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Aamulehti (Finnish for "morning newspaper") is a Finnish language daily newspaper published in Tampere, Finland.
Abitur is a qualification granted by university-preparatory schools in Germany, Lithuania, and Estonia.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.
An administrative court is a type of court specializing in administrative law, particularly disputes concerning the exercise of public power.
Adolf Ivar Arwidsson (7 August 1791 – 21 June 1858) was a Finnish political journalist, writer and historian.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ahlstrom-Munksjö Oyj is a global company that provides fiber-based products and solutions such as decor paper, filters, release liners, abrasive backings, nonwoven fabrics, electrotechnical paper, glass fiber materials, food packaging and labeling, tape, medical fiber materials and solutions for medical diagnostics.
Aki Olavi Kaurismäki (born 4 April 1957) is a Finnish screenwriter and film director.
Akseli Gallen-Kallela (26 April 1865 – 7 March 1931) was a Finnish painter who is best known for his illustrations of the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic (illustration, below).
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Aleksis Kivi, born Alexis Stenvall, (10 October 1834 – 31 December 1872) was a Finnish author who wrote the first significant novel in the Finnish language, Seven Brothers (Finnish title: Seitsemän veljestä).
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
All Saints' Day, also known as All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas, Feast of All Saints, or Solemnity of All Saints, is a Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints, known and unknown.
Allegro is a high-speed train service between Helsinki, Finland, and St. Petersburg, Russia.
Alma Media Corporation (Alma Media Oyj) is a media company focusing on digital services and publishing.
Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on skis with fixed-heel bindings, unlike other types of skiing (cross-country, Telemark, or ski jumping) which use skis with free-heel bindings.
Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude.
Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto (3 February 1898 – 11 May 1976) was a Finnish architect and designer.
Amorphis is a Finnish heavy metal band founded by Jan Rechberger, Tomi Koivusaari, and Esa Holopainen in 1990.
Angry Birds is a video game franchise created by Finnish company Rovio Entertainment.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Apocalyptica is a Finnish cello metal band from Helsinki, Finland, formed in 1993.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Archipelago Sea (Finnish: Saaristomeri, Swedish: Skärgårdshavet) is a part of the Baltic Sea between the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and the Sea of Åland, within Finnish territorial waters.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
This is a list of countries and territories in Europe by population density.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.
Arto Tapio Paasilinna (born 20 April 1942 in Kittilä) is a Finnish writer, being a former journalist turned comic novelist.
Arto Saari (born November 9, 1981) is a Finnish professional skateboarder and photographer.
The ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the departure of Christ from Earth into the presence of God.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Aulis Sallinen (born 9 April 1935) is a Finnish contemporary classical music composer.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The Åland Centre (Åländsk Centern) is an agrarian-centrist political party in the Åland Islands.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
Legislative elections were held in the Åland Islands for the Lagting, the regional parliament of Åland, on 16 October 2011.
A baby boom is a period marked by a significant increase of birth rate.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic Sea is crossed by several cruiseferry lines.
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.
The Bandy World Championship is a competition between bandy-playing nations' men's teams.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beatlemania is the term given to the intense fan frenzy directed towards the English rock band the Beatles in the 1960s.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
This bibliography of Finland is a list of English-language nonfiction books which have been described by reliable sources as in some way directly relating to the subject of Finland, its history, geography, culture, people, etc.
Bilateral trade or clearing trade is trade exclusively between two states, particularly, barter trade based on bilateral deals between governments, and without using hard currency for payment.
Bilberries are any of several primarily Eurasian species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae), bearing edible, nearly black berries.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Birdwatching, or birding, is a form of wildlife observation in which the observation of birds is a recreational activity or citizen science.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Blue1 Oy was a Finnish airline owned by CityJet.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Bonnier AB (also the Bonnier Group) is a privately held Swedish media group of 175 companies operating in 15 countries.
The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
A bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure, depicting a person's head and neck, and a variable portion of the chest and shoulders.
Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks.
A cadre is the complement of commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers of a military unit responsible for training the rest of the unit.
A capital region, also called a national capital region, capital district or capital territory, is a region or district surrounding a capital city.
Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (4 June 1867 – 27 January 1951) was a Finnish military leader and statesman.
Castoreum is the exudate from the castor sacs of the mature North American beaver (Castor canadensis) and the European beaver (Castor fiber).
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central Finland (Keski-Suomi; Mellersta Finland) is a region (maakunta / landskap) in Finland.
Central Ostrobothnia (Keski-Pohjanmaa; Mellersta Österbotten) is a region in Finland.
The Centre Party of Finland (Suomen Keskusta, Kesk; Centern i Finland) is a centrist, liberal, and agrarian political party in Finland.
The Chief of Defence (puolustusvoimain komentaja; lit., kommendören för försvarsmakten) is the Chief of Defence and commander of the Finnish Defence Forces, under the authority of the President of Finland.
Children of Bodom is a Finnish extreme metal band from Espoo.
The Christian Democrats (Kristillisdemokraatit, KD; Kristdemokraterna) is a Christian democratic political party in Finland.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
The Church of Sweden (Svenska kyrkan) is an Evangelical Lutheran national church in Sweden.
The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
A collective agreement, collective labour agreement (CLA) or collective bargaining agreement (CBA) is a special type of commercial agreement, usually as one negotiated "collectively" between management (on behalf of the company) and trade unions (on behalf of employees).
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), usually known simply as the chaffinch, is a common and widespread small passerine bird in the finch family.
The Communist Party of Finland (Suomen Kommunistinen Puolue; Finlands Kommunistiska Parti; abbreviated SKP) was a communist political party in Finland.
Company competition, or competitiveness, pertains to the ability and performance of a firm, sub-sector or country to sell and supply goods and services in a given market, in relation to the ability and performance of other firms, sub-sectors or countries in the same market.
The Confederation of Unions for Professional and Managerial Staff in Finland (Akava) is a trade union confederation in Finland.
Confirmation in the Lutheran Church is a public profession of faith prepared for by long and careful instruction.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Constitution of Finland (Suomen perustuslaki or Finlands grundlag) is the supreme source of national law of Finland.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
The Continuation War was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany, as co-belligerents, against the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1941 to 1944, during World War II.
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The Corded Ware culture (Schnurkeramik; céramique cordée; touwbekercultuur) comprises a broad archaeological horizon of Europe between 2900 BCE – circa 2350 BCE, thus from the late Neolithic, through the Copper Age, and ending in the early Bronze Age.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.
Crime in Finland is combated by the Finnish police and other agencies.
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance.
A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, and sometimes the different destinations along the way (i.e., ports of call), are part of the experience.
The D'Hondt method or the Jefferson method is a highest averages method for allocating seats, and is thus a type of party-list proportional representation.
Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing.
Danes (danskere) are a nation and a Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark, who speak Danish and share the common Danish culture.
A day-fine, day fine, unit fine or structured fine is a unit of fine payment that, above a minimum fine, is based on the offender's daily personal income.
Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit and/or receive across the radio spectrum.
Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television signals, including the sound channel, using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier television technology, analog television, in which the video and audio are carried by analog signals.
The early 1990s depression in Finland was one of the worst economic crises in Finland's history, even worse there than the depression of the 1930s.
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern Uusimaa (Itä-Uusimaa; Östra Nyland) was a region in Finland, until it was consolidated with the region of Uusimaa on January 1, 2011.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi (fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye).
Edith Irene Södergran (4 April 1892 – 24 June 1923) was a Swedish-speaking Finnish poet.
Eero Antero Mäntyranta (20 November 1937 – 29 December 2013) was one of the most successful Finnish skiers.
Eero Saarinen (August 20, 1910 – September 1, 1961) was a Finnish American architect and industrial designer noted for his neo-futuristic style.
Eino Leino (6 July 1878 – 10 January 1926) was a Finnish poet and journalist and is considered one of the pioneers of Finnish poetry.
Elections to the European Parliament take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Elias Lönnrot (9 April 1802 – 19 March 1884) was a Finnish physician, philologist and collector of traditional Finnish oral poetry.
Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen (August 20, 1873 – July 1, 1950) was a Finnish architect known for his work with art nouveau buildings in the early years of the 20th century.
Enduro is a form of motorcycle sport run on extended cross-country, off-road courses.
Ensiferum (Latin ''ēnsiferum'', n adj., meaning "sword bearing") is a Finnish folk metal band from Helsinki.
Epiphany, also Theophany, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ.
Erkki Sakari Tuomioja (born 1 July 1946) is a Finnish politician and a member of the Finnish Parliament.
Esa-Pekka Salonen (born 30 June 1958) is a Finnish orchestral conductor and composer.
An esker, eskar, eschar, or os, sometimes called an asar, osar, or serpent kame, is a long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel, examples of which occur in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America.
Espoo (Esbo) is the second largest city and municipality in Finland.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethno-nationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the nation is defined in terms of ethnicity.
An EU Battlegroup (EU BG) is a military unit adhering to the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European Union (EU).
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) is a species of eagle-owl that resides in much of Eurasia.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).
The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a post-Cold War NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery.
Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2006 was the 51st edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2007 was the 52nd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
As a result of the 1940 Moscow Peace Treaty that concluded the Winter War, Finland ceded the area of Finnish Karelia and other territories to the Soviet Union.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (Suomen evankelis-luterilainen kirkko; Evangelisk-lutherska kyrkan i Finland) is a national church of Finland.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
The Famine of 1866–1868 was the last famine in Finland and Sweden, and the last major naturally caused famine in Europe.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
A federacy is a form of government where one or several substate units enjoy considerably more independence than the majority of the substate units.
A fell (from Old Norse fell, fjall, "mountain"Falk and Torp (2006:161).) is a high and barren landscape feature, such as a mountain range or moor-covered hills.
A fen is one of the main types of wetland, the others being grassy marshes, forested swamps, and peaty bogs.
The Fennomans, members of the most important political movement (Fennomania) in the 19th-century Grand Duchy of Finland, built on the work of the fennophile interests of the 18th and early-19th centuries.
Fennoscandia (Fennoskandia; Fennoskandien; Fennoskandia; Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya), Fenno-Scandinavia, or the Fennoscandian Peninsula, is the geographical peninsula of the Nordic region comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula.
Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice.
A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives such as futures and options at low transaction costs.
Findicator (Findikaattori, Findikator) is an online service providing up-to-date statistical information on the progress of Finland with about 100 indicators describing various aspects of society.
Finland during the Great Northern War was dominated by the Russian invasion and subsequent military occupation of Finland, then part of Sweden, from 1714 until the treaty of Nystad 1721, which ended the Great Northern War.
The Finnish national basketball team (Suomen koripallomaajoukkue, Finlands herrlandslag i basket) represents Finland in international basketball.
Southwest Finland or Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi, Egentliga Finland, Ducatus Finlandiae Meridionalis), is a historical province in southwestern Finland, centred on the historic city of Turku (Swedish: Åbo) and the Turku Castle.
St Petersburg–Finlyandsky (Станция Санкт-Петербург-Финля́ндский Stantsiya Sankt-Peterburg-Finlyandskiy), is a railway station in St. Petersburg, Russia, handling transport to northern destinations including Helsinki and Vyborg.
Finland Swedish or Fenno-Swedish (finlandssvenska, suomenruotsi) is a general term for the variety of Standard Swedish and a closely related group of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by the Swedish-speaking population as their first language.
Finland-Swedish Sign Language (FinSSL) is a moribund Deaf sign language in Finland.
The Finlandia Prize (Finlandia-palkinto) is a literary award in Finland by the Finnish Book Foundation.
Finlandization (suomettuminen; finlandisering; Finnlandisierung) is the process by which one powerful country makes a smaller neighboring country abide by the former's foreign policy rules, while allowing it to keep its nominal independence and its own political system.
Finnair (Oyj, Finnair Abp.) is the flag carrier and largest airline of Finland, with its headquarters in Vantaa on the grounds of Helsinki Airport, its hub.
The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.
The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.
The Finnish Air Force (FAF or FiAF) (Ilmavoimat ("Air Forces"), Flygvapnet) ("Air Arm") is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces.
The Finnish Army (Finnish: Maavoimat, Swedish: Armén) is the land forces branch of the Finnish Defence Forces.
The Finnish Banking Crisis of 1990s was a deep systemic crisis of the entire Finnish financial sector that took place mainly in the years 1991–1993, after several years of debt-based economic boom in the late 1980s.
The Finnish Border Guard is the national security agency responsible for enforcing the security of Finland's borders.
The Finnish Civil War was a conflict for the leadership and control of Finland during the country's transition from a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire to an independent state.
The Finnish Declaration of Independence (Suomen itsenäisyysjulistus; Finlands självständighetsförklaring; Провозглашение независимости Финляндии) was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917.
The Finnish Defence Forces (Puolustusvoimat, Försvarsmakten) are responsible for the defence of Finland.
The Finnish government is the executive branch and cabinet of Finland, which directs the politics of Finland and is the main source of legislation proposed to the Parliament.
The Finnish Kale (Kàlo; Kalé; Kaale, also Suomen romanit "Finnish Romani") are a group of the Romani people who live primarily in Finland and Sweden.
Finnish Kalo (Fíntika Rómma) is a language of the Romani language family (a subgroup of Indo-European) spoken by Finnish Kale.
Finnish Lakeland or Finnish lake district (Järvi-Suomi, "Lake Finland", Insjöfinland) is the largest of the four landscape regions into which the geography of Finland is divided.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The Finnish Navy (Merivoimat, Marinen) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces.
The Finnish Orthodox Church (Suomen ortodoksinen kirkko; Finska Ortodoxa Kyrkan), or Orthodox Church of Finland, is an autonomous Eastern Orthodox archdiocese of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
The 2015 Finnish parliamentary election was held on 19 April 2015, with advance voting from 8 to 14 April.
Finnish Sign Language (suomalainen viittomakieli in Finnish) is the sign language most commonly used in Finland.
The Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic, more commonly referred to as Red Finland, was a theoretical precursor of an unrecognized Finnish socialist state.
The Tatars of Finland (Mishar: Финляндия татарлары; Suomen tataarit Finländska tatarer) are an ethnic Volga Tatar diaspora in Finland, who espouse the Muslim faith.
The Finnish War (Finska kriget, Финляндская война, Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from February 1808 to September 1809.
The Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, also known as the YYA Treaty from the Finnish Ystävyys-, yhteistyö- ja avunantosopimus (YYA-sopimus) (Swedish: Vänskaps-, samarbets- och biståndsavtalet (VSB-avtalet)), was the basis for Finno–Soviet relations from 1948 to 1992. It was the main instrument in implementing the Finnish policy called Paasikivi–Kekkonen doctrine. Under the treaty, which was signed on April 6, 1948, the Soviets sought to deter Western or Allied Powers from attacking the Soviet Union through Finnish territory, and the Finns sought to increase Finland's political independence from the Soviet Union. It thus ensured Finland's survival as a liberal democracy in close proximity to strategic Soviet regions, such as the Kola Peninsula and the old capital Leningrad. Under the pact, Finland was obliged to resist armed attacks by "Germany or its allies" (in reality interpreted as the United States and allies) against Finland, or against the Soviet Union through Finland. If necessary, Finland was to ask for Soviet military aid to do so. However the pact in itself did not provide any provisions for the Soviet military to enter Finland and stipulated that all such actions would have to be agreed separately should Finland choose to request aid. Furthermore, the pact did not place any requirements for Finland to act should the Soviet Union be attacked (if the attack would not take place through Finland). The agreement also recognized Finland's desire to remain outside great-power conflicts, allowing the country to adopt a policy of neutrality in the Cold War. Due to the uncertain status of Finno–Soviet relations in the years after the Continuation War, and the precise interpretation of the treaty's wording, Finland followed the Warsaw Pact countries' decision and did not participate in the Marshall Plan. As a result, Finland's post-war period of economic hardship was prolonged, compared to other European capitalist countries, and it thus became considerably more economically dependent on the Soviet Union. In general, Finland kept its relations towards western military powers officially distant (including the proposed Scandinavian Defense Union) and NATO in particular. By avoiding supporting the West, it attempted to fend off Soviet pressure for affiliation with the Warsaw Pact. No joint military exercises were ever held, and other military cooperation was minimal, despite occasional Soviet advances. The YYA Treaty was a cornerstone in Paasikivi's foreign policy. It was also a central policy under the presidency of Urho Kekkonen (1956–1981), who dubbed his foreign policy doctrine the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line. The treaty was an instrumental tool for the Soviet Union to gain political leverage in the internal affairs of Finland in post-war era, in confrontations such as the note crisis. This influence was commonly referred to as Finlandisation. It is hotly debated to what degree President Kekkonen (President 1956–1981) intentionally used it to further his own influence and damage his opponents. Despite the official policy, there was some secret co-operation with the West. This ranged from Finnish organizations such as the Social Democratic Party accepting U.S. Central Intelligence Agency funding to sharing of seismic data on nuclear tests. Likewise, Eastern Bloc countries conducted espionage in Finland, e.g., the East German Stasi had agents. The Soviet Union had similar agreements with many nations that were not directly allied with it but depended heavily on Soviet support, such as North Korea since 1961, with India since 1971, and Vietnam since 1978. The first such agreement, however, was with Free France in 1943. The treaty came to an end in 1992 with the signing of a new treaty.
Finno-Ugric, Finno-Ugrian or Fenno-Ugric is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages.
Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.
The Finns Party, previously known as the True Finns (Perussuomalaiset, PS, Sannfinländarna, Sannf.), is a populist and nationalist-oriented Finnish political party, founded in 1995 following the dissolution of the Finnish Rural Party.
Finntroll is a folk metal band from Helsinki, Finland.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The First Swedish Crusade was a mythical military expedition in 1150s to Southwest Finland by Swedish King Eric IX and English Bishop Henry of Uppsala.
Many species of fish are consumed as food in virtually all regions around the world.
Floorball is a type of floor hockey with five players and a goalkeeper in each team.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Fly fishing is an angling method in which an artificial "fly" is used to catch fish.
"The Flying Finn" (Lentävä suomalainen) is a nickname given to several Finnish athletes who were noted for their speed.
Folk high schools (Danish: Folkehøjskole; Dutch: Volkshogeschool; Finnish: kansanopisto and työväenopisto or kansalaisopisto; German: Volkshochschule and (a few) Heimvolkshochschule; Norwegian: Folkehøgskole; Swedish: Folkhögskola; Hungarian: népfőiskola) are institutions for adult education that generally do not grant academic degrees, though certain courses might exist leading to that goal.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
The foreign relations of Finland are the responsibility of the president of Finland, who leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
The Fragile States Index (FSI; formerly the Failed States Index) is an annual report published by the United States think tank the Fund for Peace and the American magazine Foreign Policy since 2005.
Frans Eemil Sillanpää (16 September 1888 – 3 June 1964) was one of the most famous Finnish writers and in 1939 became the first Finnish writer to be awarded the Nobel Prize for literature "for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature".
Fredrik Pacius (born Friedrich Pacius) (March 19, 1809 – January 8, 1891) was a German composer and conductor who lived most of his life in Finland.
In architecture, functionalism is the principle that buildings should be designed based solely on the purpose and function of the building.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.
Count Georg Magnus Sprengtporten (Георг Магнус Спренгтпортен), or Göran Magnus Sprengtporten, as he preferred to call himself (16 December 1740 – 13 October 1819), was a Swedish, Finnish and Russian politician, younger brother of Jacob Magnus Sprengtporten.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Glam rock is a style of rock that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s performed by musicians who wore outrageous costumes, makeup, and hairstyles, particularly platform shoes and glitter.
A Gley (глей) is a wetland soil (hydric soil) that, unless drained, is saturated with groundwater for long enough periods to develop a characteristic gleyic colour pattern.
The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
The Landskapsregering is the government of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
A great circle, also known as an orthodrome, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane that passes through the center point of the sphere.
The Great Famine of 1695–97, or simply the Great Famine, was a catastrophic famine that affected present Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Norway and Sweden: at the time, all of these areas belonged to the Swedish Empire with the exception of Norway, which was a Danish province.
During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe suffered from a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from 1708 to 1712.
Greater Helsinki (Helsingin seutu, Suur-Helsinki, Swedish: Helsingforsregionen, Storhelsingfors) is the metropolitan area including the smaller Capital Region (Pääkaupunkiseutu, Huvudstadsregionen) urban kernel and commuter towns surrounding Helsinki, the capital city of Finland.
The Green League (VIHR, Vihreä liitto, Gröna förbundet), shortened to the Greens, is a green political party in Finland.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Group of States against Corruption (groupe d'États contre la corruption, GRECO), the Council of Europe’s anti-corruption monitoring body with its Headquarters in Strasbourg (France), was established, in 1999, as an enlarged Partial Agreement by 17 Council of Europe member States.
Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes, in the family Phasianidae.
The Gulf of Bothnia (Pohjanlahti; Bottenhavet) is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Guns N' Roses, often abbreviated as GNR, is an American hard rock band from Los Angeles, California, formed in 1985.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
Halti (Haltitunturi, Háldičohkka, Haldefjäll) is a fell at the border between Norway and Finland.
Hamina (Fredrikshamn) is a town and a municipality of Finland.
A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools.
Hanko (Hangö) is a bilingual port town and municipality on the south coast of Finland, west of Helsinki.
Juho Pietari "Hannes" Kolehmainen (9 December 1889 – 11 January 1966) was a Finnish four-time Olympic Gold medalist and a world record holder in middle- and long-distance running.
Hanno Aleksanteri Möttölä (born 9 September 1976) is a Finnish former professional basketball player.
Hanoi Rocks was a Finnish rock band formed in 1979.
Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music that began in the mid-1960s, with the garage, psychedelic and blues rock movements.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Haute cuisine (French: literally "high cooking") or grande cuisine refers to the cuisine of "high-level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels.
Hämeenlinna (Tavastehus) is a city and municipality of about inhabitants in the heart of the historical province of Häme in the south of Finland.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Heikki Ilmari Savolainen (28 September 1907 – 29 November 1997) was a Finnish artistic gymnast.
The term in Finnish historiography heimosodat has been translated literally into English as "Kindred Nations Wars", "Wars for kindred peoples" or "Kinship Wars," specifically Finnic kinship.
Helsingin Sanomat, abbreviated HS and colloquially known as Hesari, is the largest subscription newspaper in Finland and the Nordic countries, owned by Sanoma.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
Helsinki Airport (Helsinki-Vantaan lentoasema, Helsingfors-Vanda flygplats) is the main international airport of the city of Helsinki, its surrounding metropolitan area, and the Uusimaa region.
Helsinki Central Station (Helsingin päärautatieasema, Helsingfors centralstation) HEC is the main station for commuter rail and long-distance trains departing from Helsinki, Finland.
The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council (Pääkaupunkiseudun yhteistyövaltuuskunta, YTV, Huvudstadsregionens samarbetsdelegation, SAD) was a co-operation agency operating in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, now replaced by HSL and HSY.
The Helsinki Stock Exchange (Helsingin Pörssi, Helsingforsbörsen) is a stock exchange located in Helsinki, Finland.
Hemiboreal means halfway between the temperate and subarctic (or boreal) zones.
Henry (Henrik; Henrik; Henricus; died 20 January 1156.) was a medieval English clergyman.
HIM (sometimes stylized as H.I.M.) was a Finnish gothic rock band from Helsinki, Finland.
Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.
Hippophae is a genus of sea buckthorns, deciduous shrubs in the family Elaeagnaceae.
The historical provinces (historialliset maakunnat, singular historiallinen maakunta, historiska landskap) of Finland are a legacy of the country's joint history with Sweden.
The history of Finland begins around 9,000 BCE during the end of the last glacial period.
Homicide is the act of one human killing another.
In soil science, humus (derived in 1790–1800 from the Latin humus for earth, ground) denominates the fraction of soil organic matter that is amorphous and without the "cellular cake structure characteristic of plants, micro-organisms or animals." Humus significantly affects the bulk density of soil and contributes to its retention of moisture and nutrients.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hurriganes is a Finnish rock band that was formed in the early 1970s.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Ilkka Remes (born 13 December 1962) is a Finnish author of thrillers and young adult literature.
Yrjö Ilmari Tapiovaara (September 7, 1914 – January 31, 1999) was a Finnish designer noted for his furnishings and textiles.
Ilta-Sanomat (Finnish for the evening news) is one of Finland's two prominent tabloid size evening newspaper and the second largest paper in the country.
Iltalehti (literally "Evening newspaper") is a tabloid newspaper published in Helsinki, Finland.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Impaled Nazarene is a Finnish extreme metal band that started as black metal but have incorporated grindcore elements, and have grown more towards hardcore punk.
Inari Sami (anarâškielâ) is a Sami language spoken by the Inari Sami of Finland.
Finland's Independence Day (itsenäisyyspäivä, självständighetsdagen) is a national public holiday, and a flag day, held on 6 December to celebrate Finland's declaration of independence from Russia in 1917.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production.
An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound, bay, lagoon, or marsh.
Insomnium is a melodic death metal band from Joensuu, Finland.
Instrumental rock is rock music that emphasizes musical instruments and features very little or no singing.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
International Institute for Management Development (IMD) is a business education school located in Lausanne, Switzerland.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
This table contains international rankings of Finland, including previous years when available.
An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
ISS A/S (Integrated Service Solutions) is a Facility Services company founded in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1901.
Jackass is an American extreme stunt franchise, which originally ran on MTV from 2000 to 2002 for three seasons, featuring ten stuntmen — Johnny Knoxville, Bam Margera, Chris Pontius, Dave England, Steve-O, Ryan Dunn, Brandon DiCamillo, Ehren McGhehey, Preston Lacy, and Jason Acuña, performing various dangerous, crude, self-injuring stunts and pranks.
Janne Petteri Ahonen (born 11 May 1977), nicknamed "The King Eagle", is a Finnish ski jumper and drag racer.
Jari Pekka Kurri (born May 18, 1960) is a retired Finnish professional ice hockey right winger and a five-time Stanley Cup champion.
Jari Olavi Litmanen (born 20 February 1971) is a Finnish former footballer.
Jari Tervo (born February 2, 1959) is a Finnish author.
Jarmo Ilmari Lindberg (born 10 June 1959) is a Finnish general and the current Chief of Defence since 2014.
The javelin throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about in length, is thrown.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jean Sibelius, born Johan Julius Christian Sibelius (8 December 186520 September 1957), was a Finnish composer and violinist of the late Romantic and early-modern periods.
Jean-Jacques Subrenat (born 1940) is a French diplomat who served as ambassador, permanent representative to the WEU in Brussels (1995–1998), ambassador to Estonia (1998–2002) and to Finland (2002–2005).
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joensuu is a city and municipality in North Karelia in the province of Eastern Finland.
Johan Ludvig Runeberg (5 February 1804 – 6 May 1877) was a Finno-Swedish lyric and epic poet.
A joik (also spelled yoik), luohti, vuolle, leu'dd, or juoiggus is a traditional form of song of the Sami people of the Nordic countries and Kola peninsula of Russia.
The judicial system of Sweden consists of the law of Sweden and a number of government agencies tasked with upholding security and rule of law within the country.
Juha Matti Pellervo Kankkunen (born 2 April 1959 in Laukaa) is a Finnish former rally driver.
Juha Salminen (born 27 September 1976 in Vantaa) is a Finnish enduro rider.
Juha Petri Sipilä (born in Veteli, 25 April 1961) is the current Prime Minister of Finland.
Juho Kusti Paasikivi (27 November 1870 – 14 December 1956) was the seventh President of Finland (1946–1956).
Jukka-Pekka Saraste (born 22 April 1956, Lahti) is a Finnish conductor and violinist.
Jus sanguinis (right of blood) is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is not determined by place of birth but by having one or both parents who are citizens of the state.
Jyväskylä is a city and municipality in Finland and in the western part of the Finnish Lakeland.
Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg (28 January 1865 – 22 September 1952) was a Finnish jurist and academic, who played a central role in the drafting of the Constitution of Finland in 1919.
Kaija Anneli Saariaho (née Laakkonen, born 14 October 1952) is a Finnish composer based in Paris, France.
Kainuu (Kajanaland) is one of the 19 regions of Finland (maakunta / landskap).
Kaisa-Leena Mäkäräinen (born 11 January 1983) is a Finnish world-champion and 3-time world-cup-winning biathlete, who currently competes for Kontiolahden Urheilijat.
Kajaani (Kajana) is a town and municipality in Finland.
The Kalevala (Finnish Kalevala) is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian and Finnish oral folklore and mythology.
Kalevi Ensio Aho (born 9 March 1949) is a Finnish composer.
Kalle Markus Palander (born May 2, 1977 in Tornio) is a Finnish retired alpine skier, the most successful male Finn ever in the sport.
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.
Karelia (Finnish: Karjala, Swedish: Karelen) is a historical province of Finland which Finland partly ceded to Russia after the Winter War of 1939–40.
Karelian (karjala, karjal or kariela) is a Finnic language spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia.
Oy Karelian Trains Ltd is a joint venture agreed on 23 November 2006 between Russian Railways (RZhD) and VR Group (Finnish Railways) to facilitate the operation of international express passenger rail services between Helsinki, Finland, and Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Kari Hotakainen (born 9 January 1957 in Pori, Finland) is a Finnish writer.
Kari Tiainen (born 26 August 1966 in Riihimäki) is a Finnish enduro rider.
Karita Marjatta Mattila (pronounced) (born 5 September 1960) is a Finnish operatic soprano.
Kauniainen (Grankulla) is a small town and a municipality of inhabitants in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland.
Kauppalehti (English: "Trade Newspaper") is a commerce-oriented newspaper published in Helsinki, Finland.
Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Keijo Erik Rosberg (born 6 December 1948), known as "Keke", is a Finnish former racing driver and winner of the Formula One World Championship.
Kemira Oyj is a chemical industry group that consists of three main segments.
Kesko Corporation (Finnish: Kesko Oyj) is a Finnish retailing conglomerate with its head office in Katajanokka, Helsinki.
Kimi-Matias Räikkönen (born 17 October 1979), nicknamed "Iceman", is a Finnish racing driver currently driving in Formula One for Scuderia Ferrari.
Kimmo Samuel Timonen (born 18 March 1975) is a Finnish former professional ice hockey defenseman who played 16 seasons in the National Hockey League (NHL) for the Nashville Predators, Philadelphia Flyers, and Chicago Blackhawks.
The Kingdom of Finland (Suomen kuningaskunta; Konungariket Finland) was an abortive attempt to establish a monarchy in Finland following Finland's independence from Russia.
Kokkola (Karleby) is a town and municipality of Finland.
Korpiklaani (Finnish: The Backwoods Clan) is a folk metal band from Finland who were formerly known as Shaman.
Kotka is a city and municipality of Finland.
Kouvola is a city and municipality in southeastern Finland.
Kuopio is a city and municipality located in Northern Savonia, Finland.
Kuusamo is a town and municipality in Finland.
Kyösti Kallio (10 April 1873 – 19 December 1940) was the fourth President of Finland (1937–1940).
Kymenlaakso (literally Kymi Valley) (Kymmenedalen) is a region in Finland.
Lahti (Lahtis) is a city and municipality in Finland.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).
Lapland (Lappi; Sápmi; Lappland) is the largest and northernmost region of Finland.
The Lapland War (Lapin sota; Lapplandskriget; Lapplandkrieg) was fought between Finland and Nazi Germany effectively from September to November 1944 in Finland's northernmost region, Lapland, during World War II.
Lappeenranta (Villmanstrand) is a city and municipality situated on the shore of the lake Saimaa in southeastern Finland, about from the Russian border.
The Lapua Movement (Lapuan liike, Lapporörelsen) was a Finnish radical nationalist and anti-communist political movement founded in and named after the town of Lapua.
Lasse Artturi Virén (born 22 July 1949) is a Finnish former long-distance runner, winner of four gold medals at the 1972 and 1976 Summer Olympics.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lauri Kristian Relander (31 May 1883 – 9 February 1942) was the second President of Finland (1925–1931).
The Left Alliance (Vasemmistoliitto, Vänsterförbundet, vas.) is a left-wing political party in Finland.
Leif Selim Segerstam (born 2 March 1944) is a Finnish conductor, composer, violinist, violist and pianist, especially known for writing 319 symphonies as of April 2018, along with other works in his extensive œuvre.
Liberal People's Party (from 2001 Liberals; Liberaalinen kansanpuolue) was a liberal party in Finland, founded in 1965 as a reunification of the People's Party of Finland and Liberal League.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Liinakhamari (Лиинахамари; Liinahamari; Linhammar) is an ice-free harbor and a rural locality in Pechengsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia.
Linda Cullberg Lampenius, better known by her maiden name Linda Lampenius and international stage name Linda Brava, (born 26 February 1970) is a Finnish classical concert violinist.
Below is a list of airports, airfields and heliports in Finland, grouped by type and sorted by location.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
This is a list of countries by total energy consumption per capita.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
Below is a sortable list of countries by number of Internet users as of 2016.
This is a collection of articles relating to Finland, a country in Northern Europe.
This is a list of Finnish composers, organized by date of birth.
This list of glassware includes drinking vessels (drinkware) and tableware used to set a table for eating a meal, general glass items such as vases, and glasses used in the catering industry.
This is a list of international rankings.
Literary modernism, or modernist literature, has its origins in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a very self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Lordi are a Finnish hard rock/heavy metal band, formed in 1992 by the band's lead singer, songwriter and costume maker, Mr Lordi (Tomi Petteri Putaansuu).
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
"Maamme" ("our land") or "Vårt land" is Finland's national anthem.
Madventures is a Finnish travel documentary television series that concentrates on backpacking in the most off-the-beaten-path destinations on the planet.
Magnus Gustaf Adolf Lindberg (born 27 June 1958) is a Finnish composer and pianist.
Mainland Finland (Manner-Suomi, Fasta Finland) is a term used in statistics and in other contexts to describe the continental parts of Finland, an area which excludes the Åland Islands.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Mariehamn (Maarianhamina) is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finnish sovereignty.
Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi (née Hämäläinen; born 10 September 1955) is a Finnish former cross-country skier.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Martti Ahtisaari (officially Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari; born 23 June 1937) is a Finnish politician, the tenth President of Finland (1994–2000), a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, and a United Nations diplomat and mediator noted for his international peace work.
Matti Klinge (born August 31, 1936, Helsinki) is a Finnish historian.
Matti Ensio Nykänen (born 17 July 1963) is a Finnish former ski jumper who competed from 1981 to 1991.
Mauno Henrik Koivisto (25 November 1923 – 12 May 2017) was a Finnish politician who served as the ninth President of Finland from 1982 to 1994.
Mauritz Stiller (born Moshe Stiller, 17 July 1883 – 18 November 1928) was a Finnish-Swedish film director, best known for discovering Greta Garbo and bringing her to America.
Max Jakobson (September 30, 1923 – March 9, 2013) was a Finnish diplomat and journalist with Finnish-Jewish descent.
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) is a type of agreement between two (bilateral) or more (multilateral) parties.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
Metsä Board, previously known as M-real Corporation, is a Finnish paper and pulp company.
Metso is a Finnish industrial machinery company focusing on providing technology and services for mining, aggregates, and oil and gas, recycling, pulp and paper and other process industries.
The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight.
Midsummer is the period of time centered upon the summer solstice, and more specifically the northern European celebrations that accompany the actual solstice or take place on a day between June 19 and June 25 and the preceding evening.
Mika Ahola (13 December 1974 – 15 January 2012) was a Finnish enduro rider and a five-time world champion.
Mika Pauli Häkkinen (born 28 September 1968), nicknamed "the Flying Finn", is a Finnish former professional racing driver.
Mika Kristian Myllylä (12 September 1969 – 5 July 2011) was a Finnish cross-country skier who competed from 1992 to 2005.
Mika Toimi Waltari (19 September 1908 – 26 August 1979) was a Finnish writer, best known for his best-selling novel The Egyptian (Sinuhe egyptiläinen).
Mikael Agricola (c. 1510 – 9 April 1557) was a Lutheran clergyman who became the de facto founder of literary Finnish and a prominent proponent of the Protestant Reformation in Sweden, including Finland, which was a Swedish territory at the time.
Mikkeli (S:t Michel official writing, short for Sankt Michel) is a town and municipality in Finland.
The Minister of Finance is one of the Finnish Government's ministers.
The Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) is a ministry in the Finnish Government and is responsible for preparing and implementing the government's foreign policy.
Moonsorrow is a Finnish pagan metal band formed in Helsinki in 1995.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.
The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 12 March 1940, and the ratifications were exchanged on 21 March.
MTV3 (MTV Kolme; MTV Tre) is a Finnish commercial television station owned by Bonnier.
The 16 municipalities of the Åland Islands are divided into three sub-regions: Mariehamn, the countryside and the archipelago.
The municipalities (kunta; kommun) represent the local level of administration in Finland and act as the fundamental, self-governing administrative units of the country.
The 21 municipalities of the Lapland Region (Lappi; Sápmi; Lappland) in Finland are divided on six sub-regions.
The music of Argentina includes a variety of traditional, classical and popular genres.
The music of Finland can be roughly divided into the categories of folk music, classical and contemporary art music, and contemporary popular music.
Music recording certification is a system of certifying that a music recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe is a trade name of NASDAQ OMX Oslo ASA, the single financial energy market for Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland.
A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.
A national church is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group or nation state.
The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (الائتلاف الوطني السوري), is a coalition of opposition groups in the Syrian Civil War that was founded in Doha, Qatar, in November 2012.
The National Coalition Party (NCP; Kansallinen Kokoomus; Kok.; Samlingspartiet; Saml.) is a centre-right political party in Finland considered to be liberal, and conservative, and liberal-conservative.
A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The NATO Response Force (NRF) is a high readiness force comprising land, air, sea and special forces units capable of being deployed quickly on operations wherever needed.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
Nelonen (Four) is a Finnish commercial TV channel.
Neste Oyj, (until 1 July 2015 Neste Oil Corporation) is an oil refining and marketing company located in Espoo, Finland.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nightwish are a symphonic metal band from Kitee, Finland.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
Nokia is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865.
Nord Pool AS runs the largest market for electrical energy in Europe, measured in volume traded (TWh) and in market share.
Nordea Bank AB, commonly referred to as Nordea, is a Nordic financial services group operating in Northern Europe.
Nordic Classicism was a style of architecture that briefly blossomed in the Nordic countries (Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland) between 1910 and 1930.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
Nordic electricity market is a common market for electricity in the Nordic countries.
The Nordic model (also called Nordic capitalism or Nordic social democracy) refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Sweden).
Nordic Regional Airlines Oy (trading as Norra and often stylized as N°RRA, previously Flybe Nordic) is a Finnish regional airline based on the grounds of Helsinki Airport.
Nordic skiing encompasses the various types of skiing in which the toe of the ski boot is fixed to the binding in a manner that allows the heel to rise off the ski, unlike Alpine skiing, where the boot is attached to the ski from toe to heel.
Nordic walking is a total body version of walking that can be enjoyed both by non-athletes as a health-promoting physical activity, and by athletes as a sport.
North Karelia (Pohjois-Karjala; Norra Karelen) is a region in eastern Finland.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Northern Ostrobothnia (Pohjois-Pohjanmaa; Norra Österbotten) is a region of Finland.
The northern pike (Esox lucius), known simply as a pike in Britain, Ireland, most of Canada, and most parts of the United States (once called luce when fully grown; also called jackfish or simply "northern" in the U.S. Upper Midwest and in Manitoba), is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox (the pikes).
Northern or North Sami (davvisámegiella; disapproved exonym Lappish or Lapp), sometimes also simply referred to as Sami, is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages.
Northern Savonia (Pohjois-Savo; Norra Savolax) is a region in eastern Finland.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Norwegian Air Shuttle ASA, trading as Norwegian, is a Norwegian low-cost airline.
Nousiainen (Nousis) is a municipality of Finland.
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
Nuorgam is a village in the Utsjoki municipality in the region of Lapland, Finland.
The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Olavinlinna (Olofsborg; literally Olaf's Castle) is a 15th-century three-tower castle located in Savonlinna, Finland.
An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, or late seral forest— is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community.
Olli Mustonen (born 7 June 1967 in Vantaa, Finland) is a Finnish pianist, conductor and composer.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
OP Financial Group is one of the largest financial companies in Finland.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Orano (previously Areva) is a French multinational group specializing in nuclear power and renewable energy headquartered in Paris La Défense.
Osmo Antero Vänskä (born 28 February 1953) is a Finnish conductor, clarinetist and composer.
Ostrobothnia, Österbotten (literally "Eastern Bottom", "botten" deriving from Old Norse botn in the meaning of 'bay', and Latinized "bothnia"), Pohjanmaa (literally "Bottom (low) lands") is a historical province comprising a large western and northern part of modern Finland (which was then the "eastern half" of Sweden).
Ostrobothnia (Österbotten; Pohjanmaa) is a region of Finland.
Otaniemi (Finnish), or Otnäs (Swedish), is a district of Espoo, Finland.
Oulu (Uleåborg) is a city and municipality of inhabitants in the region of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland.
Oulu Airport (Oulun lentoasema, Uleåborgs flygplats) is located in Oulu, Finland, south-west of the city centre.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Finland.
Paavo Johannes Nurmi (13 June 1897 – 2 October 1973) was a Finnish middle-distance and long-distance runner.
The Paris Peace Treaties (Traité de Paris) was signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946.
The Lagting, or Lagtinget, is the parliament of Åland, an autonomous, demilitarised and unilingually Swedish-speaking territory of Finland.
The Parliament of Finland, is the unicameral supreme legislature of Finland, founded on 9 May 1906.
A parliamentary group, parliamentary party, or parliamentary caucus is a group consisting of members of the same political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or a city council.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
Paula Risikko (born 4 June 1960, Ylihärmä) is a Finnish politician and the current Speaker of the Parliament.
Päijänne Tavastia (Päijät-Häme; Päijänne-Tavastland) is a region in Southern Finland south of the lake Päijänne.
Pöyry is an international consulting and engineering firm that serves clients globally across the energy and industrial sectors and provides local engineering services in its core markets.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
Pechengsky District (Пе́ченгский райо́н; Petsamo; Peisen; Beahcán; Peäccam) is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia.
Pehr Evind Svinhufvud af Qvalstad (15 December 1861 – 29 February 1944) was the third President of Finland from 1931 to 1937.
Pekka Kuusisto (born 7 October 1976 in Espoo) is a Finnish musician.
The Christian feast day of Pentecost is seven weeks after Easter Sunday: that is to say, the fiftieth day after Easter inclusive of Easter Sunday.
Perch is a common name for fish of the genus Perca, freshwater gamefish belonging to the family Percidae.
Perniö (Bjärnå) is a former municipality of Finland.
Pertti Johannes Karppinen (born 17 February 1953) is a retired Finnish rower noted for his three consecutive Olympic gold medals in single sculls in 1976, 1980 and 1984.
Pesäpallo (boboll, both names literally meaning "nest ball", also referred to as "Finnish baseball") is a fast-moving bat-and-ball sport that is often referred to as the national sport of Finland and has some presence in other countries including Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Australia, and Canada's northern Ontario (the latter two countries have significant Nordic populations).
The Province of Petsamo (Petsamon lääni, Petsamo län) was a province of Finland from 1921 to 1922.
Antti Petteri Orpo (born in Köyliö, 3 November 1969) is a Finnish politician, chair of the National Coalition Party and the incumbent Minister of Finance.
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Pirkanmaa (Birkaland, also known as Tampere Region in government documents), is a region of Finland.
The Pit–Comb Ware culture or Comb Ceramic culture was a northeast European characterised by its Pit–Comb Ware.
In soil science, Podzols (known as Spodosols in China and the United States of America and Podosols in Australia) are the typical soils of coniferous, or boreal forests.
Poets of the Fall (POTF) is a Finnish alternative rock band from Helsinki.
The polar night occurs in the northernmost and southernmost regions of the Earth when the night lasts for more than 24 hours.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
Pori (Björneborg; Arctopolis) is a city and municipality on the west coast of Finland.
Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.
Posti Group Corporation (previously Suomen Posti during 1994–2007 and Itella during 2007–2015) is the main Finnish postal service delivering mail and parcels in Finland.
The President of the Republic of Finland (Suomen tasavallan presidentti, Republiken Finlands president) is the head of state of Finland.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.
The Prime Minister of Finland (Suomen pääministeri) is the head of the Finnish Government.
In economics, the product market is the marketplace in which final goods or services are offered for purchase by consumers, businesses, and the public sector.
Progressive rock (shortened as prog; sometimes called art rock, classical rock or symphonic rock) is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Between 1634 and 2009, Finland was administered as several provinces (Suomen läänit, Finlands län).
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service.
The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper, paperboard and other cellulose-based products.
Radio Nova is a radio channel in Finland.
Rauma (Raumo) is a town and municipality of ca.
The Red Guards (Punakaarti, Röda gardet) were a paramilitary units of the Finnish labour movement in the early 1900s.
The redwing (Turdus iliacus) is a bird in the thrush family, Turdidae, native to Europe and Asia, slightly smaller than the related song thrush.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Regional State Administrative Agencies are a set of top-level regional organs of the state of Finland, mainly in charge of basic public services and legal permits.
The Regional State Administrative Agency for Eastern Finland is one of the six Regional State Administrative Agencies.
The Northern Finland Regional State Administrative Agency is one of the six Regional State Administrative Agencies.
The Southern Finland Regional State Administrative Agency is one of the six Regional State Administrative Agencies.
The Regional State Administrative Agency for Southwestern Finland is one of the six Regional State Administrative Agencies.
The Regional State Administrative Agency for Western and Inland Finland is one of the six Regional State Administrative Agencies in Finland.
Finland comprises 19 regions called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Renny Harlin (born Lauri Mauritz Harjola; 15 March 1959) is a Finnish film director, producer and screenwriter.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Reverend Bizarre was a doom metal band from Finland.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
Ridnitsohkka (Ridnitšohkka, Ritničohkka) is the second-highest point in Finland, though it is the highest mountain with its peak within Finland.
Risto Erkki Juhani Penttilä (born 17 March 1959, Pori, Finland) is a policy expert, former member of the Finnish parliament, Secretary General of European Business Leaders’ Convention, former Director of the Finnish Business and Policy Forum (EVA) and current CEO of the first pan-Nordic think tank Nordic West Office.
Risto Heikki Ryti (–) was the fifth president of Finland, from 1940 to 1944.
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors.
Rovaniemi is a city and municipality of Finland.
Rovio Entertainment Corporation (formerly Relude and later Rovio Mobile) is a Finnish developer, publisher, distributor of video games and is an entertainment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland.
The Royal Academy of Turku (Kungliga Akademin i Åbo or Åbo Kungliga Akademi, Regia Academia Aboensis, Turun akatemia) was the first university in Finland, and the only Finnish university that was founded when the country still was a part of Sweden.
Rubus chamaemorus is a rhizomatous herb native to cool temperate, alpine, arctic tundra and boreal forest, producing amber-colored edible fruit similar to the raspberry or blackberry.
A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock.
Runestone G 319 is a runestone made from limestone in Rute church in Gotland.
Runestone U 582 is a runestone that used to be located by the church of Söderby-Karl, Norrtälje municipality in the Roslagen area on the east coast of Sweden.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
JSC Russian Railways (JSC RZhD; ОАО «Российские железные дороги» (ОАО «РЖД») tr. OAO Rossiyskie zheleznye dorogi (OAO RZhD)) is a Russian fully state-owned vertically integrated company, both managing infrastructure and operating freight and passenger train services.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP;, Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya (RSDRP)), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party in Minsk, Belarus.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The Russo–Swedish War of 1741–1743, known as the Hats' Russian War in Sweden and the Hats' War in Finland, which resulted in the Lesser Wrath (Pikkuviha, Lilla ofreden), or the occupation of Finland, was instigated by the Hats, a Swedish political party that aspired to regain the territories lost to Russia during the Great Northern War, and by French diplomacy, which sought to divert Russia's attention from supporting its long-standing ally, the Habsburg monarchy, in the War of the Austrian Succession.
The Russo-Swedish War of 1788–90, known as Gustav III's Russian War in Sweden, Gustav III's War in Finland and Catherine II's Swedish War in Russia, was fought between Sweden and Russia from June 1788 to August 1790.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
Saimaa is a lake in southeastern Finland.
The Saimaa ringed seal (Finnish: Saimaannorppa) is a subspecies of ringed seal (Pusa hispida).
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saku Antero Koivu (born November 23, 1974) is a Finnish former professional ice hockey player who played in the National Hockey League (NHL).
Salla (Kuolajärvi until 1936) is a municipality of Finland, located in Lapland.
Salpausselkä (Bar Ridge) is an extensive ridge system left by the ice age in Southern Finland.
Sami Tuomas Hyypiä (born 7 October 1973) is a Finnish football manager and former defender.
Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).
The Sami native region of Finland (Saamelaisten kotiseutualue in Finnish, Sámiid ruovttuguovllu in Northern Sami, Samernas hembygdsområde in Swedish) is the northernmost part of Lappi administrative region in Finland (formerly Lappi Province), home of approximately half of Finland's Sami population.
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Samuli Aro (born 12 April 1975 in Järvenpää) is a Finnish enduro rider.
Sanoma Corporation (Finnish: Sanoma Oyj, formerly SanomaWSOY) is a leading media group in the Nordic countries with operations in over 10 European countries, based in Helsinki.
Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).
The Sarmatic mixed forests constitute an ecoregion within the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome, according to the World Wide Fund for Nature classification (ecoregion PA0436).
Satakunta (Satakunda, Finnia Septentrionalis or Satagundia) is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland, part of the former Western Finland Province.
Sauli Väinämö Niinistö (born 24 August 1948) is a Finnish politician and the 12th President of Finland, in office since 2012.
Savonlinna (Nyslott) is a town and a municipality of inhabitants in the southeast of Finland, in the heart of the Saimaa lake region.
Savonlinna Opera Festival (Savonlinnan oopperajuhlat) is held annually in the city of Savonlinna in Finland.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The Scandinavian and Russian taiga is an ecoregion within the Taiga and Boreal forests Biome as defined by the WWF classification (ecoregion PA0608).
The Scandinavian Montane Birch forests and grasslands ecoregion, a Palearctic ecoregion of the Alpine tundra and Boreal forest Biomes, located in Norway, Sweden, and Finland.
Scandinavian Political Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering political science in the Nordic countries published by Wiley-Blackwell.
Schlager music ("hit(s)") is a style of popular music which is generally a catchy instrumental accompaniment to vocal pieces of pop music with easy to understand, happy-go-lucky and often sentimental lyrics.
The Second Swedish Crusade was a 13th century Swedish military expedition against the Tavastians, in present-day Finland, led by Birger jarl.
Seima-Turbino phenomenon refers to a pattern of burial sites dating from 2100 BCE to 1900 BCE found across northern Eurasia, from Finland to Mongolia, which has suggested a common point of cultural origin, advanced metal working technology, and unexplained rapid migration.
Seinäjoki is a city located in Southern Ostrobothnia, Finland.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
Sentenced was a Finnish heavy metal band that played melodic death metal in their early years.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.
Ski jumping is a winter sport in which competitors aim to achieve the longest jump after descending from a specially designed ramp on their skis.
Skolt Sami (sääʹmǩiõll 'the Saami language' or nuõrttsääʹmǩiõll if a distinction needs to be made between it and the other Sami languages) is a Uralic, Sami language that is spoken by the Skolts, with approximately 300 speakers in Finland, mainly in Sevettijärvi and approximately 20–30 speakers of the Njuõʹttjäuʹrr (Notozero) dialect in an area surrounding Lake Lovozero in Russia.
The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP, Suomen sosialidemokraattinen puolue, Finlands socialdemokratiska parti), shortened to the Social Democrats, is a social-democratic political party in Finland.
Sofi Oksanen (born January 7, 1977) is a Finnish writer and playwright.
Soile Marja Isokoski (born February 14, 1957) is a Finnish lyric soprano.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
Sonata Arctica is a Finnish power metal band from the town of Kemi, Finland.
South Karelia (Etelä-Karjala; Södra Karelen) is a region of Finland.
Southern Ostrobothnia (Etelä-Pohjanmaa; Södra Österbotten) is one of the 19 regions of Finland.
Southern Savonia (Etelä-Savo; Södra Savolax) is a region in the south-east of Finland.
Southwest Finland, also known as Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi, Egentliga Finland) is a region in the south-west of Finland.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The speaker of the Parliament of Finland (Finnish eduskunnan puhemies, Swedish riksdagens talman), along with two deputy speakers, is elected by Parliament during the first plenary session each year.
Pertti Olavi "Spede" Pasanen (10 April 1930 – 7 September 2001) was a Finnish film director and producer, comedian, humorist, inventor, TV personality and practitioner of gags.
Speed limit enforcement is the effort made by appropriately empowered authorities to improve driver compliance with speed limits.
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Stratovarius is a Finnish power metal band that formed in 1984.
Student financial aid in Finland consists of government payments (through Kela) that provide economic security to students and enable all students to study.
Finland is divided into 70 sub-regional units (seutukunta, ekonomisk region).
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.
The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.
Swallow the Sun is a Finnish extreme metal band.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
The Swedish People's Party of Finland (Svenska folkpartiet i Finland (SFP); Suomen ruotsalainen kansanpuolue (RKP)) is a liberal-centrist political party in Finland aiming to represent the interests of the minority Swedish-speaking population of Finland.
The Swedish-speaking population of Finland (whose members are often called Swedish-speaking Finns, Finland-Swedes, Finland Swedes, Finnish Swedes, or Swedes of Finland—see below; finlandssvenskar; suomenruotsalaiset; the term Swedo-Finnish—finlandssvensk; suomenruotsalainen—can be used as an attribute) is a linguistic minority in Finland.
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Taloussanomat is the largest business online daily newspaper in Helsinki, Finland.
Tampere (Swedish: Tammerfors) is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland.
Tango is a style of music in 4 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay (collectively, the "Rioplatenses").
Tanja Tuulia Poutiainen (born 6 April 1980) is a retired World Cup alpine ski racer from Finland.
Tapio Veli Ilmari Wirkkala (2 June 1915, Hanko – 19 May 1985) was a Finnish designer and sculptor, a major figure of post-war design.
Tarja Kaarina Halonen (born 24 December 1943) is a Finnish politician who served as the 11th President of Finland, and the first woman to hold the position, from 2000 to 2012.
Tasavallan Presidentti (in English President of the Republic) is a Finnish progressive rock band.
Tavastia (Swedish: Tavastland; Finnish: Häme; Russian: Yam or Yemi) is a historical province in the south of Finland.
Tavastia Proper (Kanta-Häme; Egentliga Tavastland) is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland.
Tavastians (Hämäläiset, tavaster, Емь, Yem, Yam) are a historic people and a modern subgroup (heimo) of the Finnish people.
Teemu Ilmari Selänne, nicknamed "The Finnish Flash" (born July 3, 1970), is a Finnish former professional ice hockey winger.
All of Finland, including the Åland Islands, has the same country code, +358.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Terveet Kädet were a Finnish hardcore punk band, the first in Finland.
The Dudesons (Duudsonit) are a four-man stunt group from Finland.
The Shadows (originally known as The Drifters) were an English instrumental rock group, and were Cliff Richard's backing band from 1958 to 1968, having also collaborated again on numerous reunion tours.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Third Swedish Crusade to Finland was a Swedish military expedition against the pagan Karelians in 1293.
Closeup of glacial till. Note that the larger grains (pebbles and gravel) in the till are completely surrounded by the matrix of finer material (silt and sand), and this characteristic, known as ''matrix support'', is diagnostic of till. Glacial till with tufts of grass Till or glacial till is unsorted glacial sediment.
Timo Tapani Sarpaneva (31 October 1926 – 6 October 2006) was an influential Finnish designer, sculptor, and educator best known in the art world for innovative work in glass, which often merged attributes of display art objects with utilitarian designations. While glass remained his most commonly addressed medium, he worked with metal, wood, textiles, and porcelain (china). Sarpaneva has entered homes around the world through his industrial design of upscale, artistically conceived items, including cast-iron cookware and porcelain dinnerware. His work was among the key components that helped to launch Finland's reputation as a trailblazer of design.
Tommi Antero Mäkinen (born 26 June 1964) is a Finnish racing executive and former driver.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Tove Marika Jansson (Finland; 9 August 1914 – 27 June 2001) was a Swedish-speaking Finnish author, novelist, painter, illustrator and comic strip author.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
Traditional Nordic dance music is a type of traditional music or folk music that once was common in the mainland part of the Nordic countries — Scandinavia plus Finland.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
Travemünde is a borough of Lübeck, Germany, located at the mouth of the river Trave in Lübeck Bay.
The Treaty of Tartu (italic, Tarton rauha) between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed on 14 October 1920 after negotiations that lasted four months.
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Turisas is a Finnish metal band from Hämeenlinna.
Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.
The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot.
The Ulfberht swords are a group of medieval swords found in Europe, dated to the 9th to 11th centuries, with blades inlaid with the inscription +VLFBERHT+ (and variants).
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
The University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopisto, Helsingfors universitet, Universitas Helsingiensis, abbreviated UH) is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku (in Swedish Åbo) in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire.
UPM-Kymmene Oyj is a Finnish forest industry company.
Uppland is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden, just north of Stockholm, the capital.
Uppslagsverket Finland ("Encyclopaedia Finland") is a Swedish-language encyclopedia with a focus on Finland and in particular Finland-Swedish subjects.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (3 September 1900 – 31 August 1986) was a Finnish politician who served as the eighth and longest-serving President of Finland (1956–82).
Uusikaupunki (Nystad), is a town and municipality of Finland.
Uusimaa (Nyland,;; both lit. “new land”) is a region of Finland.
Vaasa (Vasa) is a city on the west coast of Finland.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea (lingonberry, partridgeberry, or cowberry) is a short evergreen shrub in the heath family that bears edible fruit, native to boreal forest and Arctic tundra throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Eurasia to North America.
Vaisala is a Finnish company that develops, manufactures and markets products and services for environmental and industrial measurement.
The Valmet Corporation is a Finnish company and a developer and supplier of technologies, automation systems and services for the pulp, paper and energy industries.
A value-added service (VAS) is a popular telecommunications industry term for non-core services, or, in short, all services beyond standard voice calls and fax transmissions.
Vantaa (Vanda) is a city and municipality in Finland.
Väinö Linna (20 December 1920 – 21 April 1992) was a Finnish author.
Veikko Johannes Hakulinen (4 January 1925 – 24 October 2003) was a Finnish cross country skier, triple champion in both the Olympics and world championships.
Vilho "Ville" Eino Ritola (18 January 1896 – 24 April 1982) was a Finnish long-distance runner.
Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
VR (formally VR Group) is a government-owned railway company in Finland.
Vuosaari Harbour (Vuosaaren satama in Finnish; Nordsjö hamn in Swedish) is a seaport facility in Helsinki, Finland, opened in November 2008.
Vyborg (p; Viipuri,; Viborg; Wiborg; Viiburi) is a town in, and the administrative center of, Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
The Vyborg Governorate was a Russian Governorate 1744-1812, which was established in territories ceded by the Swedish Empire in the Great Northern War.
The Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive or Karelian offensive was a strategic operation by the Soviet Leningrad and Karelian Fronts against Finland on the Karelian Isthmus and East Karelia fronts of the Continuation War, on the Eastern Front of World War II.
Waltari is a band from Finland, known for its diversity and combination of music styles, frequently combining alternative metal, progressive metal, death metal, hard rock, heavy metal, hip hop, industrial, pop, punk, symphonic metal, techno and thrash metal.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
Wäinö Valdemar Aaltonen (8 March 1894– 30 May 1966) was a Finnish artist and sculptor.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
The western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), also known as the wood grouse, heather cock, or just capercaillie, is the largest member of the grouse family.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The White Guard or Civil Guard (lit. protection corps) was a voluntary militia that emerged victorious over the socialist Red Guard as a part of the Whites in the Finnish Civil War of 1918.
The Whites (Valkoiset, De vita, Белофинны), or White Finland, was the name used to refer to the refugee government and forces under Pehr Evind Svinhufvud's first senate who opposed the "Reds", or the Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic, during the Finnish civil war (1918).
A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.
The whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), pronounced hooper swan, is a large Northern Hemisphere swan.
Wigwam is a Finnish progressive rock band formed in 1968.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
William R. (Bill) Trotter (July 15, 1943 - February 28, 2018) was an American author and historian.
The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) is a very common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia, from Ireland east to the Anadyr River basin in eastern Siberia.
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
Wintersun is a Finnish heavy metal band from Helsinki originally formed as the sideproject of Jari Mäenpää, then vocalist and guitarist of folk metal band Ensiferum.
Wolf Cave (Susiluola, Varggrottan) is a crack in the Pyhävuori mountain (Swedish: Bötombergen) in Kristinestad, near the Karijoki municipality in Finland.
The wolverine (also spelled wolverene), Gulo gulo (Gulo is Latin for "glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Happiness Report is an annual publication of the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network which contains rankings of national happiness and analysis of the data from various perspectives.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Yachting refers to the use of recreational boats and ships called yachts for sporting purposes.
YIT Oyj (YIT-Yhtymä prior to 13 March 2006) is a diversified Finnish-based company, headquartered in Helsinki, which provides a range of services, mainly to other businesses.
Yleisradio Oy (Finnish), also known as Rundradion (Swedish) or the Finnish Broadcasting Company (English), abbreviated to Yle (pronounced /yle/; previously stylised as YLE before the 2012 corporate rebrand), is Finland's national public broadcasting company, founded in 1926.
Zachris Topelius (14 January 181812 March 1898) was a Swedish-speaking Finnish author, poet, journalist, historian, and rector of the University of Helsinki who wrote novels related to Finnish history in Swedish.
.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
.fi is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Finland.
The 1912 Summer Olympics (Swedish: Olympiska sommarspelen 1912), officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Stockholm, Sweden, between 5 May and 22 July 1912.
The 1924 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1924), officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France.
The 1952 Summer Olympics (Kesäolympialaiset 1952; Olympiska sommarspelen 1952), officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland, in 1952.
The inaugural World Championships in Athletics were run under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations and were held at the Olympic Stadium in Helsinki, Finland between 7 and 14 August 1983.
The 1995 enlargement of the European Union saw Austria, Finland, and Sweden accede to the European Union (EU).
The 10th World Championships in Athletics, under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), were held in the Olympic Stadium, Helsinki, Finland (6 August 2005 – 14 August 2005), the site of the first IAAF World Championships in 1983.
The 2007 Finnish campaign finance scandal arose in the spring of 2008 due to campaign funding issues related to the 2007 elections for the Finnish Parliament held on 18 March 2007.
The 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup was the 17th edition of the FIBA Basketball World Cup, the tournament previously known as the FIBA World Championship.
The 2016 IIHF World Championship was the 80th such event hosted by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), being held in Moscow and Saint Petersburg, Russia, from 6 May to 22 May 2016.
The meridian 20° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic and Indian oceans, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 32° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 60th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees north of Earth's equator.
The 70th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 70 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane, in the Arctic.
Etymology of Finland, FINLAND, Fin land, FinlanD, Finland's, Finlande, Finn Land, Finnish Republic, Finnishness, Finnland, ISO 3166-1:FI, Name of Finland, Northern Finland, Republic of Finland, Republica de finlandia, Republiken Finland, Suomen Tasavalta, Suomen tasavalta.