132 relations: A, Affricate consonant, Allophone, Alphabetical order, Alveolar consonant, Approximant consonant, Asphalt, Ä, Å, Åland Islands, Ö, ß, Š, Ž, B, Banana, Basket, Bus, C, Caesium, Caron, Character encoding, Chess, Coffee, Collation, Consonant, Consonant gradation, Curry, D, Danish language, Dental consonant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals, Deodorant, Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Diagnosis, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Double acute accent, E, Estonian language, F, Fax, Festival, Finland Swedish, Finnish language, Finnish phonology, Flap consonant, Fricative consonant, G, ..., Gemination, Gene, German language, Germanic umlaut, Glyph, Gorilla, H, Helsingin Sanomat, Helsinki slang, Hiatus (linguistics), Hungarian language, I, Icelandic language, Inflection, International Phonetic Alphabet, ISO basic Latin alphabet, Isthmus, J, Junk (ship), K, Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg, L, Latin, Latin script, Length (phonetics), List of Latin-script digraphs, Loanword, M, Magnet, Mika Waltari, Mikael Agricola, Minimal pair, Murmured voice, N, Nasal vowel, Norwegian language, O, Ogg, Orthography, P, Phoneme, Phonetic transcription, Phonology, Pizza, Polish language, Portuguese language, Proper noun, Q, R, Register (sociolinguistics), S, Sami languages, Sanoma, Scandinavia, Shampoo, Shilling, Sigma, Spanish language, Stress (linguistics), Swedish alphabet, Swedish language, Syllabification, T, Taxicab, Textile, The Unknown Soldier (novel), Tilde, Typographic ligature, U, Uniform, V, Väinö Linna, Velar nasal, Vilén, Vowel, W, Wanha Satama, Wildebeest, X, Y, Z, Zenith. Expand index (82 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alphabetical order is a system whereby strings of characters are placed in order based on the position of the characters in the conventional ordering of an alphabet.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Ä (lower case ä) is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter A with an umlaut mark or diaeresis.
Å (lower case: å) — represents various (although often very similar) sounds in several languages.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
Ö, or ö, is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter o modified with an umlaut or diaeresis.
In German orthography, the grapheme ß, called Eszett or scharfes S, in English "sharp S", represents the phoneme in Standard German, specifically when following long vowels and diphthongs, while ss is used after short vowels.
The grapheme Š, š (S with caron) is used in various contexts representing the đ sound usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar fricative or similar voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/.
The grapheme Ž (minuscule: ž) is formed from Latin Z with the addition of caron (háček, mäkčeň, strešica, kvačica).
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
A basket is a container which is traditionally constructed from stiff fibers, which can be made from a range of materials, including wood splints, runners, and cane.
A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Consonant gradation is a type of consonant mutation in which consonants alternate between various "grades".
Curry (sometimes, plural curries) is an umbrella term referring to a number of dishes originating in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages.
A deodorant is a substance applied to the body to prevent body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits, feet, and other areas of the body.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
The double acute accent (˝) is a diacritic mark of the Latin script.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device.
A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures.
Finland Swedish or Fenno-Swedish (finlandssvenska, suomenruotsi) is a general term for the variety of Standard Swedish and a closely related group of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by the Swedish-speaking population as their first language.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in the former Häme Province in central south Finland.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
Helsingin Sanomat, abbreviated HS and colloquially known as Hesari, is the largest subscription newspaper in Finland and the Nordic countries, owned by Sanoma.
Helsinki slang or stadin slangi ("Helsinki's slang", from Swedish stad, "city"; see etymology) is a local dialect and a sociolect of the Finnish language mainly used in the capital city of Helsinki.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
An isthmus (or; plural: isthmuses; from neck) is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship that is still in use today.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg (28 January 1865 – 22 September 1952) was a Finnish jurist and academic, who played a central role in the drafting of the Constitution of Finland in 1919.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
In phonetics, length or quantity is a feature of sounds that have distinctively extended duration compared with other sounds.
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
Mika Toimi Waltari (19 September 1908 – 26 August 1979) was a Finnish writer, best known for his best-selling novel The Egyptian (Sinuhe egyptiläinen).
Mikael Agricola (c. 1510 – 9 April 1557) was a Lutheran clergyman who became the de facto founder of literary Finnish and a prominent proponent of the Protestant Reformation in Sweden, including Finland, which was a Swedish territory at the time.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Pizza is a traditional Italian dish consisting of a yeasted flatbread typically topped with tomato sauce and cheese and baked in an oven.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).
Sanoma Corporation (Finnish: Sanoma Oyj, formerly SanomaWSOY) is a leading media group in the Nordic countries with operations in over 10 European countries, based in Helsinki.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.
The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.
Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
The Swedish alphabet is the writing system used for the Swedish language.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Syllabification or syllabication is the separation of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A taxicab, also known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Unknown Soldier or Unknown Soldiers is a war novel by Finnish author Väinö Linna, considered his magnum opus.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A uniform is a type of clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Väinö Linna (20 December 1920 – 21 April 1992) was a Finnish author.
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Vilén may refer to.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
Wanha Satama (Finnish for "old harbour") is an exhibition centre in Helsinki, Finland.
The wildebeests, also called gnus, are a genus of antelopes, scientific name Connochaetes.
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere.