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Finnish language

Index Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. [1]

205 relations: Abessive case, Ablative case, Accusative case, Adjective, Agglutination, Agglutinative language, Aleksis Kivi, Allophone, Alphabet, Alveolar consonant, Animacy, Anticausative verb, Apocope, Approximant consonant, Aryan, ASCII, Avestan, Baltic languages, Baltic Sea, Bible translations, Birch bark letter no. 292, Calque, Causative, Central Ostrobothnia, Christian mission, Chroneme, Close-mid vowel, Colon (punctuation), Conjunction (grammar), Consonant gradation, Coronal consonant, Defense Language Institute, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental consonant, Deportations of the Ingrian Finns, Diaeresis (diacritic), Diet of Finland, Diphthong, East Karelia, Elias Lönnrot, Essive case, Estonian language, European Union, Exessive case, Fennoman movement, Finland, Finland Swedish, Finland under Swedish rule, Finland's language strife, Finnic languages, ..., Finnish cultural and academic institutes, Finnish grammar, Finnish Literature Society, Finnish locative system, Finnish markka, Finnish name, Finnish numerals, Finnish orthography, Finnish phonology, Finnish War, Finnmark, Finns, First language, Flap consonant, Frequentative, Fricative consonant, Fusional language, Gemination, Generic you, Genitive case, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Germanic languages, Germanic umlaut, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Gothic language, Grammatical case, Grand Duchy of Finland, Hanseatic League, Helsinki, Helsinki slang, Hungarian language, I-mutation, Imatra, Inari Sami language, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Inflection, Ingria, Ingrian Finns, Institute for the Languages of Finland, International Phonetic Alphabet, Irrealis mood, Iso suomen kielioppi, Jargon, Johan Vilhelm Snellman, Kalevala, Karelian Isthmus, Karelian language, Khovanshchina, Kven language, Labial consonant, Labiodental approximant, Lake Päijänne, Lapland (Finland), Latin, Latin script, Lenition, Linguistic description, Linguistic prescription, Loanword, Locative case, Meänkieli dialects, Mid vowel, Middle Low German, Mikael Agricola, Momentane, Monterey, California, Morphological typology, Morphophonology, Morphosyntactic alignment, Murmured voice, Nasal consonant, Nationalism, Nokia, Non-finite clause, Nordic countries, Nordic Language Convention, Northern Ostrobothnia, Northern Sami, Noun, Numeral (linguistics), Nykysuomen sanakirja, Official language, Official minority languages of Sweden, Ogg, Open-mid vowel, Orthography, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Partitive case, Peräpohjola dialects, Perfective aspect, Phoneme, Polysynthetic language, Possessive, Possessive affix, Postalveolar consonant, Pre-Indo-European languages, Prince, Pro-drop language, Pronoun, Proto-Uralic language, Provinces of Finland, Quenya, Rauma dialect, Russian language, Russian Orthodox Church, Sami languages, Sandhi, Satakunta, Savonia (historical province), Savonian dialects, Scandinavian Braille, Seitsemän veljestä, Sentence (linguistics), Skolt Sami language, Slang, Slavic languages, Slavs, South Karelia, Southern Ostrobothnia, Southwest Finland, Standard language, Stop consonant, Sweden, Swedish alphabet, Swedish language, Swedish-speaking population of Finland, Syllable, Synthetic language, Taiga, Tavastia (historical province), T–V distinction, Telicity, The New Dictionary of Modern Finnish, The Unknown Soldier (novel), Trill consonant, Troms, Turkic languages, Ural Mountains, Uralic languages, Variety (linguistics), Väinö Linna, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Verb, Voiced dental fricative, Voiced velar fricative, Voiceless dental fricative, Volga River, Vowel harmony, Wiktionary, World War II, World Wide Web. Expand index (155 more) »

Abessive case

In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated or), caritive and privative (abbreviated) is the grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun.

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Ablative case

The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.

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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.

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Agglutinative language

An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.

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Aleksis Kivi

Aleksis Kivi, born Alexis Stenvall, (10 October 1834 – 31 December 1872) was a Finnish author who wrote the first significant novel in the Finnish language, Seven Brothers (Finnish title: Seitsemän veljestä).

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is.

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Anticausative verb

An anticausative verb (abbreviated) is an intransitive verb that shows an event affecting its subject, while giving no semantic or syntactic indication of the cause of the event.

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In phonology, apocope is the loss (elision) of one or more sounds from the end of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.

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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

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Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.

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Baltic languages

The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Bible translations

The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.

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Birch bark letter no. 292

The birch bark letter given the document number 292 is the oldest known document in any Finnic language.

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In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.

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In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).

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Central Ostrobothnia

Central Ostrobothnia (Keski-Pohjanmaa; Mellersta Österbotten) is a region in Finland.

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Christian mission

A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.

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In linguistics, a chroneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words by duration only of a vowel or consonant.

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Close-mid vowel

A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Colon (punctuation)

The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.

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Conjunction (grammar)

In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.

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Consonant gradation

Consonant gradation is a type of consonant mutation in which consonants alternate between various "grades".

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Coronal consonant

Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.

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Defense Language Institute

The Defense Language Institute (DLI) is a United States Department of Defense (DoD) educational and research institution consisting of two separate entities which provide linguistic and cultural instruction to the Department of Defense, other Federal Agencies and numerous customers around the world.

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Dental and alveolar flaps

The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Deportations of the Ingrian Finns

Deportations of the Ingrian Finns were a series of mass deportations of the Ingrian Finnish population by Soviet authorities.

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Diaeresis (diacritic)

The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.

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Diet of Finland

The Diet of Finland (Finnish Suomen maapäivät, later valtiopäivät; Swedish Finlands Lantdagar), was the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906 and the recipient of the powers of the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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East Karelia

East Karelia (Itä-Karjala, Karelian: Idä-Karjala), also rendered as Eastern Karelia or Russian Karelia, is a name for the part of Karelia that since the Treaty of Stolbova in 1617 has remained Eastern Orthodox under Russian supremacy.

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Elias Lönnrot

Elias Lönnrot (9 April 1802 – 19 March 1884) was a Finnish physician, philologist and collector of traditional Finnish oral poetry.

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Essive case

The essive case, or similaris case (abbreviated) is one example of a grammatical case, an inflectional morphological process by which a form is altered or marked to indicate its grammatical function.

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Estonian language

Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Exessive case

The exessive case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case that denotes a transition away from a state.

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Fennoman movement

The Fennomans, members of the most important political movement (Fennomania) in the 19th-century Grand Duchy of Finland, built on the work of the fennophile interests of the 18th and early-19th centuries.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finland Swedish

Finland Swedish or Fenno-Swedish (finlandssvenska, suomenruotsi) is a general term for the variety of Standard Swedish and a closely related group of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by the Swedish-speaking population as their first language.

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Finland under Swedish rule

Finland under Swedish rule refers to the period in the history of Finland when it was a part of Sweden.

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Finland's language strife

The Language Strife (lit) was a major conflict in the mid-19th century Finland.

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Finnic languages

The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.

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Finnish cultural and academic institutes

The Finnish Cultural and Academic Institutes (in Finnish: Suomen kulttuuri- ja tiedeinstituutit) is a group of 17 independent, non-profit organisations around the world.

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Finnish grammar

This article deals with the grammar of the Finnish language (the article Finnish language discusses the language in general and contains a quick overview of the grammar).

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Finnish Literature Society

The Finnish Literature Society (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura ry or SKS) was founded in 1831 to promote literature written in Finnish.

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Finnish locative system

The Finnish language has eight locative cases, and some Eastern dialects symmetrify the system with the exessive case.

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Finnish markka

The Finnish markka (Suomen markka, abbreviated mk, finsk mark, currency code: FIM) was the currency of Finland from 1860 until 28 February 2002, when it ceased to be legal tender.

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Finnish name

In Finland, a person must have a surname and can have up to three given names.

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Finnish numerals

Numbers in Finnish are highly systematic, but can be irregular.

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Finnish orthography

Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters.

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Finnish phonology

Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in the former Häme Province in central south Finland.

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Finnish War

The Finnish War (Finska kriget, Финляндская война, Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from February 1808 to September 1809.

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Finnmark (italic; Finnmark; Фи́ннмарк, Fínnmark) is a county ("fylke") in the extreme northeastern part of Norway.

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Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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Flap consonant

In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.

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In grammar, a frequentative form (abbreviated or) of a word is one that indicates repeated action, but is not to be confused with iterative aspect.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Fusional language

Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Generic you

In English grammar and in particular in casual English, generic you, impersonal you, or indefinite you is the use of the pronoun you to refer to an unspecified person, as opposed to its use as the second person pronoun.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Germanic umlaut

The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Glottal stop

The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.

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Gothic language

Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grand Duchy of Finland

The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.

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Helsinki slang

Helsinki slang or stadin slangi ("Helsinki's slang", from Swedish stad, "city"; see etymology) is a local dialect and a sociolect of the Finnish language mainly used in the capital city of Helsinki.

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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I-mutation (also known as umlaut, front mutation, i-umlaut, i/j-mutation or i/j-umlaut) is a type of sound change in which a back vowel is fronted or a front vowel is raised if the following syllable contains /i/, /ī/ or /j/ (a voiced palatal approximant, sometimes called yod, the sound of English in yes).

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Imatra is a town and municipality in eastern Finland.

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Inari Sami language

Inari Sami (anarâškielâ) is a Sami language spoken by the Inari Sami of Finland.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indo-Iranian languages

The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Historical Ingria (Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Ingermanland; Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west.

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Ingrian Finns

The Ingrians (inkeriläiset, inkerinsuomalaiset; Ингерманландцы, Ingermanlandtsy), sometimes called Ingrian Finns, are the Finnish population of Ingria (now the central part of Leningrad Oblast in Russia), descending from Lutheran Finnish immigrants introduced into the area in the 17th century, when Finland and Ingria were both parts of the Swedish Empire.

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Institute for the Languages of Finland

The Institute for the Languages of Finland (Kotimaisten kielten keskus, abbreviated KOTUS, Päikkieennâm kielâi tutkâmkuávdáš, Ruovttueatnan gielaid guovddáš, Dommjânnmlaž ǩiõli kõõskõs, Finnosko tšimbengo instituutos, Institutet för de inhemska språken) is a governmental linguistic research institute of Finland geared at studies of Finnish, Swedish (cf. Finland Swedish), the Sami languages, Romani language, and the Finnish Sign Language.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Irrealis mood

In linguistics, irrealis moods (abbreviated) are the main set of grammatical moods that indicate that a certain situation or action is not known to have happened as the speaker is talking.

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Iso suomen kielioppi

Iso suomen kielioppi (lit. "the large grammar of Finnish") is a reference book of Finnish grammar.

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Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.

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Johan Vilhelm Snellman

Johan Vilhelm Snellman (12 May 1806, Stockholm – 4 July 1881, Kirkkonummi) was an influential Fennoman philosopher and Finnish statesman, ennobled in 1866.

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The Kalevala (Finnish Kalevala) is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian and Finnish oral folklore and mythology.

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Karelian Isthmus

The Karelian Isthmus (Karelsky peresheyek; Karjalankannas; Karelska näset) is the approximately 45–110 km wide stretch of land, situated between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia, to the north of the River Neva (between 61°21’N, 59°46’N and 27°42’E, 31°08’E).

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Karelian language

Karelian (karjala, karjal or kariela) is a Finnic language spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia.

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Khovanshchina (Хованщина, Hovánščina, sometimes rendered The Khovansky Affair; since the ending -ščina is pejorative) is an opera (subtitled a 'national music drama') in five acts by Modest Mussorgsky. The work was written between 1872 and 1880 in St. Petersburg, Russia. The composer wrote the libretto based on historical sources. The opera was unfinished and unperformed when the composer died in 1881. Like Mussorgsky's earlier Boris Godunov, Khovanshchina deals with an episode in Russian history, first brought to the composer's attention by his friend the critic Vladimir Stasov. It concerns the rebellion of Prince Ivan Khovansky, the Old Believers, and the Muscovite Streltsy against the regent Sofia Alekseyevna and the two young Tsars Peter the Great and Ivan V, who were attempting to institute Westernizing reforms in Russia. Khovansky had helped to foment the Moscow Uprising of 1682, which resulted in Sofia becoming regent on behalf of her younger brother Ivan and half-brother Peter, who were crowned joint Tsars. In the fall of 1682 Prince Ivan Khovansky turned against Sofia. Supported by the Old Believers and the Streltsy, Khovansky — who supposedly wanted to install himself as the new regent — demanded the reversal of Patriarch Nikon's reforms. Sofia and her court were forced to flee Moscow. Eventually, Sofia managed to suppress the so-called Khovanshchina (Khovansky affair) with the help of the diplomat Fyodor Shaklovity, who succeeded Khovansky as leader of the Muscovite Streltsy. With the rebellion crushed, the Old Believers committed mass suicide (in the opera, at least). Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov completed, revised, and scored Khovanshchina in 1881–1882. Because of his extensive cuts and "recomposition", Dmitri Shostakovich revised the opera in 1959 based on Mussorgsky's vocal score, and it is the Shostakovich version that is usually performed. In 1913 Igor Stravinsky and Maurice Ravel made their own arrangement at Sergei Diaghilev's request. When Feodor Chaliapin refused to sing the part of Dosifei in any other orchestration than Rimsky-Korsakov's, Diaghilev's company employed a mixture of orchestrations which did not prove successful. The Stravinsky-Ravel orchestration was forgotten, except for Stravinsky's finale, which is still sometimes used. Although the background of the opera comprises the Moscow Uprising of 1682 and the Khovansky affair a few months later, its main themes are the struggle between progressive and reactionary political factions during the minority of Tsar Peter the Great and the passing of old Muscovy before Peter's westernizing reforms. It received its first performance in the Rimsky-Korsakov edition in 1886.

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Kven language

The Kven language (kvääni or kväänin kieli; kainu or kainun kieli) is a Finnish dialect spoken in northern Norway by the Kven people.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Labiodental approximant

The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Lake Päijänne

Lake Päijänne is the second largest lake in Finland.

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Lapland (Finland)

Lapland (Lappi; Sápmi; Lappland) is the largest and northernmost region of Finland.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.

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Linguistic description

In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.

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Linguistic prescription

Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Locative case

Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.

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Meänkieli dialects

Meänkieli (literally "our language") is a group of distinct Finnish dialects spoken in the northernmost part of Sweden along the valley of the Torne River.

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Mid vowel

A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.

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Middle Low German

Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.

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Mikael Agricola

Mikael Agricola (c. 1510 – 9 April 1557) was a Lutheran clergyman who became the de facto founder of literary Finnish and a prominent proponent of the Protestant Reformation in Sweden, including Finland, which was a Swedish territory at the time.

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In Finnish grammar, the momentane is a verb aspect indicating that an occurrence is sudden and short-lived.

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Monterey, California

Monterey is a city located in Monterey County in the U.S. state of California, on the southern edge of Monterey Bay on California's Central Coast.

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Morphological typology

Morphological typology is a way of classifying the languages of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to their common morphological structures.

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Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.

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Morphosyntactic alignment

In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the grammatical relationship between arguments—specifically, between the two arguments (in English, subject and object) of transitive verbs like the dog chased the cat, and the single argument of intransitive verbs like the cat ran away.

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Murmured voice

Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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Nokia is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865.

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Non-finite clause

In linguistics, a non-finite clause is a dependent or embedded clause whose verbal chain is non-finite; for example, using Priscian's categories for Latin verb forms, in many languages we find texts with non-finite clauses containing infinitives, participles and gerunds.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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Nordic Language Convention

The Nordic Language Convention is a convention of linguistic rights that came into force on 1 March 1987, under the auspices of the Nordic Council.

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Northern Ostrobothnia

Northern Ostrobothnia (Pohjois-Pohjanmaa; Norra Österbotten) is a region of Finland.

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Northern Sami

Northern or North Sami (davvisámegiella; disapproved exonym Lappish or Lapp), sometimes also simply referred to as Sami, is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages.

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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Numeral (linguistics)

In linguistics, a numeral is a member of a part of speech characterized by the designation of numbers; some examples are the English word 'two' and the compound 'seventy-seventh'.

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Nykysuomen sanakirja

Nykysuomen sanakirja (The Dictionary of Modern Finnish or The Dictionary of Contemporary Finnish) is a Finnish language dictionary published between 1951 and 1961 in six separate volumes.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Official minority languages of Sweden

In 1999, the Minority Language Committee of Sweden formally declared five official minority languages: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meänkieli (Tornedal Finnish).

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Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Open-mid vowel

An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatalization (phonetics)

In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.

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Partitive case

The partitive case (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical case which denotes "partialness", "without result", or "without specific identity".

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Peräpohjola dialects

The Peräpohjola dialects are forms of Finnish spoken in Lapland in Finland, Sweden, and Norway.

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Perfective aspect

The perfective aspect (abbreviated), sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect used to describe an action viewed as a simple whole—a unit without interior composition.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Polysynthetic language

In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).

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A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.

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Possessive affix

In linguistics, a possessive affix is a suffix or prefix attached to a noun to indicate it is possessor, much in the manner of possessive adjectives.

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Postalveolar consonant

Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.

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Pre-Indo-European languages

Pre-Indo-European languages are any of several ancient languages, not necessarily related to one another, that existed in prehistoric Europe and South Asia before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages.

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A prince is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family ranked below a king and above a duke.

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Pro-drop language

A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).

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In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Proto-Uralic language

Proto-Uralic is the reconstructed language ancestral to the Uralic language family.

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Provinces of Finland

Between 1634 and 2009, Finland was administered as several provinces (Suomen läänit, Finlands län).

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Quenya is a fictional language devised by J. R. R. Tolkien and used by the Elves in his legendarium.

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Rauma dialect

Rauma language ("rauman giäl") is a dialect of Finnish spoken in the town of Rauma, western Finland.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

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Sami languages

Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).

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SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.

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Satakunta (Satakunda, Finnia Septentrionalis or Satagundia) is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland, part of the former Western Finland Province.

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Savonia (historical province)

Savonia (Savo, Savolax) is a historical province in the east of Finland.

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Savonian dialects

The Savonian dialects (also called Savo Finnish) are forms of the Finnish language spoken in Savonia and other parts of Eastern Finland.

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Scandinavian Braille

Scandinavian Braille is a braille alphabet used, with differences in orthography and punctuation, for the languages of the mainland Nordic countries: Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and Finnish.

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Seitsemän veljestä

Seitsemän veljestä (Finnish for "seven brothers") is the first and only novel by Aleksis Kivi, the national author of Finland, and it is widely regarded as the first significant novel written in Finnish and by a Finnish-speaking author.

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Sentence (linguistics)

In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.

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Skolt Sami language

Skolt Sami (sääʹmǩiõll 'the Saami language' or nuõrttsääʹmǩiõll if a distinction needs to be made between it and the other Sami languages) is a Uralic, Sami language that is spoken by the Skolts, with approximately 300 speakers in Finland, mainly in Sevettijärvi and approximately 20–30 speakers of the Njuõʹttjäuʹrr (Notozero) dialect in an area surrounding Lake Lovozero in Russia.

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Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both.

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Slavic languages

The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.

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Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.

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South Karelia

South Karelia (Etelä-Karjala; Södra Karelen) is a region of Finland.

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Southern Ostrobothnia

Southern Ostrobothnia (Etelä-Pohjanmaa; Södra Österbotten) is one of the 19 regions of Finland.

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Southwest Finland

Southwest Finland, also known as Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi, Egentliga Finland) is a region in the south-west of Finland.

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Standard language

A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swedish alphabet

The Swedish alphabet is the writing system used for the Swedish language.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Swedish-speaking population of Finland

The Swedish-speaking population of Finland (whose members are often called Swedish-speaking Finns, Finland-Swedes, Finland Swedes, Finnish Swedes, or Swedes of Finland—see below; finlandssvenskar; suomenruotsalaiset; the term Swedo-Finnish—finlandssvensk; suomenruotsalainen—can be used as an attribute) is a linguistic minority in Finland.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Synthetic language

In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.

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Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.

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Tavastia (historical province)

Tavastia (Swedish: Tavastland; Finnish: Häme; Russian: Yam or Yemi) is a historical province in the south of Finland.

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T–V distinction

In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.

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In linguistics, telicity (from the Greek, meaning "end" or "goal") is the property of a verb or verb phrase that presents an action or event as being complete in some sense.

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The New Dictionary of Modern Finnish

The New Dictionary of Modern Finnish (Finnish: Kielitoimiston sanakirja) is the most recent dictionary of the modern Finnish language.

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The Unknown Soldier (novel)

The Unknown Soldier or Unknown Soldiers is a war novel by Finnish author Väinö Linna, considered his magnum opus.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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Troms (italic; Tromssa) is a county in Northern Norway.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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Variety (linguistics)

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

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Väinö Linna

Väinö Linna (20 December 1920 – 21 April 1992) was a Finnish author.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Velar nasal

The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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Voiced dental fricative

The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced velar fricative

The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.

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Voiceless dental fricative

The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Volga River

The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.

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Vowel harmony

Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.

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Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.

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Redirects here:

Dialect of Finnish, Finnish (language), Finnish Language, Finnish dialects, Finnish syntax, Finnish-language, Finnophone, Gällivare dialects, ISO 639:fi, ISO 639:fin, Suomeksi, Suomen kieli, Torne Valley dialect.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnish_language

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