128 relations: Ad hoc, American Civil War, American Enterprise Institute, Austria-Hungary, Bank for International Settlements, Bank of Canada, Banknote, Beaver, Bills of credit, Bretton Woods system, Broad money, Bullion coin, Canada under British rule, Central bank, Chao (currency), China, Coinage Act of 1965, Commercial bank, Commodity, Commodity money, Convertibility, Copper, Cryptocurrency, Currency, De facto, De jure, Debasement, Debenture, Deflation, Demand deposit, Ducat, Early American currency, Empire of Japan, Endogeneity (econometrics), Face value, Fiduciary, Financial asset, Fractional-reserve banking, French Third Republic, Gauti Eggertsson, Gold, Gold standard, Governor of New France, Granada War, Greenback Party, Greg Mankiw, Gresham's law, Group of Ten (economics), Hard currency, Hoarding, ..., Hut tax, Hyperinflation, Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic, Interest rate, International Monetary Fund, Intrinsic value (numismatics), IOU, Iraqi Swiss dinar, Iroquois, Jacques de Meulles, Jiaozi (currency), Jim Puplava, Johan Palmstruch, John Law (economist), John Makin, Journal of Political Economy, Kublai Khan, Kurdistan Regional Government, Latin, Legal tender, Liquidity trap, Marco Polo, Massachusetts, Medium of exchange, Ming dynasty, Mississippi Company, Monetary authority, Monetary economics, Monetary policy, Money, Money creation, Money supply, Mutiny, Napoleon, Network effect, New France, Nixon shock, Open market operation, Paul Krugman, Pennsylvania, Penny (Canadian coin), Playing card, Poll tax, Precious metal, Property tax, Recession, Representative money, Reserve requirement, Richard Nixon, Royal Canadian Mint, Seigniorage, Seven Years' War, Silver, Silver coin, Silver standard, Song dynasty, South Sea Company, Sovereign default, Stockholms Banco, The Travels of Marco Polo, Thirteen Colonies, Treasury, Treaty of Paris (1763), Troy weight, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, United States Congress, United States Constitution, United States dollar, United States Note, Use value, Vienna, Virginia, Washington Irving, World War I, Yuan (currency), Yuan dynasty, Zimbabwean dollar. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. which researches government, politics, economics and social welfare.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
The Bank of Canada (or BoC) (Banque du Canada) is Canada's central bank.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Bills of credit are documents similar to banknotes issued by a government that represent a government's indebtedness to the holder.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
In economics, broad money is a term denoting a certain measure of the amount of money (of the money supply) in a national economy, and it is used depending on the local practice.
A bullion coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment, rather than used in day-to-day commerce.
Canada was under British rule beginning with the Treaty of Paris (1763), when New France, of which the colony of Canada was a part, formally became a part of the British Empire.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The chao was the official banknote of the Yuan dynasty in China.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Coinage Act of 1965,, eliminated silver from the circulating United States dime (ten-cent piece) and quarter dollar coins.
A commercial bank is an institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, providing business loans, and offering basic investment products.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made.
Convertibility is the quality that allows money or other financial instruments to be converted into other liquid stores of value.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency.
In corporate finance, a debenture is a medium to long-term debt instrument used by large companies to borrow money, at a fixed rate of interest.
In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.
Demand deposits, bank money or scriptural money are funds held in demand deposit accounts in commercial banks.
The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later middle ages until as late as the 20th century.
Early American currency went through several stages of development in colonial and post-Revolutionary history of the United States.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
In econometrics, endogeneity broadly refers to situations in which an explanatory variable is correlated with the error term.
The face value is the value of a coin, stamp or paper money, as printed on the coin, stamp or bill itself by the issuing authority.
A fiduciary is a person who holds a legal or ethical relationship of trust with one or more other parties (person or group of persons).
A financial asset is a non-physical asset whose value is derived from a contractual claim, such as bank deposits, bonds, and stocks.
Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank accepts deposits, makes loans or investments, but is required to hold reserves equal to only a fraction of its deposit liabilities.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Gauti Bergþóruson Eggertsson is a Professor of Economics at Brown University.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
The Governor of New France was the viceroy of the King of France in North America.
The Granada War (Guerra de Granada) was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1492, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos) Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty's Emirate of Granada.
The Greenback Party (known successively as the Independent Party, the National Independent Party, and the Greenback Labor Party) was an American political party with an anti-monopoly ideology which was active between 1874 and 1889.
Nicholas Gregory Mankiw (born February 3, 1958) is an American macroeconomist and the Robert M. Beren Professor of Economics at Harvard University.
In economics, Gresham's law is a monetary principle stating that "bad money drives out good".
The Group of Ten (G-10 or G10) refers to the group of countries that agreed to participate in the General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB), an agreement to provide the International Monetary Fund (IMF) with additional funds to increase its lending ability.
Hard currency, safe-haven currency or strong currency is any globally traded currency that serves as a reliable and stable store of value.
Hoarding is a behavior where people or animals accumulate food or other items.
The hut tax was a type of taxation introduced by British colonialists in Africa on a per hut or household basis.
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
During a period between 1918 and January 1924, the German mark suffered hyperinflation.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
In commodity money, intrinsic value can be partially or entirely due to the desirable features of the object as a medium of exchange and a store of value.
An IOU (abbreviated from the phrase "I owe you") is usually an informal document acknowledging debt.
The Swiss dinar was the Iraqi currency in circulation prior to the 1990 Gulf War.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
Jacques de Meulles, seigneur of La Source (died 1703), was intendant (1682–86) and interim governor general of New France.
Jiaozi was a form of promissory banknote which appeared around the 11th century in the Sichuan capital of Chengdu, China.
James Joseph Puplava (born 1950) is an investment analyst and Internet radio show host born in Gary, Indiana.
Johan Palmstruch (1611 in Riga – 1671 in Stockholm; named Johan Wittmacher before he was ennobled) was a Latvian-born Dutch entrepreneur, financier, and financial innovator.
John Law (baptised 21 April 1671 – 21 March 1729) was a Scottish economist who believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself and that national wealth depended on trade.
John Makin was an English politician.
The Journal of Political Economy is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) (حکوومەتی هەرێمی کوردستان, Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan; حكومة اقليم كردستان, Ḥukūmat ʾIqlīm Kurdistān) is the official ruling body of the predominantly Kurdish region of Northern Iraq referred to as Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.
A liquidity trap is a situation, described in Keynesian economics, in which, "after the rate of interest has fallen to a certain level, liquidity preference may become virtually absolute in the sense that almost everyone prefers cash holding a debt which yields so low a rate of interest."Keynes, John Maynard (1936) The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007 edition, A liquidity trap is caused when people hoard cash because they expect an adverse event such as deflation, insufficient aggregate demand, or war.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
A medium of exchange is a tradeable entity used to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Mississippi Company (Compagnie du Mississippi; founded 1684, named the Company of the West from 1717, and the Company of the Indies from 1719) was a corporation holding a business monopoly in French colonies in North America and the West Indies.
In finance and economics, a monetary authority is the entity which controls the money supply of a given currency, often with the objective of controlling inflation or interest rates.
Monetary economics is a branch of economics that provides a framework for analyzing money in its functions as a medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
Money creation is the process by which the money supply of a country, or of an economic or monetary region,Such as the Eurozone or ECCAS is increased.
In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.
Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people (typically members of the military or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
A network effect (also called network externality or demand-side economies of scale) is the positive effect described in economics and business that an additional user of a good or service has on the value of that product to others.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
The Nixon shock was a series of economic measures undertaken by United States President Richard Nixon in 1971, the most significant of which was the unilateral cancellation of the direct international convertibility of the United States dollar to gold.
An open market operation (OMO) is an activity by a central bank to give (or take) liquidity in its currency to (or from) a bank or a group of banks.
Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
In Canada, a penny is a coin worth one cent, or of a dollar.
A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic, marked with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing card games.
A poll tax, also known as head tax or capitation, is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate.
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.
Representative money is any medium of exchange that represents something of value, but has little or no value of its own (intrinsic value).
The reserve requirement (or cash reserve ratio) is a central bank regulation employed by most, but not all, of the world's central banks, that sets the minimum amount of reserves that must be held by a commercial bank.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
The Royal Canadian Mint (Monnaie royale canadienne) is a Crown corporation of Canada, operating under the Royal Canadian Mint Act.
Seigniorage, also spelled seignorage or seigneurage (from Old French seigneuriage "right of the lord (seigneur) to mint money"), is the difference between the value of money and the cost to produce and distribute it.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage.
The silver standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of silver.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The South Sea Company (officially The Governor and Company of the merchants of Great Britain, trading to the South Seas and other parts of America, and for the encouragement of fishing) was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt.
A sovereign default is the failure or refusal of the government of a sovereign state to pay back its debt in full.
Stockholms Banco (also known as the Bank of Palmstruch or Palmstruch Bank) in Sweden was the first European bank to print banknotes.
Book of the Marvels of the World (French: Livre des Merveilles du Monde) or Description of the World (Devisement du Monde), in Italian Il Milione (The Million) or Oriente Poliano and in English commonly called The Travels of Marco Polo, is a 13th-century travelogue written down by Rustichello da Pisa from stories told by Marco Polo, describing Polo's travels through Asia between 1271 and 1295, and his experiences at the court of Kublai Khan.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
A treasury is either.
The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
A United States Note, also known as a Legal Tender Note, is a type of paper money that was issued from 1862 to 1971 in the U.S. Having been current for more than 100 years, they were issued for longer than any other form of U.S. paper money.
Use value (German: Gebrauchswert) or value in use is the utility of consuming a good—the want-satisfying power of a good or service in classical political economy.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American short story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The yuan (sign: ¥) is the base unit of a number of former and present-day Chinese currencies.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
The Zimbabwean dollar (sign: $, or Z$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies) was the official currency of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 12 April 2009.
Fiat currancy, Fiat currencies, Fiat currency, Fiat money (Template), Fiduciary currency, Fiduciary money, Flat money, Funny Money (the money), Government created money, National currency, Print money.