φίλτρον philtron, lit. "love charm"), or medial cleft, is a vertical indentation in the middle area of the upper lip, common to many mammals, extending in humans from the nasal septum to the tubercle of the upper lip.
Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Porencephaly is an extremely rare cephalic disorder involving encephalomalacia.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychological testing is the administration of psychological tests, which are designed to be "an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior".
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Ptosis (/ˈtoʊsɪs/) is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is described in clinical literature as a severe and relatively uncommon disorder that can affect children.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Sensory processing is the process that organizes sensation from one’s own body and the environment, thus making it possible to use the body effectively within the environment.
Sensory processing disorder (SPD; also known as '''sensory integration dysfunction''') is a condition that exists when multisensory integration is not adequately processed in order to provide appropriate responses to the demands of the environment. The senses provide information from various modalities—vision, audition, tactile, olfactory, taste, proprioception, interoception and vestibular system—that humans need to function. Sensory processing disorder is characterized by significant problems in organizing sensation coming from the body and the environment and is manifested by difficulties in the performance in one or more of the main areas of life: productivity, leisure and play or activities of daily living. Different people experience a wide range of difficulties when processing input coming from a variety of senses, particularly tactile (e.g., finding fabrics itchy and hard to wear while others do not), vestibular (e.g., experiencing motion sickness while riding a car) and proprioceptive (having difficulty grading the force to hold a pen in order to write). Sensory integration was defined by occupational therapist Anna Jean Ayres in 1972 as "the neurological process that organizes sensation from one's own body and from the environment and makes it possible to use the body effectively within the environment". Sensory processing disorder is gaining recognition, although it is still not recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Despite its proponents, it is still debated as to whether SPD is actually an independent disorder or the observed symptoms of various other, more well-established, disorders.
Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.
In humans, a single transverse palmar crease is a single crease that extends across the palm of the hand, formed by the fusion of the two palmar creases (known in palmistry as the "heart line" and the "head line") and is found in people with Down Syndrome.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco.
Social learning (social pedagogy) is learning that takes place at a wider scale than individual or group learning, up to a societal scale, through social interaction between peers.
A social skill is any competence facilitating interaction and communication with others where social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways.
Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
Special education (also known as special needs education, aided education, exceptional education or Special Ed) is the practice of educating students with an IEP or Section 504 in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs.
Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.
Spina bifida is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
A standard drink is a measure of alcohol consumption representing a hypothetical beverage which contains a fixed amount of pure alcohol.
A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner.
Sterling K. Clarren is one of the world's leading researchers into Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), an umbrella term encompassing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, static encephalopathy:alcohol exposed and penatal alcohol exposed.
Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.
Strabismus, also known as crossed eyes, is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), also known as cot death or crib death, is the sudden unexplained death of a child less than one year of age.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2&minus) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States.
The Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services (SBU – Statens beredning för medicinsk och social utvärdering in Swedish) previously the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment is an independent Swedish governmental agency tasked with assessing and evaluating methods in use in healthcare och social services.
A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other and, often, with a particular disease or disorder.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a type of heart defect present at birth.
The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness was a 1912 book by the American psychologist and eugenicist Henry H. Goddard.
Tocolytics (also called anti-contraction medications or labor suppressants) are medications used to suppress premature labor (from the Greek tokos, childbirth, and lytic, capable of dissolving).
Toluene toxicity refers to the harmful effects caused by toluene on the body.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect in the ventricular septum, the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart.
Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.
Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder that affects many parts of the body.
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