201 relations: Abscess, Acetylcholine, Adenosine triphosphate, Adrenaline, Adult-onset Still's disease, Anorexia (symptom), Antipyretic, Anus, Appendicitis, Arachidonic acid, Aspirin, Autoimmune hepatitis, Autonomic nervous system, Basal metabolic rate, Beauveria bassiana, Blood pressure, Blood–brain barrier, Boil, Brain, Brain damage, British National Formulary for Children, Brown adipose tissue, Brucellosis, Camel, Cancer, CD14, Cell growth, Cellular respiration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chemotherapy, Chromatography, Circumventricular organs, Cocaine, Cold, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Common cold, Continuous fever, Crush syndrome, Cyclooxygenase, Cytokine, Deep vein thrombosis, Dengue fever, Depression (mood), Depyrogenation, Disease, Distillation, Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, Drug overdose, Ear, Eardrum, ..., Ebola virus disease, Electrochemical gradient, Endocrine system, Endogeny (biology), Endothelium, Enterovirus, Enzyme, Exogeny, Fabry disease, Fan (machine), Febrile neutropenia, Febrile seizure, Febris, Fever, Fever of unknown origin, Filtration, Flushing (physiology), Frailty syndrome, Gastroenteritis, Giant-cell arteritis, Gout, Gram-negative bacteria, Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Heat stroke, Hemolysis, Hippocrates, HIV, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Horse, Human body temperature, Hyperalgesia, Hyperthermia, Hypothalamus, Ibuprofen, Idiosyncratic drug reaction, Immune system, Immunodeficiency, Immunology, Infarction, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Infectious mononucleosis, Infective endocarditis, Inflammation, Inflammatory bowel disease, Influenza, Interferon gamma, Interferon type I, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 8, Interleukin-1 family, Intermittent fever, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Intracranial hemorrhage, Kawasaki disease, Kidney cancer, Latin, Lethargy, Leukemia, Lipopolysaccharide, Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Lobar pneumonia, Lupus erythematosus, Lyme disease, Lymphoma, Lymphotoxin alpha, Macrophage, Macrophage inflammatory protein, Malaria, Malignant hyperthermia, Measles, Medical diagnosis, Medical emergency, Medical sign, Medical thermometer, Medulla oblongata, Meningitis, Metabolic disorder, Metabolism, Metarhizium acridum, Microglia, Mitochondrion, Multan, Muscle tone, National Gallery of Denmark, Nature Reviews Immunology, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neutrophil, Norepinephrine, Paracetamol, Parasitism, Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, Pathogen, Pathogenic bacteria, Pediatrics, Pel-Ebstein fever, Perspiration, Phagocytosis, Phospholipase, Pituitary gland, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Porphyria, Preoptic area, Prostaglandin E synthase, Prostaglandin E2, Prostaglandin EP3 receptor, Pyaemia, Raphe, Relapsing polychondritis, Remittent fever, Reye syndrome, Rhabdomyolysis, Richard Asher, Roseola, Sarcoidosis, Sepsis, Serotonin syndrome, Shivering, Sickness behavior, Somnolence, Substituted amphetamine, Superantigen, Surgery, Sympathetic nervous system, Symptom, T cell, Teething, Thermal conduction, Thermogenesis, Thermoregulation, Thermostat, Thyroid storm, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Typhoid fever, Typhus, United States National Library of Medicine, Urinary tract infection, Vasculitis, Vasoconstriction, Vertebrate, Veterinary medicine, Viral disease, Visceral leishmaniasis, Warm-blooded, White blood cell, 2,4-Dinitrophenol. Expand index (151 more) » « Shrink index
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a form of Still's disease, a rare systemic autoinflammatory disease characterized by the classic triad of persistent high spiking fevers, joint pain, and a distinctive salmon-colored bumpy rash.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6).
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Autoimmune hepatitis, formerly called lupoid hepatitis, is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body's immune system attacks liver cells causing the liver to be inflamed.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus that grows naturally in soils throughout the world and acts as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease; it thus belongs to the entomopathogenic fungi.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
A boil, also called a furuncle, is a deep folliculitis, infection of the hair follicle.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
The British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) is the standard UK paediatric reference for prescribing and pharmacology, among others indications, side effects and costs of the prescription of all medication drugs available on the National Health Service.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat).
Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14) is a human gene.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are structures in the brain characterized by their extensive vasculature and highly permeable capillaries unlike those in the rest of the brain where there exists a blood brain barrier (BBB).
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cold is the presence of low temperature, especially in the atmosphere.
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press was founded in 1933 to aid in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's purpose of furthering the advance and spread of scientific knowledge.
The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.
Continuous fever is a type or pattern of fever in which temperature does not touch the baseline and remains above normal throughout the day.
Crush syndrome (also traumatic rhabdomyolysis or Bywaters' syndrome) is a medical condition characterized by major shock and renal failure after a crushing injury to skeletal muscle.
Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Depyrogenation refers to the removal of pyrogens from solution, most commonly from injectable pharmaceuticals.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
In the anatomy of humans and various other tetrapods, the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.
An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Enteroviruses are a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.
Fabry disease is a rare genetic disease.
A mechanical fan is a powered machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air.
Febrile neutropenia is the development of fever, often with other signs of infection, in a patient with neutropenia, an abnormally low number of neutrophil granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
A febrile seizure, also known as a fever fit or febrile convulsion, is a seizure associated with a high body temperature but without any serious underlying health issue.
In Roman mythology, Febris ("fever") was the goddess who embodied, but also protected people from fever and malaria.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Fever of unknown origin (FUO), pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) or febris e causa ignota (febris E.C.I.) refers to a condition in which the patient has an elevated temperature (fever) but despite investigations by a physician no explanation has been found.
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions.
Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome that embodies an elevated risk of catastrophic declines in health and function among older adults.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
Giant-cell arteritis (GCA), also called temporal arteritis, is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), is a long-term systemic disorder that involves both granulomatosis and polyangiitis.
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine is an American textbook of internal medicine.
Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than and confusion.
Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, is the typical temperature range found in humans.
Hyperalgesia (or; 'hyper' from Greek ὑπέρ (huper, “over”), '-algesia' from Greek algos, ἄλγος (pain)) is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves and can cause hypersensitivity to stimulus, stimuli which would normally not be cause for a pain reaction (ex/ eyes or brain having a painful reaction to daylight).
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
Idiosyncratic drug reactions, also known as type B reactions, are drug reactions that occur rarely and unpredictably amongst the population.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Infectious mononucleosis (IM, mono), also known as glandular fever, is an infection usually caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).
Infective endocarditis is an infection of the inner surface of the heart, usually the valves.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
Human type I interferons (IFNs) are a large subgroup of interferon proteins that help regulate the activity of the immune system.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
Interleukin 8 (IL8 or chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, CXCL8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.
Intermittent fever is a type or pattern of fever in which there is an interval where temperature is elevated for several hours followed by an interval when temperature drops back to normal.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull.
Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a disease in which blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed.
Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is a type of cancer that starts in the cells in the kidney.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Lipopolysaccharide binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene.
Lobar pneumonia is a form of pneumonia that affects a large and continuous area of the lobe of a lung.
Lupus erythematosus is a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-α) or tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTA gene.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins (MIP) belong to the family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a type of severe reaction that occurs to particular medications used during general anesthesia, among those who are susceptible.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health.
A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.
A medical thermometer is used for measuring human or animal body temperature.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metarhizium acridum is the new name given to a group of fungal isolates that are known to be virulent and specific to the Acrididea.
Microglia are a type of neuroglia (glial cell) located throughout the brain and spinal cord.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
The National Gallery of Denmark (Statens Museum for Kunst, also known as "SMK") is the Danish national gallery located in the centre of Copenhagen.
Nature Reviews Immunology is a monthly review journal covering the field of immunology.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN, PVA, or PVH) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Pel-Ebstein fever, also known as Ebstein-Cardarelli fever, is a rarely seen condition noted in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma in which the patient experiences fevers which cyclically increase then decrease over an average period of one or two weeks.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
A phospholipase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular protozoan parasite of humans, and the deadliest species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans.
Plasmodium knowlesi is a primate malaria parasite commonly found in Southeast Asia.
Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in humans.
Plasmodium ovale is a species of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans.
Plasmodium vivax is a protozoal parasite and a human pathogen.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus.
Prostaglandin E synthase (or PGE synthase) is an enzyme involved in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism, a member of MAPEG family.
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), also known as dinoprostone, is a naturally occurring prostaglandin which is used as a medication.
Prostaglandin EP3 receptor (53kDa), also known as EP3, is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the human gene PTGER3;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/5733 it is one of four identified EP receptors, the others being EP1, EP2, and EP4, all of which bind with and mediate cellular responses to PGE2 and also, but generally with lesser affinity and responsiveness, certain other prostanoids (see Prostaglandin receptors).
Pyaemia (or pyemia) is a type of septicaemia that leads to widespread abscesses of a metastatic nature.
Raphe (from Greek ῥαφή, "seam"Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.) has several different meanings in science.
Relapsing polychondritis is a multi-systemic condition characterized by repeated episodes of inflammation and deterioration of cartilage.
Remittent Fever is a type or pattern of fever in which temperature does not touch the baseline and remains above normal throughout the day.
Reye syndrome is a rapidly progressive encephalopathy.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Richard Alan John Asher, FRCP (3 April 1912 – 25 April 1969) was an eminent British endocrinologist and haematologist.
Roseola is an infectious disease caused by certain types of virus.
Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
Shivering (also called shuddering) is a bodily function in response to cold in warm-blooded animals.
Ancher, Michael, "The Sick Girl", 1882, Statens Museum for Kunst. Sickness behavior is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioral changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Superantigens (SAgs) are a class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells resulting in polyclonal T cell activation and massive cytokine release.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
Teething is the process by which an infant's first teeth (the deciduous teeth, often called "baby teeth" or "milk teeth") sequentially appear by emerging through the gums, typically arriving in pairs.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint.
Thyroid storm or thyrotoxic crisis is a rare but severe and potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, black fever, and Dumdum fever, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and, without proper diagnosis and treatment, is associated with high fatality.
Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP or simply DNP) is an organic compound with the formula HOC6H3(NO2)2.
FEVER, Febrile, Febrile response, Fever phobia, Fever with Rash, Fever with rash, Fevers, Hyperpyrexia, Low grade fever, Low-grade fever, Low-grade pyrexia, Pyrectic, Pyretic, Pyretic conditions, Pyrexia, Pyrexial, Pyrexic, Pyrogen (fever), Pyrogenic, Pyrogens, Subfebrile.