102 relations: Acceleration, Acetylcholine, Acute stress reaction, Adipose tissue, Adrenal gland, Adrenal medulla, Adrenaline, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Aggression, American Journal of Physiology, Amygdala, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Auditory exclusion, Bleeding, Blood pressure, Blood sugar level, Blood vessel, Body reactivity, Catecholamine, Cell (biology), Chromatophore, Coagulation, Coping (psychology), Cortisol, Daniel Reisberg, Defense physiology, Digestion, Dopamine, Ectotherm, Emotional dysregulation, Erection, Estrogen, Evolutionary psychology, Fatty acid, Flight zone, Flushing (physiology), Freezing behavior, Glucose, Glycogen, Goose bumps, Hearing loss, Heart arrhythmia, Heart rate, Hemodynamics, Henry Gleitman, Homeostasis, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothalamus, ..., Immune system, Injury, Lacrimal gland, Lion, Medulla oblongata, Metabolism, Muscle, Muscle tone, Mydriasis, Norepinephrine, Organism, Pallor, Panic attack, Parasympathetic nervous system, Perceived control, Peripheral vision, Phobia, Pituitary gland, Predatory imminence continuum, Psychological trauma, Pupillary response, Reflex, Respiratory rate, Robert Sapolsky, Saliva, Serotonin, Sexual arousal, Small intestine, Social anxiety, Social anxiety disorder, Sphincter, Spinal cord, Stomach, Stress (biology), Sympathetic nervous system, Tachypnea, Tears, Tend and befriend, Testosterone, The Relaxation Response, Tremor, Tunnel vision, Urinary bladder, Urination, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Vertebrate, W. W. Norton & Company, Walter Bradford Cannon, Workplace bullying, Yerkes–Dodson law, Zebra. Expand index (52 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychological shock, mental shock, or simply shock) is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event, or witnessing a traumatic event that induces a strong emotional response within the individual.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
The American Journal of Physiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal on physiology published by the American Physiological Society.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc. was a division of the Meredith Publishing Company.
Auditory exclusion is a form of temporary loss of hearing occurring under high stress.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Body reactivity is usually understood as the body's ability to react in a proper way to influence the environment.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
Coping is the conscious effort to reduce stress.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Daniel Reisberg is an American academic who is the Patricia and Clifford Lunneborg Professor of Psychology at Reed College in Portland, Oregon.
Defense physiology is a term used to refer to the symphony of body function (physiology) changes which occur in response to a stress or threat.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a term used in the mental health community to refer to an emotional response that is poorly modulated, and does not fall within the conventionally accepted range of emotive response.
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
The flight zone of an animal is the area surrounding an animal that if encroached upon by a potential predator or threat, including humans, will cause alarm and escape behavior.
For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions.
Freezing behavior or the freeze response is a reaction to specific stimuli, most commonly observed in prey animals.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Goose bumps are the bumps on a person's skin at the base of body hairs which may involuntarily develop when a person is cold or experiences strong emotions such as fear, euphoria or sexual arousal.
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
Henry Gleitman (January 4, 1925 – September 2, 2015) was a Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
The lacrimal glands are paired, almond-shaped exocrine glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Pallor is a pale color of the skin that can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia, and is the result of a reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin and is visible in skin conjuctivae or mucous membrane.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Perceived control (PC) can be defined as the belief that one sees he or she has control over their inside state, behaviors and the place or people or things or feelings or activities surrounding a person.
Peripheral vision is a part of vision that occurs only on the side gaze.
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Animals have many different tactics for defending themselves, depending on the severity of the threat they are encountering.
Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.
Pupillary response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
The respiratory rate is the rate at which breathing occurs.
Robert Morris Sapolsky (born April 6, 1957) is an American neuroendocrinologist and author.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Sexual arousal (also sexual excitement) is the arousal of sexual desire, during or in anticipation of sexual activity.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Social anxiety can be defined as nervousness in social situations.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Tachypnea or tachypnoea is abnormally rapid breathing.
Tearing, lacrimation, or lachrymation is the secretion of tears, which often serves to clean and lubricate the eyes in response to an irritation of the eyes.
Tend-and-befriend is a behavior exhibited by some animals, including humans, in response to threat.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The Relaxation Response is a book written in 1975 by Herbert Benson, a Harvard physician, and Miriam Z. Klipper.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Tunnel vision (also known as "Kalnienk vision") is the loss of peripheral vision with retention of central vision, resulting in a constricted circular tunnel-like field of vision.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School.
Workplace bullying is a persistent pattern of mistreatment from others in the workplace that causes either physical or emotional harm.
The Yerkes–Dodson law is an empirical relationship between arousal and performance, originally developed by psychologists Robert M. Yerkes and John Dillingham Dodson in 1908.
Zebras are several species of African equids (horse family) united by their distinctive black and white striped coats.
Chronic Bracing, Chronic bracing, Environmental stress theory, Fight or Flee, Fight or flight response, Fight or flight theory, Fight, flight, freeze or fawn response, Fight-or-flight, Fight-or-flight response (in animals), Fight-or-flight response (in humans), Flight or fight, Flight or fight response, Flight-or-fight, Flight-or-fight response, Hyperarousal, Shit scared, Stress response.