102 relations: Acrylic fiber, Actin, Actinolite, Amphibole, Angora wool, Animal fiber, Anthophyllite, Aramid, Asbestos, Axon, Bagasse, Bamboo textile, Basalt fiber, Bombyx mori, Cannabis sativa, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbon fibers, Cashmere wool, Catgut, Cellulose, Cellulose diacetate, Cellulose fiber, Cellulose triacetate, Ceramic matrix composite, Chaff (countermeasure), Chrysotile, Collagen, Cotton, Dietary fiber, Elastolefin, Elastomer, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Engineered wood, Fiber, Fiber crop, Fiberboard, Fiberglass, Flax, Glossary of differential geometry and topology, Grunerite, Hair, Hydrocarbon, Jute, Kevlar, Kraft Foods, Kraft process, Lagetta lagetto, Latin, Lignin, Lyocell, ..., Metallic fiber, Microfiber, Microtubule, Mineral, Mohair, Molded pulp, Muscle, Natural fiber, Nomex, Nylon, Olefin fiber, Optical fiber, Palygorskite, Paper, Petrochemical, Polyacrylonitrile, Polyester, Polyethylene, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polyurethane, Prentice Hall, Princeton University Press, Protein filament, Pyrolysis, Quartz, Ramie, Rayon, Riebeckite, Scleroprotein, Sea silk, Seaweed, Serpentine subgroup, Silane, Silica fiber, Silicon carbide, Silk, Sisal, Sodium silicate, Spandex, Spider silk, Stainless steel fiber, Synthetic fiber, Tendon, Textile, Thermoplastic, Tremolite, Twaron, Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, Vinyon, Wollastonite, Wood fibre, Wool. Expand index (52 more) » « Shrink index
Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer (polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100,000, about 1900 monomer units.
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
Actinolite is an amphibole silicate mineral with the chemical formula.
Amphibole is an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures.
Angora hair or Angora fibre refers to the downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit.
Animal fibers are natural fibers that consist largely of particular proteins.
Anthophyllite is an amphibole mineral: ☐Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 (☐ is for a vacancy, a point defect in the crystal structure), magnesium iron inosilicate hydroxide.
Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers.
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Bagasse is the fibrous matter that remains after sugarcane or sorghum stalks are crushed to extract their juice.
Bamboo textiles are cloth, yarn, and clothing made out of bamboo fibres.
Basalt fiber is a material made from extremely fine fibers of basalt, which is composed of the minerals plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine.
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").
Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
Carbon fibers or carbon fibres (alternatively CF, graphite fiber or graphite fibre) are fibers about 5–10 micrometers in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms.
Cashmere wool, usually simply known as cashmere, is a luxury fiber obtained from cashmere goats and other types of goat.
Catgut is a type of cord that is prepared from the natural fibre found in the walls of animal intestines.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Cellulose diacetate, sometimes simply called diacetate, is a synthetic polymer made by treating cellulose with acetic acid.
Cellulose fibres are fibres made with ether or esters of cellulose, which can be obtained from the bark, wood or leaves of plants, or from a plant-based material.
Cellulose triacetate, (triacetate, CTA or TAC) is a chemical compound produced from cellulose and a source of acetate esters, typically acetic anhydride.
Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a subgroup of composite materials as well as a subgroup of ceramics.
Chaff, originally called Window by the British and Düppel by the Second World War era German Luftwaffe (from the Berlin suburb where it was first developed), is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallized glass fibre or plastic, which either appears as a cluster of primary targets on radar screens or swamps the screen with multiple returns.
Chrysotile or white asbestos is the most commonly encountered form of asbestos, accounting for approximately 95% of the asbestos in the United StatesOccupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor (2007).
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Elastolefin is a fibre composed of at least 95% (by weight) of macromolecules partially cross-linked, made of ethylene and at least one other olefin.
An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (i. e., both viscosity and elasticity) and very weak intermolecular forces, and generally low Young's modulus and high failure strain compared with other materials.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
Engineered wood, also called composite wood, man-made wood, or manufactured board, includes a range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding or fixing the strands, particles, fibres, or veneers or boards of wood, together with adhesives, or other methods of fixation to form composite materials.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are traditionally used to make paper, cloth, or rope.
Fiberboard (American spelling) or fibreboard (Commonwealth spelling) is a type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibers.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
This is a glossary of terms specific to differential geometry and differential topology.
Grunerite is a mineral of the amphibole group of minerals with formula Fe7Si8O22(OH)2.
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads.
Kevlar is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora.
Kraft Foods Group, Inc. is an American grocery manufacturing and processing conglomerate headquartered in the Chicago suburb of Northfield, Illinois, part of the Kraft Heinz Company.
The kraft process (also known as kraft pulping or sulfate process) is a process for conversion of wood into wood pulp, which consists of almost pure cellulose fibers, the main component of paper.
Lagetta lagetto is a species of tree native to several Caribbean islands.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Lyocell is a form of rayon which consists of cellulose fibre made from dissolving pulp (bleached wood pulp) using dry jet-wet spinning.
Metallic fibers are manufactured fibers composed of metal, plastic-coated metal, metal-coated plastic, or a core completely covered by metal.
Microfiber (or microfibre) is synthetic fiber finer than one denier or decitex/thread, having a diameter of less than ten micrometres.
Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mohair is usually a silk-like fabric or yarn made from the hair of the Angora goat.
Molded pulp, also named moulded pulp or molded fibre, is a packaging material, typically made from recycled paperboard and/or newsprint.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Natural fibers or natural fibres (see spelling differences) are fibres that are produced by plants, animals, and geological processes.
Nomex is a flame-resistant meta-aramid material developed in the early 1960s by DuPont and first marketed in 1967.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
Olefin fiber is a synthetic fiber made from a polyolefin, such as polypropylene or polyethylene.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Palygorskite or attapulgite is a magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate with formula (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH)·4(H2O) that occurs in a type of clay soil common to the Southeastern United States.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), also known as Creslan 61, is a synthetic, semicrystalline organic polymer resin, with the linear formula (C3H3N)n.
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
In biology, a filament is a "long chain of proteins, such as those found in hair, muscle, or in flagella".
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Ramie is a flowering plant in the nettle family Urticaceae, native to eastern Asia.
Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber.
Riebeckite is a sodium-rich member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals, chemical formula Na2(Fe2+3Fe3+2)Si8O22(OH)2.
Scleroproteins or fibrous proteins constitute one of the three main types of proteins (alongside globular and membrane proteins).
Sea silk is an extremely fine, rare, and valuable fabric that is made from the long silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells (in particular Pinna nobilis).
Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.
The serpentine subgroup (part of the kaolinite-serpentine group) are greenish, brownish, or spotted minerals commonly found in serpentinite rocks.
Silane is an inorganic compound with chemical formula, SiH4, making it a group 14 hydride.
Silica fibers are fibers made of sodium silicate (water glass).
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Sisal, with the botanical name Agave sisalana, is a species of Agave native to southern Mexico but widely cultivated and naturalized in many other countries.
Sodium silicate is a generic name for chemical compounds with the formula or ·, such as sodium metasilicate, sodium orthosilicate, and sodium pyrosilicate.
Spandex, Lycra or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity.
Spider silk is a protein fibre spun by spiders.
Stainless steel fibers are manufactured fibers composed of stainless steel.
Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: ☐Ca2(Mg5.0-4.5Fe2+0.0-0.5)Si8O22(OH)2.
Twaron (a brand name of Teijin Aramid) is a para-aramid.
Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene.
Vinyon is a synthetic fiber made from polyvinyl chloride.
Wollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral (CaSiO3) that may contain small amounts of iron, magnesium, and manganese substituting for calcium.
Wood fibres (also spelled wood fibers, see spelling differences) are usually cellulosic elements that are extracted from trees and used to make materials including paper.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
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