70 relations: Astronomical object, Ballistic missile, Cadastre, Circle of latitude, Clairaut's theorem, Cornell University Press, Crust (geology), Deflection (physics), Density, Distance, Earth, Earth ellipsoid, Earth science, Earth's rotation, Eccentricity (mathematics), EGM96, Ellipsoid, Equator, Equatorial bulge, Equipotential, Eratosthenes, Flat Earth, Flattening, Friedrich Heinrich Albert Wangerin, Friedrich Robert Helmert, Geodesy, Geographic coordinate system, Geoid, Geometry, Geophysics, Grade measurement, Granite, Gravitational field, Gravity, Horizontal and vertical, Inertial navigation system, Inner core, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Isostasy, Karl Ledersteger, Land use, Leonhard Euler, Meridian arc, NASA, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Navigation, Orthogonality, Oxford, Pierre Bouguer, Plumb bob, ..., Pythagoreanism, Radius, Radius of curvature, Reference ellipsoid, Satellite, Satellite geodesy, Sphere, Spherical Earth, Spherical harmonics, Spheroid, Springer Science+Business Media, Sputnik 1, Structure of the Earth, Surveying, Theoretical gravity, Topography, TU Wien, Undulation of the geoid, Vertical deflection, World Geodetic System. Expand index (20 more) »

## Astronomical object

An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.

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## Ballistic missile

A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.

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## Cadastre

A cadastre (also spelled cadaster) is a comprehensive land recording of the real estate or real property's metes-and-bounds of a country.

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## Circle of latitude

A circle of latitude on Earth is an abstract east–west circle connecting all locations around Earth (ignoring elevation) at a given latitude.

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## Clairaut's theorem

Clairaut's theorem is a general mathematical law giving the surface gravity on a viscous rotating ellipsoid in equilibrium under the action of its gravitational field and centrifugal force.

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## Cornell University Press

The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.

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## Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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## Deflection (physics)

A deflection, in physics, refers to the change in an object's velocity as a consequence of contact (collision) with a surface or the influence of a field.

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## Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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## Distance

Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are.

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## Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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## Earth ellipsoid

An Earth ellipsoid is a mathematical figure approximating the Earth's form, used as a reference frame for computations in geodesy, astronomy, and the geosciences.

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## Earth science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.

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## Earth's rotation

Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.

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## Eccentricity (mathematics)

In mathematics, the eccentricity, denoted e or \varepsilon, is a parameter associated with every conic section.

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## EGM96

EGM96 (Earth Gravitational Model 1996) is a geopotential model of the Earth consisting of spherical harmonic coefficients complete to degree and order 360.

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## Ellipsoid

An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.

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## Equator

An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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## Equatorial bulge

An equatorial bulge is a difference between the equatorial and polar diameters of a planet, due to the force exerted by its rotation.

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## Equipotential

Equipotential or isopotential in mathematics and physics refers to a region in space where every point in it is at the same potential.

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## Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.

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## Flat Earth

The flat Earth model is an archaic conception of Earth's shape as a plane or disk.

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## Flattening

Flattening is a measure of the compression of a circle or sphere along a diameter to form an ellipse or an ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid) respectively.

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## Friedrich Heinrich Albert Wangerin

Friedrich Heinrich Albert Wangerin (November 18, 1844 – October 25, 1933) was a German mathematician.

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## Friedrich Robert Helmert

Friedrich Robert Helmert (July 31, 1843 – June 15, 1917) was a German geodesist and an important writer on the theory of errors.

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## Geodesy

Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

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## Geographic coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.

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## Geoid

The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.

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## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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## Geophysics

Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.

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## Grade measurement

Grade measurement is the geodetic determination of the local radius of curvature of the figure of the Earth by determining the difference in astronomical latitude between two locations on the same meridian, the metric distance between which is known.

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## Granite

Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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## Gravitational field

In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.

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## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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## Horizontal and vertical

The usage of the inter-related terms horizontal and vertical as well as their symmetries and asymmetries vary with context (e.g. two vs. three dimensions or calculations using a flat earth approximation vs. spherical earth).

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## Inertial navigation system

An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers), rotation sensors (gyroscopes), and occasionally magnetic sensors (magnetometers) to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation, and the velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references.

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## Inner core

The Earth's inner core is the Earth's innermost part.

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## International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics

The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG; Union géodésique et géophysique internationale, UGGI) is an international non-governmental organisation dedicated to the scientific study of the Earth and its space environment using geophysical and geodetic techniques.

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## Isostasy

Isostasy (Greek ''ísos'' "equal", ''stásis'' "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density.

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## Karl Ledersteger

Karl Ledersteger (11 November 1900, in Vienna – 24 September 1972, near Vienna) was an important geodesist and geophysicist.

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## Land use

Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods.

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## Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

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## Meridian arc

In geodesy, a meridian arc measurement is the distance between two points with the same longitude, i.e., a segment of a meridian curve or its length.

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## NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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## National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is both a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and an intelligence agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security.

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## Navigation

Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.

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## Orthogonality

In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.

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## Oxford

Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.

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## Pierre Bouguer

Pierre Bouguer (16 February 1698, Croisic – 15 August 1758, Paris) was a French mathematician, geophysicist, geodesist, and astronomer.

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## Plumb bob

A plumb bob, or plummet, is a weight, usually with a pointed tip on the bottom, suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line, or plumb-line.

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## Pythagoreanism

Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.

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## Radius

In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.

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## Radius of curvature

In differential geometry, the radius of curvature,, is the reciprocal of the curvature.

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## Reference ellipsoid

In geodesy, a reference ellipsoid is a mathematically defined surface that approximates the geoid, the truer figure of the Earth, or other planetary body.

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## Satellite

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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## Satellite geodesy

Satellite geodesy is geodesy by means of artificial satellites — the measurement of the form and dimensions of Earth, the location of objects on its surface and the figure of the Earth's gravity field by means of artificial satellite techniques.

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## Sphere

A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").

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## Spherical Earth

The earliest reliably documented mention of the spherical Earth concept dates from around the 6th century BC when it appeared in ancient Greek philosophy but remained a matter of speculation until the 3rd century BC, when Hellenistic astronomy established the spherical shape of the Earth as a physical given.

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## Spherical harmonics

In mathematics and physical science, spherical harmonics are special functions defined on the surface of a sphere.

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## Spheroid

A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.

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## Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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## Sputnik 1

Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.

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## Structure of the Earth

The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells: an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous asthenosphere and mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core.

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## Surveying

Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.

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## Theoretical gravity

In geodesy and geophysics, theoretical gravity or normal gravity is an approximation of the true effective or apparent gravity on Earth's surface by means of a mathematical model representing (a physically smoothed) Earth.

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## Topography

Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

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## TU Wien

TU Wien (Technische Universität Wien; formerly: k.k. Polytechnisches Institut, Imperial and Royal Polytechnic Institute from 1815–1872; Technische Hochschule (TH Wien), College of Technology from 1872–1975; Vienna University of Technology from 1975–2014) is one of the major universities in Vienna, the capital of Austria.

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## Undulation of the geoid

Undulation of the geoid is the height of the geoid relative to a given ellipsoid of reference.

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## Vertical deflection

The vertical deflection (deflection of the plumb line, astro-geodetic deflection) at a point on the Earth is a measure of how far the direction of the local gravity field has been shifted by local anomalies such as nearby mountains.

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## World Geodetic System

The World Geodetic System (WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and satellite navigation including GPS.

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## Redirects here:

Bending of the earth, Curvature of the Earth, Curvature of the earth, Earth curvature, Earth model, Earth shape, Earth's bending, Earth's curvature, Earth's shape, Figure of Earth, Figure of earth, Figure of the earth, Form of Earth, Form of the Earth, Ground curves, Shape of the Earth, Shape of the earth, Shape of the planet Earth, Volume Of Earth, Volume of the Earth.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Figure_of_the_Earth