140 relations: Academy Awards, Albertson v. Subversive Activities Control Board, American Mafia, Ashcraft v. Tennessee (1944), Ashe v. Swenson, Asset, Asset forfeiture, Australia, Ball v. United States, Berghuis v. Thompkins, Berman v. Parker, Blockburger v. United States, Bolling v. Sharpe, Boyd v. United States, Brown v. Mississippi, Burks v. United States, Capital punishment in the United States, Chambers v. Florida, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. v. City of Chicago, Civil forfeiture in the United States, Civil procedure, Collateral estoppel, Common law, Commonwealth of Nations, Communist party, Communist Party USA, Congressional Record, Continuing Criminal Enterprise, Criminal procedure, Double Jeopardy Clause, Due Process Clause, Earl Warren, Elia Kazan, Eminent domain, England, Equal Protection Clause, Ernesto Miranda, Ex parte Bain, Exclusionary rule, Fair market value, Felony, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Fong Foo v. United States, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Freeborn, Garrity v. New Jersey, Garrity warning, Grady v. Corbin, ..., Grand jury, Griffin v. California, Harry Aleman, Haynes v. United States, Heath v. Alabama, Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada, Hollywood blacklist, House Un-American Activities Committee, Howard Fast, Hurtado v. California, In personam, In re Boucher, In rem jurisdiction, Incorporation of the Bill of Rights, Indictment, Infamia, J. D. B. v. North Carolina, James Madison, John Lilburne, John Minor Wisdom, John Paul Stevens, Joseph McCarthy, Jury instructions, Kastigar v. United States, Kelo v. City of New London, Law enforcement, Law enforcement officer, Leary v. United States, Legal process, Levellers, Malloy v. Hogan, Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, McCarthyism, Michigan Law Review, Miranda v. Arizona, Miranda warning, Misdemeanor, New World, New York Stock Exchange, New Zealand, New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990, North Carolina v. Pearce, Notre Dame Law Review, Oliver Cromwell, Oregon v. Kennedy, Organized crime, Parliament, People's Party (United States), Preliminary hearing, Privilege (evidence), Public use, Puritans, Reasonable doubt, Red Scare, Regent University, Right to silence, Sandra Day O'Connor, Section 13 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Self-incrimination, Self-regulatory organization, Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act, South Africa, Stop and identify statutes, Sua sponte, Subversive Activities Control Board, Supreme Court of the United States, Taxation of illegal income in the United States, Torture, Trial, United States Bill of Rights, United States Congress, United States Constitution, United States constitutional criminal procedure, United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, United States District Court for the District of Vermont, United States House of Representatives, United States magistrate judge, United States Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security, United States v. 50 Acres of Land, United States v. Dixon, United States v. Felix, United States v. Hubbell, United States v. Moreland, University of Dayton School of Law, University of Minnesota Press, Verdict, Yale University Press, Yarborough v. Alvarado, Zero Mostel. Expand index (90 more) » « Shrink index
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Albertson v. Subversive Activities Control Board,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled on November 15, 1965, that persons (in this case, William Albertson) believed to be members of the Communist Party of the United States of America could not be required to register as party members with the Subversive Activities Control Board because the information which party members were required to submit could form the basis of their prosecution for being party members, which was then a crime, and therefore deprived them of their self-incrimination rights under the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The American Mafia (commonly referred to as the Mafia or the Mob, though "the Mob" can refer to other organized crime groups) or Italian-American Mafia, is the highly organized Italian-American criminal society.
Ashcraft v. Tennessee,, is a United States Supreme Court case.
Ashe v. Swenson, 397 U.S. 436 (1970), was a decision by the United States Supreme Court, which held that "when an issue of ultimate fact has once been determined by a valid and final judgment, that issue cannot again be litigated between the same parties in any future lawsuit." The Double Jeopardy Clause prevents a state from relitigating a question already decided in favor of a defendant at a previous trial.
In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.
Asset forfeiture or asset seizure is a form of confiscation of assets by the state.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Ball v. United States, 163 U.S. 662 (1896), is one of the earliest United States Supreme Court case interpreting the Double Jeopardy Clause.
Berghuis v. Thompkins,, is a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court in which the Court considered the position of a suspect who understands his or her right to remain silent under Miranda v. Arizona and is aware he or she has the right to remain silent, but does not explicitly invoke or waive the right.
Berman v. Parker, is a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that interpreted the Takings Clause ("nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation") of the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Blockburger v. United States, 284 U.S. 299 (1932), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States set an important standard to prevent double jeopardy.
Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954), is a landmark United States Supreme Court case which deals with civil rights, specifically, segregation in the District of Columbia's public schools.
Boyd v. United States,, was a decision by the United States Supreme Court, in which the Court held that “a search and seizure equivalent a compulsory production of a man's private papers” and that the search was “an 'unreasonable search and seizure' within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment.”.
Brown v. Mississippi, 297 U.S. 278, (1936), was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled that a defendant's involuntary confession that is extracted by police violence cannot be entered as evidence and violates the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Burks v. United States, 437 U.S. 1 (1978), is a United States Supreme Court decision that clarified both the scope of the protection against double jeopardy provided by the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution and the limits of an appellate court's discretion to fashion a remedy under section 2106 of Title 28 to the United States Code.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the United States, currently used by 31 states, the federal government, and the military.
Chambers v. Florida, 309 U.S. 227 (1940), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that dealt with the extent that police pressure resulting in a criminal defendant's confession violates the Due Process clause.
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co.
Civil forfeiture in the United States, also called civil asset forfeiture or civil judicial forfeiture or occasionally civil seizure, is a legal process in which law enforcement officers take assets from persons suspected of involvement with crime or illegal activity without necessarily charging the owners with wrongdoing.
Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters).
Collateral estoppel (CE), known in modern terminology as issue preclusion, is a common law estoppel doctrine that prevents a person from relitigating an issue.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.
The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) is a communist political party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America.
The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress, published by the United States Government Publishing Office and issued when Congress is in session.
The Continuing Criminal Enterprise Statute (commonly referred to as CCE Statute or The Kingpin Statute) is a United States federal law that targets large-scale drug traffickers who are responsible for long-term and elaborate drug conspiracies.
Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law.
The Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides: "or shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb..." The four essential protections included are prohibitions against, for the same offense.
The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution each contain a due process clause.
Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American jurist and politician who served as the 30th Governor of California (1943–1953) and later the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (1953–1969).
Elia Kazan (born Elias Kazantzoglou; September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was a Greek-American director, producer, writer and actor, described by The New York Times as "one of the most honored and influential directors in Broadway and Hollywood history".
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Ernesto Arturo Miranda (March 9, 1941 – January 31, 1976) was a laborer whose conviction on kidnapping, rape, and armed robbery charges based on his confession under police interrogation was set aside in the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case Miranda v. Arizona, which ruled that criminal suspects must be informed of their right against self-incrimination and their right to consult with an attorney before being questioned by police.
Ex parte Bain,, was a United States Supreme Court case.
In the United States, the exclusionary rule is a legal rule, based on constitutional law.
Fair market value (FMV) is an estimate of the market value of a property, based on what a knowledgeable, willing, and unpressured buyer would probably pay to a knowledgeable, willing, and unpressured seller in the market.
The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.
The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and, among other things, protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves in criminal cases.
In the United States, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (FINRA) is a private corporation that acts as a self-regulatory organization (SRO).
Fong Foo v. United States,, was a Supreme Court ruling that upheld the protection from Double Jeopardy by the federal government.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights that prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.
"Freeborn" is a term associated with political agitator John Lilburne (1614–1657), a member of the Levellers, a 17th-century English political party.
Garrity v. New Jersey, 385 U.S. 493 (1967), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that law enforcement officers and other public employees have the right to be free from compulsory self-incrimination.
The Garrity warning is an advisement of rights usually administered by state or local investigators to their employees who may be the subject of an internal investigation.
Grady v. Corbin, 495 U.S. 508 (1990), was a United States Supreme Court decision holding that: "the Double Jeopardy Clause bars a subsequent prosecution if, to establish an essential element of an offense charged in that prosecution, the government will prove conduct that constitutes an offense for which the defendant has already been prosecuted.".
A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.
Griffin v. California, 380 U.S. 609 (1965), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled, by a 6-2 vote, that it is a violation of a defendant's Fifth Amendment rights for the prosecutor to comment to the jury on the defendant's declining to testify, or for the judge to instruct the jury that such silence is evidence of guilt.
Harry "The Hook" Aleman (January 19, 1939 – May 15, 2010) was a Chicago mobster who was one of the most feared enforcers for the Chicago Outfit during the 1970s.
Haynes v. United States,, was a United States Supreme Court decision interpreting the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution's self-incrimination clause.
Heath v. Alabama, 474 U.S. 82 (1985), is a case in which the United States Supreme Court ruled that, because of the doctrine of "dual sovereignty" (the concept that the United States and each state possess sovereignty – a consequence of federalism), the double jeopardy clause of the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution does not prohibit one state from prosecuting and punishing somebody for an act of which he had already been convicted of and sentenced for in another state.
Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada,, is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that statutes requiring suspects to disclose their names during police investigations did not violate the Fourth Amendment if the statute first required reasonable and articulable suspicion of criminal involvement.
The Hollywood blacklist - as the broader entertainment industry blacklist is generally known - was the practice of denying employment to screenwriters, actors, directors, musicians, and other American entertainment professionals during the mid-20th century because they were accused of having Communist ties or sympathies.
The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC, or House Committee on Un-American Activities, or HCUA) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives.
Howard Melvin Fast (November 11, 1914 – March 12, 2003) was an American novelist and television writer.
Hurtado v. California,, was a case decided on by the United States Supreme Court.
In personam is a Latin phrase meaning "directed toward a particular person".
In re Boucher (case citation: No. 2:06-mJ-91, 2009 WL 424718), is a federal criminal case in Vermont, which was the first to directly address the question of whether investigators can compel a suspect to reveal their encryption passphrase or password, despite the U.S. Constitution's Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination.
In rem jurisdiction ("power about or against 'the thing) is a legal term describing the power a court may exercise over property (either real or personal) or a "status" against a person over whom the court does not have in personam jurisdiction.
Incorporation, in United States law, is the doctrine by which portions of the Bill of Rights have been made applicable to the states.
An indictment is a formal accusation that a person has committed a crime.
In ancient Roman culture, infamia (in-, "not," and fama, "reputation") was a loss of legal or social standing.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
John Lilburne (161429 August 1657), also known as Freeborn John, was an English political Leveller before, during and after the English Civil Wars 1642–1650.
John Minor Wisdom (May 17, 1905 – May 15, 1999), one of the "Fifth Circuit Four", and a Republican from Louisiana, was a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit during the 1950s and 1960s, when that court became known for a series of crucial decisions that advanced the goals of the Civil Rights Movement.
John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is an American lawyer and jurist who served as an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1975 until his retirement in 2010.
Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was an American politician who served as U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957.
Jury instructions are the set of legal rules that jurors ought follow when deciding a case.
Kastigar v. United States, 406 U.S. 441 (1972), was a United States Supreme Court decision that ruled on the issue of whether the government's grant of immunity from prosecution can compel a witness to testify over an assertion of the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination.
Kelo v. City of New London, 545 U.S. 469 (2005),.
Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.
A law enforcement officer (LEO) or peace officer, in North American English, is a public-sector employee whose duties primarily involve the enforcement of laws.
Leary v. United States,, is a U.S. Supreme Court case dealing with the constitutionality of the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937.
Legal process (or sometimes "process"), are the proceedings in any civil lawsuit or criminal prosecution and, particularly, describes the formal notice or writ used by a court to exercise jurisdiction over a person or property.
The Levellers was a political movement during the English Civil War (1642–1651).
Malloy v. Hogan,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States deemed defendants' Fifth Amendment privilege not to be compelled to be witnesses against themselves was applicable within state courts as well as federal courts, overruling the decision in Twining v. New Jersey (1908).
The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937,, was a United States Act that placed a tax on the sale of cannabis.
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.
The Michigan Law Review is an American law review that was established in 1902 and is completely run by law students.
Miranda v. Arizona,, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court.
The Miranda warning, which also can be referred to as a person's Miranda rights, is a right to silence warning given by police in the United States to criminal suspects in police custody (or in a custodial interrogation) before they are interrogated to preserve the admissibility of their statements against them in criminal proceedings.
A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 (sometimes known by its acronym, NZBORA) is a statute of the Parliament of New Zealand setting out the rights and fundamental freedoms of anyone subject to New Zealand law as a Bill of rights.
North Carolina v. Pearce,, is a United States Supreme Court case that forbids judicial “vindictiveness” from playing a role in the increased sentence a defendant receives after a new trial.
The Notre Dame Law Review is a law review published by an organization of students at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
Oregon v. Kennedy, 456 U.S. 667 (1982), was a United States Supreme Court decision dealing with the appropriate test for determining whether a criminal defendant has been "goaded" by the prosecution's bad actions into motioning for a mistrial.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
The People's Party, also known as the Populist Party or the Populists, was an agrarian-populist political party in the United States.
Within some criminal justice systems, a preliminary hearing, preliminary examination, evidentiary hearing or probable cause hearing is a proceeding, after a criminal complaint has been filed by the prosecutor, to determine whether there is enough evidence to require a trial.
In the law of evidence, a privilege is a rule of evidence that allows the holder of the privilege to refuse to disclose information or provide evidence about a certain subject or to bar such evidence from being disclosed or used in a judicial or other proceeding.
Public use is a legal requirement under the takings clause ("nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation") of the Fifth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, that owners of property seized by eminent domain for "public use" be paid "just compensation".
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Reasonable doubt is a term used in jurisdiction of common law countries.
A "Red Scare" is promotion of widespread fear by a society or state about a potential rise of communism, anarchism, or radical leftism.
Regent University is a private Christian research university located in Virginia Beach, Virginia, United States.
The right to silence is a legal principle which guarantees any individual the right to refuse to answer questions from law enforcement officers or court officials.
Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, having served from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until 2006.
Section 13 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is a section of the Charter which, along with section 11 (c), specifies rights regarding self-incrimination.
Self-incrimination is the act of exposing oneself generally, by making a statement "to an accusation or charge of crime; to involve oneself or another in a criminal prosecution or the danger thereof." Self-incrimination can occur either directly or indirectly: directly, by means of interrogation where information of a self-incriminatory nature is disclosed; or indirectly, when information of a self-incriminatory nature is disclosed voluntarily without pressure from another person.
A self-regulatory organization (SRO) is an organization that exercises some degree of regulatory authority over an industry or profession.
The Sixth Amendment (Amendment VI) to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that sets forth rights related to criminal prosecutions.
The Tariff Act of 1930 (codified at), commonly known as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff or Hawley–Smoot Tariff, was an act implementing protectionist trade policies sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley and was signed into law on June 17, 1930.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
"Stop and identify" statutes are statutory laws in the United States that authorize police to legally obtain the identification of someone whom they reasonably suspect of having committed a crime.
In law, sua sponte (Latin: "of his, her, its or their own accord") or suo motu "on its own motion" describes an act of authority taken without formal prompting from another party.
The Subversive Activities Control Board (SACB) was a United States government committee to investigate Communist infiltration of American society during the 1950s Red Scare.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
In the United States, the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) was enacted by the U.S. Congress in part for the purpose of taxing net income.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Constitution contains several provisions regarding the law of criminal procedure.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit (in case citations, 11th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States District Court for the District of Vermont (in case citations, D. Vt.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction is the federal district of Vermont.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
In United States federal courts, magistrate judges are judges appointed to assist district court judges in the performance of their duties.
The Special Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 1951–77, more commonly known as the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) and sometimes the McCarran Committee, was authorized under S. 366, approved December 21, 1950, to study and investigate (1) the administration, operation, and enforcement of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (also known as the McCarran Act) and other laws relating to espionage, sabotage, and the protection of the internal security of the United States and (2) the extent, nature, and effects of subversive activities in the United States "including, but not limited to, espionage, sabotage, and infiltration of persons who are or may be under the domination of the foreign government or organization controlling the world Communist movement or any movement seeking to overthrow the Government of the United States by force and violence".
United States v. 50 Acres of Land,, was a United States Supreme Court case regarding whether a public condemnee is entitled to consequential damages measured by the cost of acquiring a substitute facility if it has a duty to replace the condemned facility.
United States v. Dixon,, was a decision of the United States Supreme Court concerning double jeopardy.
United States v. Felix, 503 U.S. 378 (1992), was a decision by the United States Supreme Court, which held that “a…offense and a conspiracy to commit that offense are not the same offense for double jeopardy purposes.” The Supreme Court rejected the Tenth Circuit's reversal of Felix's conviction, finding that the Court of Appeals read the holding in Grady v. Corbin (1990) too broadly.
United States v. Hubbell, 530 U.S. 27 (2000), was United States Supreme Court case involving Webster Hubbell, who had been indicted on various tax-related charges, and mail and wire fraud charges, based on documents that the government had subpoenaed from him.
United States v. Moreland,, was a case heard by the Supreme Court of the United States on March 9 and 10, 1922, and decided a month later on April 17.
The University of Dayton School of Law (UDSL) is a private law school located in Dayton, Ohio.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
In law, a verdict is the formal finding of fact made by a jury on matters or questions submitted to the jury by a judge.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yarborough v. Alvarado, 541 U.S. 652 (2004), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declined to overturn a state court's conclusion that a minor was not in custody for Miranda purposes during his police interview.
Samuel Joel "Zero" Mostel (February 28, 1915 – September 8, 1977) was an American actor, singer and comedian of stage and screen, best known for his portrayal of comic characters such as Tevye on stage in Fiddler on the Roof, Pseudolus on stage and on screen in A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, and Max Bialystock in the original film version of The Producers.
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