211 relations: Ad hoc, Adolf Eichmann, Adolf Hitler, Aktion Erntefest, Aktion T4, Albert Speer, Alfred Jodl, Allies of World War II, Anschluss, Arthur Greiser, Auschwitz Album, Auschwitz concentration camp, Łódź, Łódź Ghetto, Łuck Ghetto, Babi Yar, Baltic states, Battle of Britain, Battle of France, Będzin Ghetto, Bełżec extermination camp, Belarus, Belarusian Auxiliary Police, Berlin, Bezirk Bialystok, Białystok, Białystok Ghetto, Białystok Ghetto uprising, Białystok Voivodeship (1919–1939), Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), Bloomington, Indiana, Bolsheviks, Buchenwald concentration camp, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Chełmno, Chełmno extermination camp, Chernihiv, Christian Gerlach, Christopher Browning, Code name, Crawler excavator, Częstochowa Ghetto uprising, Dachau concentration camp, David Cesarani, David M. Crowe, Dina Porat, Dnipro, Eastern Front (World War II), Einsatzgruppen, ..., Einsatzgruppen reports, Euphemism, Extermination camp, Führer, Flossenbürg concentration camp, Franz Walter Stahlecker, Friedrich Jeckeln, Functionalism versus intentionalism, Gargždai, Gas chamber, Gas van, Gauleiter, General Government, Genocide, German-occupied Europe, German–Soviet Frontier Treaty, Gestapo, Gestapo–NKVD conferences, Ghetto uprising, Grossaktion Warsaw (1942), Gruppenführer, Hamburger Edition, Hans Frank, Hans Krueger, Höfle Telegram, Heinrich Himmler, Heinrich Müller (Gestapo), Hermann Göring, History of Poland (1939–1945), History of the Jews during World War II, History of the Jews in Poland, Holocaust trains, Holt McDougal, Ian Hancock, Janowska concentration camp, Jürgen Matthäus, Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland, Jewish question, Jews, Joseph Goebbels, Judenfrei, Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre, Kaunas, Kharkiv, Kiev, Korherr Report, Kresy, Kriminalpolizei, Kryvyi Rih, Kurt Daluege, Lebensraum, List of subcamps of Buchenwald, Lithuania, Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions, Lviv, Lviv pogroms, Madagascar Plan, Majdanek concentration camp, Mark Roseman, Martin Luther (diplomat), Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp complex, Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, MS St. Louis, Munich, National Geographic (U.S. TV channel), Natzweiler-Struthof, Nazi concentration camps, Nazi Germany, Nazi ghettos, Nazi Party, Nuremberg Laws, Nuremberg trials, Obergruppenführer, Occupation of Poland (1939–1945), Odilo Globočnik, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Reinhard, Ordnungspolizei, Palestine (region), Paul Blobel, Peter Longerich, Pińsk Ghetto, POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews, Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany, Posen Conference, Posen speeches, Province of Upper Silesia, Przekrój, Raul Hilberg, Ravensbrück concentration camp, Reich Main Security Office, Reichsführer-SS, Reichsgau Wartheland, Reichskommissariat Ostland, Reichsleiter, Reichsmarschall, Reinhard Heydrich, Reserve Police Battalion 101, Romani genocide, Romani people, Roundup (history), Ryszard Kapuściński, Schutzmannschaft, Schutzstaffel, Second Polish Republic, Shmuel Shilo, Siberia, Sicherheitsdienst, Sicherheitspolizei, Sobibór extermination camp, Sonderkommando, Sosnowiec Ghetto, Soviet invasion of Poland, SS and police leader, SS Cavalry Brigade, Stanisławów Ghetto, Stroud, Subsequent Nuremberg trials, Surazh, Technical University of Berlin, Telford Taylor, Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union, The Destruction of the European Jews, The Holocaust, The Holocaust in Lithuania, The Holocaust in Poland, The Journal of Modern History, The Lemberg Mosaic, The War Against the Jews, Theresienstadt concentration camp, Timothy D. Snyder, Trawniki men, Treblinka extermination camp, Trochenbrod, Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, Ukrainian People's Militia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, University of California Press, University Press of Kentucky, Vienna, Vileyka, Vilnius, Vinnytsia, Virtual Shtetl, Volhynia, Waffen-SS, Walter Laqueur, Wannsee Conference, Warsaw Ghetto, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Wehrmacht, Westerbork transit camp, Wilno Voivodeship (1926–1939), World War II, World War II evacuation and expulsion, Yad Vashem, Yehuda Bauer, Zhytomyr, Zyklon B, 1941 Bila Tserkva massacre. Expand index (161 more) » « Shrink index
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".
Otto Adolf Eichmann (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Aktion Erntefest (Operation Harvest Festival) was a World War II mass shooting action carried out by the SS, the Order police, and the Ukrainian Sonderdienst formations in the General Government territory of occupied Poland.
Aktion T4 (German) was a postwar name for mass murder through involuntary euthanasia in Nazi Germany.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Alfred Josef Ferdinand Jodl (10 May 1890 – 16 October 1946) was a German general during World War II, who served as the Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Arthur Karl Greiser (22 January 1897 – 21 July 1946) was a Nazi German politician, SS-Obergruppenführer and Reichsstatthalter (Reich Governor) of the German-occupied territory of Wartheland.
The Auschwitz Album is a unique photographic record of the Holocaust of the Second World War.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
The Łódź Ghetto (Ghetto Litzmannstadt) was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland.
The Łuck Ghetto (a.k.a. the Lutsk Ghetto, getto w Łucku, Ghetto Luzk) was a Jewish World War II ghetto established in 1941 by the Schutzstaffel (SS) in the prewar Polish city of Łuck (now Lutsk, Ukraine) occupied by Germany in the south-eastern region of Kresy during Operation Barbarossa.
Babi Yar (Бабин Яр, Babyn Yar; Бабий Яр, Babiy Yar) is a ravine in the Ukrainian capital Kiev and a site of massacres carried out by German forces and by local Ukrainian collaborators during their campaign against the Soviet Union in World War II.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Będzin Ghetto (a.k.a. the Bendzin Ghetto, בענדינער געטאָ, Bendiner geto; Ghetto von Bendsburg) was a World War II ghetto set up by Nazi Germany for the Polish Jews in the town of Będzin in occupied south-western Poland.
Bełżec (in Belzec) was a Nazi German extermination camp built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, the plan to eradicate Polish Jewry, a key part of the "Final Solution" which entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Belarusian Auxiliary Police (Biełaruskaja dapamožnaja palicyja; Weißruthenische Schutzmannschaften, or Hilfspolizei) was established in July 1941.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bezirk Bialystok (German for District or Region of Białystok, also Belostok) was an administrative unit of Nazi Germany created during the World War II invasion of the Soviet Union.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
The Białystok Ghetto (getto w Białymstoku) was a World War II Jewish ghetto set up by Nazi Germany between July 26 and early August 1941 in the newly formed Bezirk Bialystok district within Nazi occupied Poland.
The Białystok Ghetto uprising was a Jewish insurrection in the Białystok Ghetto against the Nazi German occupation authorities during World War II.
See also: Białystok Voivodeship (1945–1975) and Białystok Voivodeship (1975–1998) Białystok Voivodeship (Województwo białostockie) was an administrative unit of interwar Poland (1918–1939).
The Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), also known as the Economic War, was carried out during World War II by the United Kingdom and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles needed by Nazi Germany - and later Fascist Italy - in order to sustain their war efforts.
Bloomington is a city in and the county seat of Monroe County in the southern region of the U.S. state of Indiana.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Buchenwald concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Buchenwald,; literally, in English: beech forest) was a German Nazi concentration camp established on Ettersberg hill near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937, one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil, following Dachau's opening just over four years earlier.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).
Chełmno (older Culm) is a town in northern Poland near the Vistula river with 20,000 inhabitants and the historical capital of Chełmno Land.
Chełmno extermination camp (Vernichtungslager Kulmhof), built during World War II, was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps and was situated north of the metropolitan city of Łódź (renamed to Litzmannstadt), near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr in German).
Chernihiv (Чернігів) also known as Chernigov (p, Czernihów) is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast (province), as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion (district) within the oblast.
Hans Christian Gerlach is professor of Modern History at the University of Bern.
Christopher Robert Browning (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian, known best for his works on the Holocaust.
A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person.
A crawler excavator (or crawling digger) is a tracked vehicle designed to dig or grade, or move earth and large objects, and is classified by its mode of locomotion.
The Częstochowa Ghetto uprising was an insurrection in Poland's Częstochowa Ghetto against German occupational forces during World War II.
Dachau concentration camp (Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners.
David Cesarani OBE (13 November 1956 – 25 October 2015) was an English historian who specialised in Jewish history, especially the Holocaust.
David M. Crowe, Jr. is a Presidential Fellow at Chapman University and Professor Emeritus of History and Law at Elon University.
Dina Porat is an Israeli historian.
Dnipro (Дніпро), until May 2016 Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетро́вськ) also known as Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетро́вск), is Ukraine's fourth largest city, with about one million inhabitants.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
The Einsatzgruppen Operational Situation Reports (OSRs), or ERM for the Die Ereignismeldung UdSSR (plural: Ereignismeldungen), were dispatches of the Nazi death squads (Einsatzgruppen), which documented the progress of the Holocaust behind the German-Soviet frontier in the course of Operation Barbarossa, during World War II.
A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".
Konzentrationslager Flossenbürg was a Nazi German concentration camp built in May 1938 by the Schutzstaffel (SS) Economic-Administrative Main Office at Flossenbürg, in the Upper Palatinate region of Bavaria, Germany, near the border with Czechoslovakia.
Franz Walter Stahlecker (10 October 1900 – 23 March 1942) was commander of the SS security forces (Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) and the Sicherheitsdienst (SD)) for the Reichskommissariat Ostland in 1941–42.
Friedrich Jeckeln (2 February 1895 – 3 February 1946) was a German SS commander during the Nazi era.
Functionalism versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy.
Gargždai is a city in western Lithuania located in Klaipėda County.
A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or other animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced.
A gas van or gas wagon (душегубка (dushegubka); Gaswagen) was a vehicle reequipped as a mobile gas chamber.
A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.
The German-Soviet Frontier Treaty was a second supplementary protocol, of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 23 August.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
The Gestapo–NKVD conferences were a series of security police meetings organized in late 1939 and early 1940 by Germany and the Soviet Union, following their joint invasion of Poland in accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
The ghetto uprisings during World War II were a series of armed revolts against the regime of Nazi Germany between 1941 and 1943 in the newly established Jewish ghettos across Nazi-occupied Europe.
The Grossaktion or Gross-Aktion Warsaw (Großaktion Warschau, Great Action) was a secretive Nazi German operation of the mass extermination of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto beginning 22 July 1942.
Gruppenführer ("group leader") was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), first created in 1925 as a senior rank of the SA.
The Hamburger Edition is the publishing house of the Hamburg Institute for Social Research.
Hans Michael Frank (23 May 1900 – 16 October 1946) was a German war criminal and lawyer who worked for the Nazi Party during the 1920s and 1930s, and later became Adolf Hitler's personal lawyer.
SS-Hauptsturmführer Hans Krueger (1 July 1909 – 8 February 1988) was a German captain of the Gestapo in occupied Poland during World War II, involved in organizing the string of massacres after the commencement of Operation Barbarossa behind the Curzon Line.
The Höfle Telegram (or Hoefle Telegram) is a cryptic one-page document, discovered in 2000 among the declassified World War II archives of the Public Record Office in Kew, England.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Heinrich Müller (28 April 1900; date of death unknown, but evidence points to May 1945) was a German police official under both the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The history of Poland from 1939 to 1945 encompasses primarily the period from the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany to the end of World War II.
The history of the Jews during World War II is almost synonymous with the Jewish persecution and murder of unprecedented scale in modern times in political Europe inclusive of European North Africa (pro-Nazi Vichy-North Africa and Italian Libya).
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.
Holt McDougal is an American publishing company, a division of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, that specializes in textbooks for use in secondary schools.
Ian Hancock (Romani: Yanko le Redžosko, born 29 August 1942) is a linguist, Romani scholar and political advocate.
Janowska concentration camp (Janowska, Янов or "Yanov", Янівський табір) was a Nazi German labor, transit and extermination camp established in September 1941 in occupied Poland on the outskirts of Lwów (Second Polish Republic, today Lviv, Ukraine).
Jürgen Matthäus (born 1959) is a German historian and head of the research department of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland were established during World War II in hundreds of locations across occupied Poland.
The Jewish question was a wide-ranging debate in 19th- and 20th-century European society pertaining to the appropriate status and treatment of Jews in society.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The Nazi terms judenfrei ("free of Jews") and judenrein ("clean of Jews") designated an area that was "cleansed" of Jews during The Holocaust.
The Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre was a World War II mass shooting of Jews carried out in the opening stages of Operation Barbarossa, by mobile killing squads of Nazi German Order Police Battalion 320 along with Jeckeln's Einsatzgruppen, the Hungarian soldiers, and the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The Korherr Report is a 16-page document on the progress of the Holocaust in German-controlled Europe.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
Kriminalpolizei ("criminal police") is the standard term for the criminal investigation agency within the police forces of Germany, Austria and the German-speaking cantons of Switzerland.
Kryvyi Rih (krɪˈwɪj riɦ|lit.
Kurt Max Franz Daluege (15 September 1897 – 24 October 1946) was the chief of the national uniformed Ordnungspolizei (Order Police) of Nazi Germany.
The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.
The following is a list of the forced labor subcamps of the Nazi Buchenwald concentration camp.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions were paramilitary units (battalions) formed during the occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany between 1941 and 1944.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
The Lviv pogroms were the consecutive massacres of Jews living in the city of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine), perpetrated by the German commandos and the Ukrainian nationalists from 30 June to 2 July 1941, and from 25 to 29 July 1941, during the Wehrmacht's attack on the Soviet positions in occupied eastern Poland in World War II.
The Madagascar Plan was a proposal by the Nazi German government to relocate the Jewish population of Europe to the island of Madagascar.
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
Mark Roseman (born 1958) is an English historian of modern Europe with particular interest in The Holocaust.
Martin Franz Julius Luther (16 December 1895 – 13 May 1945) was an early member of the Nazi Party.
The Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camp complex consisted of the Mauthausen concentration camp on a hill above the market town of Mauthausen (roughly east of Linz, Upper Austria) plus a group of nearly 100 further subcamps located throughout Austria and southern Germany.
The Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France (Militärverwaltung in Belgien und Nordfrankreich) was an interim occupation authority established during the Second World War by Nazi Germany that included present-day Belgium and the French departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel and also commercially abbreviated and trademarked as Nat Geo or Nat Geo TV) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by National Geographic Partners, majority-owned by 21st Century Fox with the remainder owned by the National Geographic Society.
Natzweiler-Struthof was a German-run concentration camp located in the Vosges Mountains close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller (German Natzweiler) in France, and the town of Schirmeck, about 50 km (31 m) south west of the city of Strasbourg.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Beginning with the invasion of Poland during World War II, the regime of Nazi Germany set up ghettos across occupied Europe in order to segregate and confine Jews, and sometimes Romani people, into small sections of towns and cities furthering their exploitation.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Obergruppenführer ("senior group leader") was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in 1932 as a rank of the ''Sturmabteilung'' (SA), and adopted by the Schutzstaffel (SS) one year later.
The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945.
Odilo Globočnik (21 April 1904 – 31 May 1945) was an Austrian war criminal.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename given to the secretive German Nazi plan to exterminate the majority of Polish Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland during World War II.
The Ordnungspolizei (Order Police), abbreviated Orpo, were the uniformed police force in Nazi Germany between 1936 and 1945.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Paul Blobel (13 August 1894 – 7 June 1951) was a German SS commander and convicted war criminal.
Peter Longerich (born 1955) is a German professor of history.
The Pińsk Ghetto (Getto w Pińsku) was a World War II extermination ghetto created by Nazi Germany for the confinement of Polish Jews living in the city of Pińsk (now Pinsk, Belarus) in the eastern territory of occupied Poland.
POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews (Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich) is a museum on the site of the former Warsaw Ghetto.
Following the Invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II, nearly a quarter of the entire territory of the Second Polish Republic was annexed by Nazi Germany and placed directly under the German civil administration.
The Posen Conference was a meeting attended by Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler, high-ranking German Nazi Party officials and Gauleiters on October 6, 1943 in the city of Posen in Reichsgau Posen (Poznań, Poland).
The Posen speeches were two secret speeches made by Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS, on 4 and 6 October 1943 in the town hall of Posen (Poznań), in German-occupied Poland.
The Province of Upper Silesia (Provinz Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Provinz Oberschläsing; Prowincyjŏ Gōrny Ślōnsk; Prowincja Górny Śląsk) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945.
Przekrój (Cross-section) is the oldest Polish weekly newsmagazine in operation, established in 1945 in Kraków.
Raul Hilberg (June 2, 1926 – August 4, 2007) was an Austrian-born Jewish-American political scientist and historian.
Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp exclusively for women from 1939 to 1945, located in northern Germany, north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück (part of Fürstenberg/Havel).
The Reich Main Security OfficeReichssicherheitshauptamt is variously translated as "Reich Main Security Office", "Reich Security Main Office", "Reich Central Security Main Office", "Reich Security Central Office", "Reich Head Security Office", or "Reich Security Head Office".
Reichsführer-SS ("Reich Leader-SS") was a special title and rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945 for the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
The Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen, also: Warthegau) was a Nazi German Reichsgau formed from parts of Polish territory annexed in 1939 during World War II.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
Reichsleiter (national leader or Reich leader) was the second highest political rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), next only to the office of Führer.
Reichsmarschall, Marshal of the Reich (literal translation: Empire or Realm), was the highest rank in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and a main architect of the Holocaust.
Reserve Police Battalion 101 was a Nazi German paramilitary formation of Ordnungspolizei (Order Police, abbreviated as Orpo), serving under the control of the SS by law.
The Romani genocide or the Romani Holocaust—also known as the Porajmos (Romani pronunciation), the Pharrajimos ("Cutting up", "Fragmentation", "Destruction"), and the Samudaripen ("Mass killing")—was the effort by Nazi Germany and its World War II allies to commit genocide against Europe's Romani people.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
A roundup (Polish: łapanka,; French: rafle or attrapage) was a widespread German World War II security and economic exploitation tactic used in occupied countries, especially in German-occupied Poland, whereby the SS, Wehrmacht and German police took captive at random thousands of civilians on the streets of subjugated cities.
Ryszard Kapuściński (March 4, 1932 – January 23, 2007) was a Polish journalist, photographer, poet and author.
The Schutzmannschaft or Auxiliary Police (literally: "protective, or guard units"; plural: Schutzmannschaften, abbreviated as Schuma) was the collaborationist auxiliary police of native policemen serving in those areas of the Soviet Union and the Baltic states occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
Shmuel Shilo or Shmulik Shiloh (שמואל שילה, 1 December 1929 – 4 October 2011) was an Israeli actor, director and producer, born in the Second Polish Republic, and best remembered for his role on the Israeli production of Rechov SumSum, a popular TV show based on Sesame Street.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS (Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS), or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany.
The Sicherheitspolizei (Security Police), often abbreviated as SiPo, was a term used in Germany for security police.
Sobibór (or Sobibor) was a Nazi German extermination camp built and operated by the SS near the railway station of Sobibór during World War II, within the semi-colonial territory of General Government of the occupied Second Polish Republic.
Sonderkommandos (special unit) were work units made up of German Nazi death camp prisoners.
The Sosnowiec Ghetto (Ghetto von Sosnowitz) was a World War II ghetto set up by Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews in the Środula district of Sosnowiec in the Province of Upper Silesia.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The title of SS and police leader (SS- und Polizeiführer) was used to designate a senior Nazi official who commanded large units of the SS, Gestapo and the German uniformed police (Ordnungspolizei), prior to and during World War II.
The SS Cavalry Brigade (SS-Kavallerie-Brigade) was a unit of the German Waffen-SS during World War II.
Stanisławów Ghetto (getto w Stanisławowie, Ghetto Stanislau) was a Jewish World War II ghetto established in 1941 by the Schutzstaffel (SS) in the prewar Polish city of Stanisławów in the south-eastern region of Kresy (now Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine) occupied by Germany after Operation Barbarossa.
Stroud is a market town and civil parish in the centre of Gloucestershire, England.
The subsequent Nuremberg trials (formally the Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals) were a series of twelve U.S. military tribunals for war crimes against members of the leadership of Nazi Germany, held in the Palace of Justice, Nuremberg, after World War II from 1946 to 1949 following the Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal.
Surazh (Сураж) is a town and the administrative center of Surazhsky District in Bryansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Iput River southwest of Bryansk, the administrative center of the oblast.
The Technical University of Berlin (official name Technische Universität Berlin, known as TU Berlin) is a research university located in Berlin, Germany.
Telford Taylor (February 24, 1908 – May 23, 1998) was an American lawyer best known for his role in the Counsel for the Prosecution at the Nuremberg Trials after World War II, his opposition to Senator Joseph McCarthy in the 1950s, and his outspoken criticism of U.S. actions during the Vietnam War in the 1960s and 1970s.
17 days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poland re-established during the Polish–Soviet War and referred to as the "Kresy", and annexed territories totaling with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Lithuanians,Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Czechs and others.
The Destruction of the European Jews is a 1961 book by historian Raul Hilberg.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Holocaust in German occupied Lithuania resulted in the near total destruction of Lithuanian (Litvaks) and Polish Jews, living in Generalbezirk Litauen of Reichskommissariat Ostland within the Nazi-controlled Lithuanian SSR.
The Holocaust in German-occupied Poland was the last and most lethal phase of Nazi Germany's "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" (Endlösung der Judenfrage), marked by the construction of death camps on German-occupied Polish soil.
The Journal of Modern History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press in cooperation with the Modern European History Section of the American Historical Association.
The Lemberg Mosaic, subtitled the "Memoirs of Two who Survived the Destruction of Jewish Galicia," is a book on the Holocaust by Jakob Weiss.
The War Against the Jews is a 1975 book by Lucy Dawidowicz.
Theresienstadt concentration camp, also referred to as Theresienstadt ghetto, was a concentration camp established by the SS during World War II in the garrison city of Terezín (Theresienstadt), located in German-occupied Czechoslovakia.
Timothy David Snyder (born 1969) is an American author and historian specializing in the history of Central and Eastern Europe, and the Holocaust.
Trawniki men (Trawnikimänner) were Central and Eastern European collaborators recruited from prisoner-of-war camps set up by Nazi Germany for Soviet Red Army soldiers captured in the border regions during Operation Barbarossa launched in June 1941.
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Trochenbrod or Trohinbrod, also in Polish: Zofjówka (pl), or in Софиевка (Sofievka), in Трохимбрід (Trokhymbrid),, was an exclusively Jewish shtetl – a small town, with an area of – located in the gmina Silno, powiat Łuck of the Wołyń Voivodeship, in the Second Polish Republic.
The Ukrainische Hilfspolizei or the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police (Українська допоміжна поліція, Ukrains’ka dopomizhna politsiia) was the official title of the local police formation set up by Nazi Germany during World War II in Reichskommissariat Ukraine; shortly after the German conquest of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in Operation Barbarossa against the Soviet Union, Germany's former ally in the invasion of Poland.
Ukrainian People's Militia or the Ukrainian National Militia (Українська Народна Міліція), was a paramilitary formation created by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in the General Government territory of occupied Poland and later in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine during World War II.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University Press of Kentucky (UPK) is the scholarly publisher for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and was organized in 1969 as successor to the University of Kentucky Press.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vileyka (officially transliterated as Viliejka, Віле́йка, also Вялейка; Вилейка; Vileika; Wilejka) is a city in Belarus and the administrative center of the Vileyka Raion in the Minsk Region.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vinnytsia (Vinnycja,; translit, Vinnica; Winnica; Winniza, and Vinița) is a city in west-central Ukraine, located on the banks of the Southern Bug.
The Virtual Shtetl (Wirtualny Sztetl) is a bilingual Polish-English portal of the Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw, devoted to the Jewish history of Poland.
Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
Walter Ze'ev Laqueur (born 26 May 1921) is an American historian, journalist and political commentator.
The Wannsee Conference (Wannseekonferenz) was a meeting of senior government officials of Nazi Germany and Schutzstaffel (SS) leaders, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942.
The Warsaw Ghetto (Warschauer Ghetto, officially Jüdischer Wohnbezirk in Warschau Jewish Residential District in Warsaw; getto warszawskie) was the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (אױפֿשטאַנד אין װאַרשעװער געטאָ; powstanie w getcie warszawskim; Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Camp Westerbork (Kamp Westerbork, Durchgangslager Westerbork) was a transit camp in Drenthe province, northeastern Netherlands, during World War II.
The Wilno Voivodeship (województwo wileńskie) was one of 16 Voivodeships in the Second Polish Republic, with the capital in Wilno (now Vilnius, Lithuania).
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Mass evacuation, forced displacement, expulsion, and deportation of millions of people took place across most countries involved in World War II.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
Yehuda Bauer (Hebrew: יהודה באואר; born April 6, 1926) is an Israeli historian and scholar of the Holocaust.
Zhytomyr (Žytomyr; Žitomir; Żytomierz; Žitomir) is a city in the north of the western half of Ukraine.
Zyklon B (translated Cyclone B) was the trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany in the early 1920s.
The Bila Tserkva massacre was the World War II mass murder of Jews, committed by the Nazi German Einsatzgruppe with the aid of Ukrainian auxiliaries, in Bila Tserkva, Soviet Ukraine, on August 21–22, 1941.
Die Endlösung, Endloessung, Endloesung, Endloesung der Judenfrage, Endlossung, Endlosung, Endlosung der Judenfrage, Endlössung, Endlösung, Endlösung der Judenfrage, Final Solution of the Jewish Question, Final Solution to the Jewish Question, Final solution, Final solution of the Jewish question, Final solution of the jewish question, Final solution to the Jewish question, Final solution to the jewish question, German solution, Solution of the Jewish Question, Solution of the Jewish Question in Europe, Solution to the Jewish problem, The Final Solution, The final solution of the Jewish question, The final solution of the jewish question.