122 relations: Absorbance, Agfa-Gevaert, Alfred Watkins, American National Standards Institute, Analog-to-digital converter, Aperture, APEX system, Arithmetic, Black and white, BSI Group, Camera & Imaging Products Association, Candela, Canon A-1, Canon EOS-1D Mark IV, Canon EOS-1D X, Canon EOS-1D X Mark II, Canon FT QL, Canon Pellix, Color print film, Color space, Decibel, Deutsches Institut für Normung, Digital camera, Dresden, DX encoding, Edward Weston (chemist), Edward Weston (disambiguation), Emanuel Goldberg, Emulsion, Exif, Exposure (photography), Exposure compensation, F-number, Ferdinand Hurter, Film grain, Focal length, Focal Press, Frame rate, Fujicolor Pro, Fujifilm Superia, Gain (electronics), Gamma correction, General Electric, GOST, Howard N. Potts Medal, Hurter and Driffield, Ilford Delta, Ilford FP, Ilford HP, Image noise, ..., Image sensor, Incandescent light bulb, Instax, International Organization for Standardization, International standard, Joris Ivens, Josef Maria Eder, JPEG, Julius Scheiner, Just-noticeable difference, Kodachrome, Kodacolor (still photography), Kodak, Kodak Portra, Kodak T-MAX, Kodak Tri-X, Leica R8-R9, Leipzig, Lens speed, Leon Warnerke, Light meter, Lighting, Lightness, List of discontinued photographic films, Logarithmic scale, Lossy compression, Loyd A. Jones, Luminance, Lux, Magnesium, Metre, Negative (photography), Nikon, Nikon D3S, Nikon D4, Nikon D4S, Nikon D5, Original camera negative, ORWO, Pentax 645Z, Phosphorescence, Photographic film, Photosensitivity, Pixel, Preferred number, Provia, Push processing, Quantum efficiency, Raw image format, Reciprocity (photography), Reversal film, Royal Photographic Society, Second, Sensitometry, Shutter (photography), Shutter speed, Signal-to-noise ratio, Silver halide, Sony α7, Soviet Union, Specular reflection, SRGB, Standard deviation, Sunny 16 rule, Tessina, TIFF, Transmittance, Velvia, Vero Charles Driffield, Vignetting, William de Wiveleslie Abney, 35 mm film. Expand index (72 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
Agfa-Gevaert N.V. (Agfa) is a Belgian-German multinational corporation that develops, manufactures, and distributes analogue and digital imaging products and systems, as well as IT solutions.
Alfred Watkins (27 January 1855 – 15 April 1935) was an English author, self-taught amateur archaeologist, antiquarian and businessman who, while standing on a hillside in Herefordshire, England, in 1921 experienced a revelation and noticed on the British landscape the apparent arrangement of straight lines positioned along ancient features, and subsequently coined the term "ley", now usually referred to as ley line, because the line passed through places whose names contained the syllable "ley".
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.
APEX stands for Additive system of Photographic EXposure, which was proposed in the 1960 ASA standard for monochrome film speed, ASA PH2.5-1960, as a means of simplifying exposure computation.
Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Black and white, often abbreviated B/W or B&W, and hyphenated black-and-white when used as an adjective, is any of several monochrome forms in visual arts.
BSI Group, also known as the British Standards Institution (BSI), is the national standards body of the United Kingdom.
, is a Japan-based organization set up in July 2002 to deal with technologies related to photography.
The candela (or; symbol: cd) is the base unit of luminous intensity in the International System of Units (SI); that is, luminous power per unit solid angle emitted by a point light source in a particular direction.
The Canon A-1 is an advanced level single-lens reflex (SLR) 35 mm film camera for use with interchangeable lenses.
The EOS-1D Mark IV is a professional 16.1 effective megapixels digital single lens reflex camera (DSLR) camera body produced by Canon.
The Canon EOS-1D X is a professional digital SLR camera body by Canon Inc. It succeeded the company's previous flagship Canon EOS-1Ds Mark III and the Canon EOS-1D Mark IV.
The Canon EOS-1D X Mark II is the company's 20-megapixel full-frame DSLR flagship camera, announced on February 1, 2016, by Canon with an MSRP of US$5,999.00.
The Canon FT QL is a 35mm single-lens reflex camera introduced by Canon of Japan in March 1966.
The Canon Pellix is a manual focus camera released in 1965 that uses a semitransparent stationary reflex mirror behind which a metering cell is raised during the reading.
Color prints have been developed since their beginnings in 1935 with Eastman Kodak’s Company’s Kodachrome film, as well in 1936 with Agfa Company’s Agfacolor film.
A color space is a specific organization of colors.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body.
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
DX (Digital indeX) encoding is an ANSI and I3A standard, originally introduced by Kodak in March 1983, for marking 135 and APS photographic film and film cartridges.
Edward Weston (May 9, 1850 – August 20, 1936) was an English-born American chemist noted for his achievements in electroplating and his development of the electrochemical cell, named the Weston cell, for the voltage standard.
Edward Weston (1886–1958) was an American photographer and co-founder of Group f/64.
Emanuel Goldberg (עמנואל גולדברג; עמנואל גאָלדבערג; Эмануэль Гольдберг) (born: 31 August 1881; died: 13 September 1970) was an Israeli physicist and inventor.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Exchangeable image file format (officially Exif, according to JEIDA/JEITA/CIPA specifications) is a standard that specifies the formats for images, sound, and ancillary tags used by digital cameras (including smartphones), scanners and other systems handling image and sound files recorded by digital cameras.
In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film or electronic image sensor, as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene luminance.
Exposure compensation is a technique for adjusting the exposure indicated by a photographic exposure meter, in consideration of factors that may cause the indicated exposure to result in a less-than-optimal image.
The f-number of an optical system (such as a camera lens) is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil.
Ferdinand Hurter (15 March 1844 – 12 March 1898) was a Swiss industrial chemist who settled in England.
Film grain or granularity is the random optical texture of processed photographic film due to the presence of small particles of a metallic silver, or dye clouds, developed from silver halide that have received enough photons.
The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light.
Focal Press is a publisher of media technology books and it is an imprint of Taylor & Francis.
Frame rate (expressed in or fps) is the frequency (rate) at which consecutive images called frames appear on a display.
Fujicolor Pro is a line of professional color negative films from Japanese company Fujifilm introduced in 2004 for weddings, portraits, fashion and commercial photography.
Fujifilm Superia is a brand of daylight balanced colour negative film produced by the Japanese company Fujifilm.
In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input to the output port by adding energy converted from some power supply to the signal.
Gamma correction, or often simply gamma, is a nonlinear operation used to encode and decode luminance or tristimulus values in video or still image systems.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
GOST (Russian: ГОСТ) refers to a set of technical standards maintained by the Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (EASC), a regional standards organization operating under the auspices of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
The Howard N. Potts Medal was one of The Franklin Institute Awards for science and engineering award presented by the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Ferdinand Hurter (1844–1898) and Vero Charles Driffield (1848–1915) were nineteenth-century photographic scientists who brought quantitative scientific practice to photography through the methods of sensitometry and densitometry.
Ilford Delta is a series of photographic films manufactured by Harman Technology Limited.
FP is a cubic-grain black-and-white film from Ilford Photo with a long history.
HP is a cubic-grain black-and-white film from Ilford Photo with a long history.
Image noise is random variation of brightness or color information in images, and is usually an aspect of electronic noise.
An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
Instax (stylized as instax) is a brand of instant still cameras and instant films marketed by Fujifilm.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations.
Georg Henri Anton "Joris" Ivens (18 November 1898 – 28 June 1989) was a Dutch documentary filmmaker.
Josef Maria Eder 16 March 1855 – 18 October 1944) was an Austrian chemist who specialized in the chemistry of photography.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
Julius Scheiner (25 November 1858 – 20 December 1913) was a German astronomer, born in Cologne and educated at Bonn.
In the branch of experimental psychology focused on sense, sensation, and perception, which is called psychophysics, a just-noticeable difference or JND is the amount something must be changed in order for a difference to be noticeable, detectable at least half the time (absolute threshold).
Kodachrome is a brand name for a non-substantive, color reversal film introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1935.
In still photography, Kodak's Kodacolor brand has been associated with various color negative films (i.e., films that produce negatives for making color prints on paper) since 1942.
The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology company that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography.
Kodak Portra is a family of daylight-balanced professional color negative films originally introduced in 1998 made mainly for portrait and wedding applications.
Kodak Professional T-MAX Film is a continuous tone, panchromatic, tabular-grain black and white negative film originally developed and manufactured by Eastman Kodak since 1986.
Tri-X is a black-and-white photographic film formerly produced by Eastman Kodak Company, and now produced by Kodak Alaris.
The Leica R8 & R9 are manual focus 35 mm single-lens reflex cameras produced by the German firm Leica as the final models of their R series.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Lens speed refers to the maximum aperture diameter, or minimum f-number, of a photographic lens.
Leon Warnerke was a Polish engineer and inventor in the field of photography, independence activist and revolutionary.
A light meter is a device used to measure the amount of light.
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
In colorimetry and color theory, lightness, also known as value or tone, is a representation of variation in the perception of a color or color space's brightness.
All the still camera films on this page have either been discontinued, have been updated or the company making the film no longer exists.
A logarithmic scale is a nonlinear scale used when there is a large range of quantities.
In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content.
Loyd A. Jones (April 12, 1884 – May 15, 1954) was an American scientist who worked for Eastman Kodak Company, where he was head of its physics department for many years.
Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction.
The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI derived unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per unit area.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
In photography, a negative is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest.
(or), also known just as Nikon, is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, specializing in optics and imaging products.
The Nikon D3S is a 12.1-megapixel professional-grade full frame (35mm) digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) announced by Nikon Corporation on 14 October 2009.
The Nikon D4 is a 16.2-megapixel professional-grade full frame (35mm) digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) announced by Nikon Corporation on 6 January 2012.
The Nikon D4S is a full frame professional DSLR camera announced by Nikon Corporation on February 25, 2014 to succeed the D4 as its flagship DSLR.
The Nikon D5 is a full frame professional DSLR camera announced by Nikon Corporation on 6 January 2016 to succeed the D4S as its flagship DSLR.
The original camera negative (OCN) is the film in a traditional film-based movie camera which captures the original image.
ORWO (for ORiginal WOlfen) is a brand for photographic products and magnetic recording tape.
The Pentax 645Z is a professional medium format digital SLR camera announced by Ricoh on April 15, 2014.
Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
In industrial design, preferred numbers (also called preferred values or preferred series) are standard guidelines for choosing exact product dimensions within a given set of constraints.
Provia is a brandname for a pair of daylight-balanced color reversal films (slide film) produced by the Japanese film company Fujifilm.
Push processing in photography, sometimes called uprating, refers to a film developing technique that increases the effective sensitivity of the film being processed.
The term quantum efficiency (QE) may apply to incident photon to converted electron (IPCE) ratio, of a photosensitive device or it may refer to the TMR effect of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction.
A camera raw image file contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of either a digital camera, image scanner, or motion picture film scanner.
In photography reciprocity is the inverse relationship between the intensity and duration of light that determines the reaction of light-sensitive material.
In photography, reversal film is a type of photographic film that produces a positive image on a transparent base.
The Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain, commonly known as the Royal Photographic Society (RPS), is one of the world's oldest photographic societies.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
Sensitometry is the scientific study of light-sensitive materials, especially photographic film.
In photography, a shutter is a device that allows light to pass for a determined period, exposing photographic film or a light-sensitive electronic sensor to light in order to capture a permanent image of a scene.
In photography, shutter speed or exposure time is the length of time when the film or digital sensor inside the camera is exposed to light, also when a camera's shutter is open when taking a photograph.
Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.
A silver halide (or silver salt) is one of the chemical compounds that can form between the element silver and one of the halogens.
The Sony α7, α7R and α7S (the α is sometimes spelled out as Alpha) are three closely related digital cameras.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.
sRGB (standard Red Green Blue) is an RGB color space that HP and Microsoft created cooperatively in 1996 to use on monitors, printers, and the Internet.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
In photography, the sunny 16 rule (also known as the sunny rule) is a method of estimating correct daylight exposures without a light meter.
The Tessina (officially created by Arnold Siegrist) is a high-quality 35 mm camera patented by Austrian chemical engineer Dr.
Tagged Image File Format, abbreviated TIFF or TIF, is a computer file format for storing raster graphics images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry, and photographers.
Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.
Velvia is a brand of daylight-balanced color reversal film produced by the Japanese company Fujifilm.
Vero Charles Driffield (7 May 1848 – 14 November 1915) was a chemical engineer who also became involved in photographic research.
In photography and optics, vignetting (vignette) is a reduction of an image's brightness or saturation toward the periphery compared to the image center.
Sir William de Wiveleslie Abney, KCB, FRS (24 July 1843 – 3 December 1920) was an English astronomer, chemist, and photographer.
35 mm film (millimeter) is the film gauge most commonly used for motion pictures and chemical still photography (see 135 film).
ASA film speed, BS film speed, BSI film speed, Camera ISO, DIN 4512, DIN 4512-1, DIN 4512-1:1971-04, DIN 4512-1:1993-05, DIN 4512-4, DIN 4512-4:1977-06, DIN 4512-4:1985-08, DIN 4512-5, DIN 4512-5:1977-10, DIN 4512-5:1990-11, DIN 4512:1934-01, DIN 4512:1957-11, DIN 4512:1957-11 (Blatt 1), DIN 4512:1961-10, DIN 4512:1961-10 (Blatt 1), DIN ISO 2240, DIN ISO 2240:1998-06, DIN ISO 2240:2005-10, DIN ISO 5800, DIN ISO 5800:1998-06, DIN ISO 5800:2003-11, DIN ISO 6, DIN ISO 6:1996-02, DIN film speed, Degree Scheiner, Degrees Scheiner, Digital ISO speed, Digital camera ISO, Exposure index, Film ISO, Film Speed, Film sensitivity, Film speed conversion, Filmspeed, GE film speed, GOST (film speed), GOST 2817-45, GOST 2817-50, GOST film speed, General Electric film speed, ISO (film), ISO (photography), ISO 12232, ISO 12232:1998, ISO 12232:2006, ISO 1600, ISO 2240, ISO 2240:1982, ISO 2240:1994, ISO 2240:2003, ISO 2720, ISO 2720:1974, ISO 3200, ISO 400, ISO 5800, ISO 5800:1979, ISO 5800:1987, ISO 5800:1987/Cor 1:2001, ISO 5800:2001, ISO 6, ISO 6:1974, ISO 6:1993, ISO 800, ISO digital speed, ISO exposure index, ISO film speed, ISO number, ISO rating, ISO sensitivity, ISO setting, ISO speed, Iso speed, Sch., Scheiner inflation, Scheiner-inflation, Scheinergrad, Scheinergrade, Slow film, Warn., Weston film speed, Weston film speed ratings, ° DIN, ° Sch., ° Scheiner, ° W., ° Warnerke, °DIN, °Sch., °Scheiner, °W., °Warn., °Warnerke.