157 relations: A Brief History of Time, AIP Conference Proceedings, Albert A. Michelson, Alpha, American Journal of Physics, Angular momentum, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Anomalous magnetic dipole moment, Anthropic principle, Ara (constellation), Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Arthur Eddington, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Astrophysics, Atomic units, Bohr model, Bohr radius, Brady Haran, Carbon, Carl Jung, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Chad Orzel, Classical electron radius, Committee on Data for Science and Technology, Compton wavelength, Conductance quantum, Cosmic microwave background, Coulomb's constant, Coulomb's law, Coupling constant, Dark energy, Dimensionless physical constant, Dimensionless quantity, Eddington number, Edward W. Morley, Electric charge, Electrical engineering, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron rest mass, Electrostatics, Electroweak interaction, Elementary charge, Encyclopædia Britannica, Energy, Equivalence principle, Extended periodic table, Feynman diagram, Fine structure, ..., Fine-tuned Universe, Fundamental interaction, G-factor (physics), Gamma function, Gauge theory, Grand Unified Theory, Graphene, Gravitational coupling constant, Hartree, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Hydrogen line, Hyperfine structure, I. J. Good, Impedance of free space, Integer, Invariant mass, John D. Barrow, Julian Schwinger, Landau pole, Landé g-factor, Lecture Notes in Physics, Length scale, Leon M. Lederman, LOFAR, Logarithm, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lyman series, Markov chain Monte Carlo, Mathematical constant, Max Born, Micro black hole, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Multiplicative inverse, Multiverse, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Natural nuclear fission reactor, Natural units, Nature (journal), New Scientist, Nuclear force, Nuclear fusion, Oklo, Optical conductivity, Oxford University Press, Particle physics, Parts-per notation, Penguin Group, Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics), Photon, Physical constant, Physical cosmology, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Physics, Physics Today, Physics World, Pi, Planck charge, Planck constant, Planck mass, Planck–Einstein relation, Positron, Power series, Princeton University Press, QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum Hall effect, Quasar, Radio telescope, Radioactive decay, Random House, Redshift, Renormalization group, Reviews of Modern Physics, Richard Feynman, Rydberg constant, Science (journal), Science Daily, Scientific American, Sean M. Carroll, Simon & Schuster, Solid-state physics, Spectral line, Speed of light, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard Model, Statcoulomb, Stephen Hawking, Stephen L. Adler, String theory, System of measurement, The Singularity Is Near, Uncertainty principle, University of New South Wales, University of Nottingham, Vacuum permeability, Vacuum permittivity, Very Large Telescope, Virtual particle, W. M. Keck Observatory, W. W. Norton & Company, Weak interaction, Westview Press, Wolfgang Pauli, World Scientific, 137 (number). Expand index (107 more) »

## A Brief History of Time

A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes is a popular-science book on cosmology (the study of the universe) by British physicist Stephen Hawking.

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## AIP Conference Proceedings

AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970.

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## Albert A. Michelson

Albert Abraham Michelson FFRS HFRSE (December 19, 1852 – May 9, 1931) was an American physicist known for his work on measuring the speed of light and especially for the Michelson–Morley experiment.

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## Alpha

Alpha (uppercase, lowercase; ἄλφα, álpha, modern pronunciation álfa) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet.

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## American Journal of Physics

The American Journal of Physics is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics.

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## Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

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## Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

The Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences is an academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the New York Academy of Sciences.

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## Anomalous magnetic dipole moment

In quantum electrodynamics, the anomalous magnetic moment of a particle is a contribution of effects of quantum mechanics, expressed by Feynman diagrams with loops, to the magnetic moment of that particle.

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## Anthropic principle

The anthropic principle is a philosophical consideration that observations of the universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it.

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## Ara (constellation)

Ara (Latin: "The Altar") is a southern constellation situated between Scorpius and Triangulum Australe.

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## Archive for History of Exact Sciences

Archive for History of Exact Sciences is a peer-reviewed academic journal published quarterly by Springer Science+Business Media, covering the history of mathematics and of astronomy observations and techniques, epistemology of science, and philosophy of science from Antiquity until now.

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## Arthur Eddington

Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944) was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics.

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## Astronomy & Astrophysics

Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.

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## Astrophysics

Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".

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## Atomic units

Atomic units (au or a.u.) form a system of natural units which is especially convenient for atomic physics calculations.

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## Bohr model

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

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## Bohr radius

The Bohr radius (a0 or rBohr) is a physical constant, approximately equal to the most probable distance between the nucleus and the electron in a hydrogen atom in its ground state.

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## Brady Haran

Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.

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## Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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## Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.

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## Centimetre–gram–second system of units

The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.

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## Chad Orzel

Chad Orzel is a popular science author, noted for his books How to Teach Quantum Physics to Your Dog (also called How to Teach Physics to Your Dog) which has been translated into 9 languages, and How to Teach Relativity to Your Dog.

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## Classical electron radius

The classical electron radius is a combination of fundamental physical quantities that define a length scale for problems involving electrons interacting with electromagnetic radiation.

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## Committee on Data for Science and Technology

The Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) was established in 1966 as an interdisciplinary committee of the International Council for Science.

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## Compton wavelength

The Compton wavelength is a quantum mechanical property of a particle.

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## Conductance quantum

The conductance quantum, denoted by the symbol is the quantized unit of electrical conductance.

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## Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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## Coulomb's constant

Coulomb's constant, the electric force constant, or the electrostatic constant (denoted) is a proportionality constant in electrodynamics equations.

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## Coulomb's law

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.

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## Coupling constant

In physics, a coupling constant or gauge coupling parameter is a number that determines the strength of the force exerted in an interaction.

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## Dark energy

In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.

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## Dimensionless physical constant

In physics, a dimensionless physical constant, sometimes called a fundamental physical constant, is a physical constant that is dimensionless.

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## Dimensionless quantity

In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.

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## Eddington number

In astrophysics, the Eddington number, NEdd, is the number of protons in the observable universe.

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## Edward W. Morley

Edward Williams Morley (January 29, 1838 – February 24, 1923) was an American scientist famous for his extremely precise and accurate measurement of the atomic weight of oxygen, and for the Michelson–Morley experiment.

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## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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## Electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

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## Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

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## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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## Electron rest mass

The electron rest mass (symbol) is the mass of a stationary electron.

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## Electrostatics

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.

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## Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

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## Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.

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## Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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## Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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## Equivalence principle

In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.

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## Extended periodic table

An extended periodic table theorizes about elements beyond oganesson (beyond period 7, or row 7).

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## Feynman diagram

In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles.

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## Fine structure

In atomic physics, the fine structure describes the splitting of the spectral lines of atoms due to electron spin and relativistic corrections to the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation.

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## Fine-tuned Universe

The fine-tuned Universe is the proposition that the conditions that allow life in the Universe can occur only when certain universal dimensionless physical constants lie within a very narrow range of values, so that if any of several fundamental constants were only slightly different, the Universe would be unlikely to be conducive to the establishment and development of matter, astronomical structures, elemental diversity, or life as it is understood.

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## Fundamental interaction

In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

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## G-factor (physics)

A g-factor (also called g value or dimensionless magnetic moment) is a dimensionless quantity that characterizes the magnetic moment and gyromagnetic ratio of an atom, a particle or nucleus.

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## Gamma function

In mathematics, the gamma function (represented by, the capital Greek alphabet letter gamma) is an extension of the factorial function, with its argument shifted down by 1, to real and complex numbers.

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## Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

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## Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

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## Graphene

Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).

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## Gravitational coupling constant

In physics, a gravitational coupling constant is a constant characterizing the gravitational attraction between a given pair of elementary particles.

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## Hartree

The hartree (symbol: Eh or Ha), also known as the Hartree energy, is the atomic unit of energy, named after the British physicist Douglas Hartree.

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## Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.

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## Hydrogen line

The hydrogen line, 21-centimeter line or H I line refers to the electromagnetic radiation spectral line that is created by a change in the energy state of neutral hydrogen atoms.

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## Hyperfine structure

In atomic physics, hyperfine structure refers to small shifts and splittings in the energy levels of atoms, molecules and ions, due to interaction between the state of the nucleus and the state of the electron clouds.

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## I. J. Good

Irving John ("I. J."; "Jack") Good (9 December 1916 – 5 April 2009) The Times of 16-apr-09, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article6100314.ece was a British mathematician who worked as a cryptologist at Bletchley Park with Alan Turing.

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## Impedance of free space

The impedance of free space,, is a physical constant relating the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic fields of electromagnetic radiation travelling through free space.

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## Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

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## Invariant mass

The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.

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## John D. Barrow

John David Barrow (born 29 November 1952) is an English cosmologist, theoretical physicist, and mathematician.

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## Julian Schwinger

Julian Seymour Schwinger (February 12, 1918 – July 16, 1994) was a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.

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## Landau pole

In physics, the Landau pole (or the Moscow zero, or the Landau ghost) is the momentum (or energy) scale at which the coupling constant (interaction strength) of a quantum field theory becomes infinite.

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## Landé g-factor

In physics, the Landé g-factor is a particular example of a ''g''-factor, namely for an electron with both spin and orbital angular momenta.

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## Lecture Notes in Physics

Lecture Notes in Physics (LNP) is a book series published by Springer Science+Business Media in the field of physics, including article related to both research and teaching.

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## Length scale

In physics, length scale is a particular length or distance determined with the precision of one order of magnitude.

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## Leon M. Lederman

Leon Max Lederman (born July 15, 1922) is an American experimental physicist who received the Wolf Prize in Physics in 1982, along with Martin Lewis Perl, for their research on quarks and leptons, and the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1988, along with Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger, for their research on neutrinos.

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## LOFAR

The Low-Frequency Array or LOFAR, is a large radio telescope network located mainly in the Netherlands, completed in 2012 by ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy and its international partners, and operated by ASTRON's radio observatory, of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research.

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## Logarithm

In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.

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## Los Alamos National Laboratory

Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.

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## Lyman series

In physics and chemistry, the Lyman series is a hydrogen spectral series of transitions and resulting ultraviolet emission lines of the hydrogen atom as an electron goes from n ≥ 2 to n.

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## Markov chain Monte Carlo

In statistics, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods comprise a class of algorithms for sampling from a probability distribution.

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## Mathematical constant

A mathematical constant is a special number that is "significantly interesting in some way".

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## Max Born

Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.

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## Micro black hole

Micro black holes, also called quantum mechanical black holes or mini black holes, are hypothetical tiny black holes, for which quantum mechanical effects play an important role.

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## Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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## Multiplicative inverse

In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.

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## Multiverse

The multiverse (or meta-universe) is a hypothetical group of multiple separate universes including the universe in which humans live.

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## National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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## Natural nuclear fission reactor

A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred.

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## Natural units

In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement based only on universal physical constants.

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## Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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## New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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## Nuclear force

The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.

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## Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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## Oklo

Oklo is a region near the town of Franceville, in the Haut-Ogooué province of the Central African state of Gabon.

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## Optical conductivity

The optical conductivity is a material property, which links the current density to the electric field for general frequencies.

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## Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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## Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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## Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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## Penguin Group

The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House.

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## Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one.

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## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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## Physical constant

A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant or universal constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time.

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## Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.

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## Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

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## Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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## Physics Today

Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.

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## Physics World

Physics World is the membership magazine of the Institute of Physics, one of the largest physical societies in the world.

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## Pi

The number is a mathematical constant.

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## Planck charge

In physics, the Planck charge, denoted by q_\text, is one of the base units in the system of natural units called Planck units.

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## Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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## Planck mass

In physics, the Planck mass, denoted by mP, is the unit of mass in the system of natural units known as Planck units.

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## Planck–Einstein relation

The Planck–Einstein relationFrench & Taylor (1978), pp.

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## Positron

The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.

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## Power series

In mathematics, a power series (in one variable) is an infinite series of the form where an represents the coefficient of the nth term and c is a constant.

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## Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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## QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter

QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter is an adaptation for the general reader of four lectures on quantum electrodynamics (QED) published in 1985 by American physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman.

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## Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

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## Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

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## Quantum Hall effect

The quantum Hall effect (or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance undergoes quantum Hall transitions to take on the quantized values where is the channel current, is the Hall voltage, is the elementary charge and is Planck's constant.

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## Quasar

A quasar (also known as a QSO or quasi-stellar object) is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN).

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## Radio telescope

A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.

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## Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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## Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.

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## Redshift

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.

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## Renormalization group

In theoretical physics, the renormalization group (RG) refers to a mathematical apparatus that allows systematic investigation of the changes of a physical system as viewed at different scales.

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## Reviews of Modern Physics

Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.

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## Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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## Rydberg constant

The Rydberg constant, symbol R∞ for heavy atoms or RH for hydrogen, named after the Swedish physicist Johannes Rydberg, is a physical constant relating to atomic spectra, in the science of spectroscopy.

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## Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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## Science Daily

Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.

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## Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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## Sean M. Carroll

Sean Michael Carroll (born October 5, 1966) is a cosmologist and physics professor specializing in dark energy and general relativity.

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## Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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## Solid-state physics

Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.

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## Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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## Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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## Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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## Statcoulomb

The statcoulomb (statC) or franklin (Fr) or electrostatic unit of charge (esu) is the physical unit for electrical charge used in the esu-cgs (centimetre–gram–second system of units) and Gaussian units.

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## Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.

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## Stephen L. Adler

Stephen Louis Adler (born November 30, 1939) is an American physicist specializing in elementary particles and field theory.

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## String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

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## System of measurement

A system of measurement is a collection of units of measurement and rules relating them to each other.

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## The Singularity Is Near

The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology is a 2005 non-fiction book about artificial intelligence and the future of humanity by inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil.

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## Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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## University of New South Wales

The University of New South Wales (UNSW; branded as UNSW Sydney) is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburb of Kensington.

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## University of Nottingham

The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.

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## Vacuum permeability

The physical constant μ0, (pronounced "mu naught" or "mu zero"), commonly called the vacuum permeability, permeability of free space, permeability of vacuum, or magnetic constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of magnetic permeability in a classical vacuum.

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## Vacuum permittivity

The physical constant (pronounced as "epsilon nought"), commonly called the vacuum permittivity, permittivity of free space or electric constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum.

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## Very Large Telescope

The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is a telescope facility operated by the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

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## Virtual particle

In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.

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## W. M. Keck Observatory

The W. M. Keck Observatory is a two-telescope astronomical observatory at an elevation of 4,145 meters (13,600 ft) near the summit of Mauna Kea in the U.S. state of Hawaii.

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## W. W. Norton & Company

W.

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## Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

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## Westview Press

Westview Press was an American publishing house.

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## Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

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## World Scientific

World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.

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## 137 (number)

137 (one hundred thirty-seven) is the natural number following 136 and preceding 138.

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## Redirects here:

Electromagnetic coupling constant, Fine Structure Constant, Fine structure coefficient, Fine structure constant, Fine structure constraint, Fine-Structure Constant, Inverse Sommerfeld constant, Inverse fine-structure constant, Sommerfeld constant.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fine-structure_constant