131 relations: Accountant, Accounting, Actuarial science, American Academy of Financial Management, Angel investor, Applied mathematics, Asset, Association of Chartered Certified Accountants, Association of Corporate Treasurers, Bank, Bank of England, Basel Accords, Behavioral economics, Black–Scholes model, Bond (finance), Bond market, Business, Business administration, Business valuation, Capital (economics), Capital asset pricing model, Capital budgeting, Capital structure, Cash flow, Cash management, Certainty, Certificate in Quantitative Finance, Certified International Investment Analyst, Certified Management Accountant, Certified Public Accountant, Certified Treasury Professional, Chartered accountant, Chartered Alternative Investment Analyst, Chartered Certified Accountant, Chartered Cost Accountant, Chartered Financial Analyst, Computational finance, Corporate finance, Credit risk, Creditor, Debtor, Derivative (finance), Doctor of Business Administration, Durable good, Economic model, Economics, Efficient-market hypothesis, Equity (finance), Estate planning, Experimental finance, ..., Federal Reserve System, Financial accounting, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial econometrics, Financial economics, Financial engineering, Financial instrument, Financial intermediary, Financial market, Financial modeling, Financial risk, Financial risk management, Fisher separation theorem, Foreign exchange risk, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Goods and services, Gunduz Caginalp, Hedge (finance), Homo economicus, Individual retirement account, Inflation, Initial public offering, Institutional investor, Insurance, Interest rate, Inventory, Investment, Investment management, John Burr Williams, Journal of Behavioral Finance, Lender of last resort, Liability (financial accounting), Liquidity risk, List of unsolved problems in economics, London Stock Exchange, Market risk, Master of Arts in Liberal Studies, Master of Business Administration, Master of Commerce, Master of Finance, Master of Financial Economics, Master of Management, Master of Quantitative Finance, Master of Science in Management, Mathematical finance, Mathematical model, Modern portfolio theory, Modigliani–Miller theorem, Money management, Municipal bond, New York University Stern School of Business, Numerical analysis, Outline of finance, Pension, Pension fund, Personal finance, Portfolio (finance), Price, Professional certification, Professional Risk Managers' International Association, Public finance, Quantitative analyst, Quantitative behavioral finance, Rate of return, Rational pricing, Real estate, Real options valuation, Real versus nominal value (economics), Retirement, Risk management, Stock, Tax avoidance, United Kingdom, United States, Valuation of options, Value (economics), Variable (mathematics), Vernon L. Smith, Volatility (finance), Wall Street, Working capital. Expand index (81 more) » « Shrink index
An accountant is a practitioner of accounting or accountancy, which is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers, investors, tax authorities and others make decisions about allocating resource(s).
Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations.
Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions.
The American Academy of Financial Management was a US-based board of standards, certifying body, and accreditation council focused on the finance sector and management professionals.
An angel investor (also known as a business angel, informal investor, angel funder, private investor, or seed investor) is an affluent individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usually in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity.
Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.
In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.
Founded in 1904, the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) is the global professional accounting body offering the Chartered Certified Accountant qualification (ACCA or FCCA).
The Association of Corporate Treasurers (ACT) is the British professional body specialising in the profession of corporate treasury.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The Basel Accords (see alternative spellings below) refer to the banking supervision Accords (recommendations on banking regulations)—Basel I, Basel II and Basel III—issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS).
Behavioral economics studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and how those decisions vary from those implied by classical theory.
The Black–Scholes or Black–Scholes–Merton model is a mathematical model for the dynamics of a financial market containing derivative investment instruments.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
The bond market (also debt market or credit market) is a financial market where participants can issue new debt, known as the primary market, or buy and sell debt securities, known as the secondary market.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
Business administration is management of a business.
Business valuation is a process and a set of procedures used to estimate the economic value of an owner's interest in a business.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
In finance, the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is a model used to determine a theoretically appropriate required rate of return of an asset, to make decisions about adding assets to a well-diversified portfolio.
Capital budgeting, and investment appraisal, is the planning process used to determine whether an organization's long term investments such as new machinery, replacement of machinery, new plants, new products, and research development projects are worth the funding of cash through the firm's capitalization structure (debt, equity or retained earnings).
In finance, particularly corporate finance capital structure is the way a corporation finances its assets through some combination of equity, debt, or hybrid securities.
A cash flow describes a real or virtual movement of money.
Cash management refers to a broad area of finance involving the collection, handling, and usage of cash.
Certainty is perfect knowledge that has total security from error, or the mental state of being without doubt.
The Certificate in Quantitative Finance (CQF) is a Financial Engineering program and a finance designation offered by the CQF Institute.
Certified International Investment Analyst (CIIA) is a global finance designation offered by the Association of Certified International Investment Analysts (ACIIA) to financial professionals; candidates may be financial analysts, portfolio managers or investment advisors.
IMA's CMA (Certified Management Accountant) certification is a professional certification credential in the management accounting and financial management fields.
Certified Public Accountant (CPA) is the title of qualified accountants in numerous countries in the English-speaking world.
The Certified Treasury Professional (CTP) is a certification awarded by the Association for Financial Professionals (AFP) of Bethesda, Maryland to individuals who meet eligibility criteria and demonstrate current competency standards measured through the CTP examination.
Chartered Accountants were the first accountants to form a professional accounting body, initially established in Scotland in 1854.
Chartered Alternative Investment Analyst (CAIA) (pronounced "KAI-ah") is a professional designation offered by the CAIA Association to investment professionals who complete a course of study and pass two examinations.
Chartered Certified Accountant (designatory letters ACCA or FCCA) was historically seen as a British qualified accountant designation awarded by the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA).
Chartered Cost Accountant is a cost accounting or cost control professional designation offered by the American Academy of Financial Management.
The Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) Program is a professional credential offered internationally by the American-based CFA Institute (formerly the Association for Investment Management and Research, or AIMR) to investment and financial professionals.
Computational finance is a branch of applied computer science that deals with problems of practical interest in finance.
Corporate finance is the area of finance dealing with the sources of funding and the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, and the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources.
A credit risk is the risk of default on a debt that may arise from a borrower failing to make required payments.
A creditor is a party (for example, person, organization, company, or government) that has a claim on the services of a second party.
A debtor is an entity that owes a debt to another entity.
In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.
The Doctor of Business Administration (abbreviated DBA, D.B.A., DrBA, or Dr.B.A. or BusD) is a research doctorate awarded on the basis of advanced study and research in the field of business administration.
In economics, a durable good or a hard good is a good that does not quickly wear out, or more specifically, one that yields utility over time rather than being completely consumed in one use.
In economics, a model is a theoretical construct representing economic processes by a set of variables and a set of logical and/or quantitative relationships between them.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The efficient-market hypothesis (EMH) is a theory in financial economics that states that asset prices fully reflect all available information.
In accounting, equity (or owner's equity) is the difference between the value of the assets and the value of the liabilities of something owned.
Estate planning is the process of anticipating and arranging, during a person's life, for the management and disposal of that person's estate during the person's life and at and after death, while minimizing gift, estate, generation skipping transfer, and income tax.
The goals of experimental finance are to understand human and market behavior in settings relevant to finance.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
Financial accounting (or financial accountancy) is the field of accounting concerned with the summary, analysis and reporting of financial transactions pertaining to a business.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Financial econometrics is the application of statistical methods to financial market data.
Financial economics is the branch of economics characterized by a "concentration on monetary activities", in which "money of one type or another is likely to appear on both sides of a trade".
Financial engineering is a multidisciplinary field involving financial theory, methods of engineering, tools of mathematics and the practice of programming.
Financial instruments are monetary contracts between parties.
A financial intermediary is an institution or individual that serves as a middleman among diverse parties in order to facilitate financial transactions.
A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives such as futures and options at low transaction costs.
Financial modeling is the task of building an abstract representation (a model) of a real world financial situation.
Financial risk is any of various types of risk associated with financing, including financial transactions that include company loans in risk of default.
Financial risk management is the practice of economic value in a firm by using financial instruments to manage exposure to risk: operational risk, credit risk and market risk, foreign exchange risk, shape risk, volatility risk, liquidity risk, inflation risk, business risk, legal risk, reputational risk, sector risk etc.
In economics, the Fisher separation theorem asserts that the primary objective of a corporation will be the maximization of its present value, regardless of the preferences of its shareholders.
Foreign exchange risk (also known as FX risk, exchange rate risk or currency risk) is a financial risk that exists when a financial transaction is denominated in a currency other than that of the base currency of the company.
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange (Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse, FWB) is the world's 10th largest stock exchange by market capitalization.
Goods are items that are tangible, such as pens, salt, apples, oganesson, and hats.
Gunduz Caginalp is a mathematician whose research has also contributed over 100 papers to physics, materials science and economics/finance journals, including two with Prof.
A hedge is an investment position intended to offset potential losses or gains that may be incurred by a companion investment.
The term homo economicus, or economic man, is a caricature of economic theory framed as a "mythical species" or word play on homo sapiens, and used in pedagogy.
An individual retirement account (IRA) is a form of "individual retirement plan", provided by many financial institutions, that provides tax advantages for retirement savings in the United States.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Initial public offering (IPO) or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors and usually also retail (individual) investors; an IPO is underwritten by one or more investment banks, who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more stock exchanges.
An institutional investor is an entity which pools money to purchase securities, real property, and other investment assets or originate loans.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
Inventory (American English) or stock (British English) is the goods and materials that a business holds for the ultimate goal of resale (or repair).
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
Investment management is the professional asset management of various securities (shares, bonds and other securities) and other assets (e.g., real estate) in order to meet specified investment goals for the benefit of the investors.
John Burr Williams (November 27, 1900 – September 15, 1989) was an American economist, recognized as an important figure in the field of fundamental analysis, and for his analysis of stock prices as reflecting their “intrinsic value.” He is best known for his 1938 text The Theory of Investment Value, based on his Ph.D. thesis, in which he articulated the theory of Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) based valuation, and in particular, dividend based valuation.
The Journal of Behavioral Finance is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research related to the field of behavioral finance.
A lender of last resort (LOLR) is the institution in a financial system that acts as the provider of liquidity to a financial institution which finds itself unable to obtain sufficient liquidity in the interbank lending market and other facilities or sources have been exhausted.
In financial accounting, a liability is defined as the future sacrifices of economic benefits that the entity is obliged to make to other entities as a result of past transactions or other past events, the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services or other yielding of economic benefits in the future.
Liquidity risk is a financial risk that for a certain period of time a given financial asset, security or commodity cannot be traded quickly enough in the market without impacting the market price.
This is a list of some of the major unsolved problems, puzzles, or questions in neoclassical economics.
The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England.
Market risk is the risk of losses in positions arising from movements in market prices.
The Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (ALM, MLA, MLS, or MALS) is a graduate degree that aims to provide both depth and breadth of study in the liberal arts.
The Master of Business Administration (MBA or M.B.A.) is a master's degree in business administration (management).
Master of Commerce (MCom or M Comm; sometimes Magister Commercii) is a postgraduate master's degree focusing on commerce-, accounting-, management- and economics-related subjects.
A Master's degree in Finance is a postgraduate program preparing graduates for careers in Finance.
A master's degree in Financial Economics provides a rigorous understanding of theoretical finance and the economic framework upon which that theory is based.
The Master of Management (MM, MBM,MIM, MMgt) is a post-graduate master’s degree awarded to students who normally complete a one- to two-year program of graduate level coursework in business management at an accredited academic institution.
A masters degree in quantitative finance concerns the application of mathematical methods to the solution of problems in financial economics.
Master of Science in Management, abbreviated MSc, MScM, MIM or MSM, is a Master of Science academic degree.
Mathematical finance, also known as quantitative finance, is a field of applied mathematics, concerned with mathematical modeling of financial markets.
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
Modern portfolio theory (MPT), or mean-variance analysis, is a mathematical framework for assembling a portfolio of assets such that the expected return is maximized for a given level of risk.
The Modigliani–Miller theorem (of Franco Modigliani, Merton Miller) is an influential element of economic theory; it forms the basis for modern thinking on capital structure.
Money management is the process of expense tracking, investing, budgeting, banking and evaluating taxes of ones money which is also called investment management.
A municipal bond, commonly known as a Muni Bond, is a bond issued by a local government or territory, or one of their agencies.
The New York University Leonard N. Stern School of Business (commonly known as The Stern School or Stern) is a business school in New York University.
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to finance: Finance – addresses the ways in which individuals and organizations raise and allocate monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects.
A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments.
A pension fund, also known as a superannuation fund in some countries, is any plan, fund, or scheme which provides retirement income.
Personal finance is the financial management which an individual or a family unit performs to budget, save, and spend monetary resources over time, taking into account various financial risks and future life events.
In finance, a portfolio is a collection of investments held by an investment company, hedge fund, financial institution or individual.
In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.
Professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation, often called simply certification or qualification, is a designation earned by a person to assure qualification to perform a job or task.
The Professional Risk Managers' International Association (PRMIA) is a professional organization focused on the "promotion of sound risk management standards and practices globally", and "the integration of practice and theory"; it was founded in 2002 as a non-profit.
Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy.
A quantitative analyst (or, in financial jargon, a quant) is a person who specializes in the application of mathematical and statistical methods – such as numerical or quantitative techniques – to financial and risk management problems.
Quantitative behavioral finance is a new discipline that uses mathematical and statistical methodology to understand behavioral biases in conjunction with valuation.
In finance, return is a profit on an investment.
Rational pricing is the assumption in financial economics that asset prices (and hence asset pricing models) will reflect the arbitrage-free price of the asset as any deviation from this price will be "arbitraged away".
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
Real options valuation, also often termed real options analysis,Adam Borison (Stanford University).
In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.
Retirement is the withdrawal from one's position or occupation or from one's active working life.
Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinator and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.
Tax avoidance is the legal usage of the tax regime in a single territory to one's own advantage to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
In finance, a price (premium) is paid or received for purchasing or selling options.
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent.
In elementary mathematics, a variable is a symbol, commonly an alphabetic character, that represents a number, called the value of the variable, which is either arbitrary, not fully specified, or unknown.
Vernon Lomax Smith (born January 1, 1927) is an American professor of economics and law at Chapman University's Argyros School of Business and Economics and School of Law in Orange, California, a former professor of economics and law at George Mason University, and a board member of the Mercatus Center in Arlington, Virginia.
In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns.
Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running roughly northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City.
Working capital (abbreviated WC) is a financial metric which represents operating liquidity available to a business, organisation or other entity, including governmental entities.