112 relations: Baltic Sea, Besermyan, Burtas, Central Europe, Chud, Compensatory lengthening, Csangos, Eastern Europe, Eastern Nilotic languages, Encyclopædia Britannica, Erzya language, Estonia, Estonian language, Estonians, Ethnologue, Etymological dictionary, Finland, Finnic languages, Finnic peoples, Finnish language, Finno-Permic languages, Finno-Samic languages, Finno-Ugrian Society, Finns, Haplogroup N-M231, Haplogroup NO, Historical linguistics, Hungarian language, Hungarians, Hungary, Inari Sami language, Indo-European languages, Izhorians, Jasz people, Karelians, Khanty, Khanty language, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Kola Peninsula, Komi language, Komi peoples, Komi Republic, Komi-Permyak Okrug, Kunság, Language contact, Language shift, Livonian language, Livonians, Loanword, Magyarab people, ..., Mansi language, Mansi people, Mari El, Mari language, Mari people, Meadow Mari language, Mid vowel, Moksha language, Mokshas, Mordovia, Mordvinic languages, Mordvins, Morphological derivation, Nauka (publisher), Nilotic languages, North Asia, Northern Europe, Northern Sami, Number, Okrug, Old Hungarian alphabet, Old Permic alphabet, Open vowel, Palóc, Perm Krai, Permic languages, Pit–Comb Ware culture, Proto-Finnic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-language, Proto-Samoyedic language, Proto-Uralic homeland hypotheses, Proto-Uralic language, Republic of Karelia, Rosetta Project, Russia, Sami languages, Sami people, Samoyedic languages, Sápmi, Semitic languages, Setos, Sound change, Swadesh list, Syktyvkar, Székelys, The Economist, Udmurt language, Udmurt people, Udmurtia, Ugric languages, Ugric peoples, Ural Mountains, Ural–Altaic languages, Uralic languages, Uralo-Siberian languages, Urheimat, Võro language, Vepsians, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Volga Finns, Votes. Expand index (62 more) » « Shrink index
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Besermyan, Biserman, Besermans or Besermens (бесермяне, besermyane singular: besermyanin, бесерманъёс, bisermännär) are a numerically small Finno-Ugric ethnic group in Russia.
Burtas (Буртасы, Burtasy; Пăртассем, Părtassem; برطاسلر or بۇرتاسلار) were a tribe of uncertain ethnolinguistic affiliation inhabiting the steppe region north of the Caspian Sea in medieval times (modern Penza Oblast, Ulyanovsk Oblast and Saratov Oblast of the Russian Federation).
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Chud or Chude (чудь, in Finnic languages: tshuudi, tšuudi, čuđit) is a term historically applied in the early Russian annals to several Finnic peoples in the area of what is now Estonia, Karelia and Northwestern Russia.
Compensatory lengthening in phonology and historical linguistics is the lengthening of a vowel sound that happens upon the loss of a following consonant, usually in the syllable coda, or of a vowel in an adjacent syllable.
The Csango people (Csángók, Ceangăi) are a Hungarian ethnographic group of Roman Catholic faith living mostly in the Romanian region of Moldavia, especially in Bacău County.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Nilotic languages are one of the three primary branches of the Nilotic languages, themselves belonging to the Eastern Sudanic subfamily of Nilo-Saharan; they are believed to have begun to diverge about 3,000 years ago, and have spread southwards from an original home in Equatoria in South Sudan.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Erzya language (erzänj kelj) is spoken by about 37,000 people in the northern, eastern and north-western parts of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent regions of Nizhny Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
An etymological dictionary discusses the etymology of the words listed.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.
The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The Finno-Permic languages (also Finno-Permian and Fenno-Permic/Permian) are a proposed subdivision of the Uralic languages which comprises the Baltic-Finnic languages, Sami languages, Mordvinic languages, Mari language, Permic languages, and likely a number of extinct languages.
The Finno-Samic languages (also Finno-Saamic, Finno-Lappic, Saamic–Fennic) are a hypothetical subgroup of the Uralic family, and are made up of 22 languages classified into either the Sami languages, which are spoken by the Sami people who inhabit the Sápmi region of northern Fennoscandia, or Finnic languages, which include the major languages Finnish and Estonian.
Finno-Ugrian Society (Société Finno-Ougrienne, Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura) is a Finnish learned society, dedicated to the study of Uralic and Altaic languages.
Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.
Haplogroup N (M231) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup defined by the presence of the SNP marker M231.
· Haplogroup NO (M214/Page39; F176/M2314; CTS5858/M2325/F346; CTS11572), also known as NO-M214 and NO1, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Inari Sami (anarâškielâ) is a Sami language spoken by the Inari Sami of Finland.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Izhorians (Ижо́ра; ижо́рцы; sg. inkerikot, isurit, ižoralaine, inkeroine, ižora, ingermans, ingers, ingrian, pl. ižoralaizet), along with the Votes, are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous people native to Ingria.
Jász is the Hungarian language and English language exonym for an ethnic minority, also known by the endonyms Iasi or Jassy, that has lived in Hungary since the 13th century.
Karelians (karjalaižet) are a Baltic-Finnic ethnic group who are native to the Northern European historical region of Karelia, which is today split between Finland and Russia.
The Khanty (in older literature: Ostyaks) are an indigenous people calling themselves Khanti, Khande, Kantek (Khanty), living in Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, a region historically known as "Yugra" in Russia, together with the Mansi.
Khanty (or Hanti), previously known as Ostyak, is the language of the Khanty people.
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra or Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Yugra (Ха́нты-Манси́йский автоно́мный о́круг — Югра́, Khanty-Mansiysky avtonomny okrug – Yugra), is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Tyumen Oblast).
The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.
The Komi language (endonym: Коми кыв, tr. Komi kyv) is a Uralic macrolanguage spoken by the Komi peoples in the northeastern European part of Russia.
The Komi are a Uralic ethnic group whose homeland is in the north-east of European Russia around the basins of the Vychegda, Pechora and Kama rivers.
The Komi Republic (r; Komi Respublika) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
Komi-Permyak Okrug (Ко́ми-Пермя́цкий о́круг, Komi-Permyatsky okrug; Перым Коми кытш), or Permyakia is a territory with special status within Perm Krai, Russia.
Kunság is a historical and geographical region in Hungary situated in the current Bács-Kiskun and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok counties.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.
The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The MagyarabGéza Balázs,, Corvina Books, 1997,p.
The Mansi language (previously, Vogul and also Maansi) is spoken by the Mansi people in Russia along the Ob River and its tributaries, in the Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, and Sverdlovsk Oblast.
The Mansi (Mansi: Мāньси / Мāньси мāхум, Māńsi / Māńsi māhum) are an indigenous people living in Khanty–Mansia, an autonomous okrug within Tyumen Oblast in Russia.
The Mari El Republic (Респу́блика Мари́й Эл, Respublika Mariy El; Meadow Mari: Марий Эл Республик; Hill Mari: Мары Эл Республик) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
The Mari language (Mari: марий йылме, marii jõlme; марийский язык, marijskij jazyk), spoken by approximately 400,000 people, belongs to the Uralic language family.
The Mari (мари, марийцы) are a Finno-Ugric ethnic group, who have traditionally lived along the Volga and Kama rivers in Russia.
Meadow Mari or Eastern Mari is a standardized dialect of the Mari language used by about half a million people mostly in the European part of the Russian Federation.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
The Moksha language (mokšenj kälj) is a member of the Mordvinic branch of the Uralic languages, with around 2,000 native speakers (2010 Russian census).
The Mokshas (also Mokshans, Moksha people, in) are a Mordvinian ethnic group belonging to the Volgaic branch of the Finno-Ugric peoples who live in the Russian Federation, mostly near the Volga and Moksha rivers, a tributary of the Oka River.
The Mordvinic languages, alternatively Mordvin languages, or Mordvinian languages (Мордовские языки, Mordovskiye yazyki, the official Russian term for the language pair), are a subgroup of the Uralic languages, comprising the closely related Erzya language and Moksha language (both spoken in Mordovia).
The Mordvins, also Mordva, Mordvinians, Mordovians (эрзят/erzät, мокшет/mokšet, мордва/mordva), are the members of a people who speak a Mordvinic language of the Uralic language family and live mainly in the Republic of Mordovia and other parts of the middle Volga River region of Russia.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
Nauka (Наука, lit. trans.: Science) is a Russian publisher of academic books and journals.
The Nilotic languages are a group of Eastern Sudanic languages spoken across a wide area between South Sudan and Tanzania by the Nilotic peoples, who traditionally practice cattle-herding.
North Asia or Northern Asia, sometimes known as Siberia, is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions of Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East – an area east of the Ural Mountains.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Northern or North Sami (davvisámegiella; disapproved exonym Lappish or Lapp), sometimes also simply referred to as Sami, is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages.
A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.
Okrug (окръг, okrǎg, о́круг; округ,; окру́га, okruha; акруга, Akruha; okręg; оқрҿс; йырвел, jyrvel) is an administrative division of some Slavic states.
The Old Hungarian script (rovásírás) is an alphabetic writing system used for writing the Hungarian language.
The Old Permic script (Важ Перым гижӧм), sometimes called Abur or Anbur, is a "highly idiosyncratic adaptation" of the Cyrillic script once used to write medieval Komi (Permic).
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
The Palóc are a subgroup of Hungarians in Northern Hungary and southern Slovakia.
Perm Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) that came into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of the 2004 referendum on the merger of Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug.
The Permic languages are a branch of the Uralic language family.
The Pit–Comb Ware culture or Comb Ceramic culture was a northeast European characterised by its Pit–Comb Ware.
Proto-Finnic or Proto-Baltic-Finnic is the common ancestor of the Finnic languages, which include the national languages Finnish and Estonian.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
Proto-Samoyedic, or Proto-Samoyed, is the reconstructed ancestral language of the Samoyedic languages: Nenets (Tundra and Forest), Enets, Nganasan, Selkup, as well as extinct Kamas and Mator.
Various Proto-Uralic homeland hypotheses on the origin of the Uralic languages and the location (Urheimat or homeland) and the period in which the Proto-Uralic language was spoken have been advocated over the years.
Proto-Uralic is the reconstructed language ancestral to the Uralic language family.
The Republic of Karelia (rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə kɐˈrʲelʲɪ(j)ə; Karjalan tazavalda; Karjalan tasavalta; Karjalan Tazovaldkund) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in the northwest of Russia.
The Rosetta Project is a global collaboration of language specialists and native speakers working to develop a contemporary version of the historic Rosetta Stone to last from 2000 to 12,000 AD; it is run by the Long Now Foundation.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
The Samoyedic or Samoyed languages are spoken on both sides of the Ural mountains, in northernmost Eurasia, by approximately 25,000 people altogether.
Sápmi, in English commonly known as Lapland, is the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sami people, traditionally known in English as Lapps.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Setos (setokõsõq, setoq, setud) are an indigenous ethnic and linguistic minority in south-eastern Estonia and north-western Russia.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
The Swadesh list is a classic compilation of basic concepts for the purposes of historical-comparative linguistics.
Syktyvkar (p; Сыктывкар) is the capital city of the Komi Republic, Russia.
The Székelys, sometimes also referred to as Szeklers (székelyek, Secui, Szekler, Siculi), are a subgroup of the Hungarian people living mostly in the Székely Land in Romania.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
Udmurt (удмурт кыл, udmurt kyl) is a Uralic language, part of the Permic subgroup, spoken by the Udmurt natives of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with Russian.
The Udmurts (Удмуртъёс, Udmurt’jos) are a people who speak the Udmurt language.
Udmurtia (p; Удмуртия), or the Udmurt Republic, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) within the Volga Federal District.
The Ugric or Ugrian languages are a branch of the Uralic language family.
The Ugric peoples are ethnic groups that speak a Ugric language.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
Ural–Altaic, Uralo-Altaic or Uraltaic, also known as Turanian, is an obsolete language-family proposal uniting the Uralic and the widely discredited Altaic languages.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Uralo-Siberian is a hypothetical language family consisting of Uralic, Yukaghir, Chukotko-Kamchatkan and Eskimo–Aleut.
In historical linguistics, the term homeland (also Urheimat;; from a German compound of ur- "original" and Heimat "home, homeland") denotes the area of origin of the speakers of a proto-language, the (reconstructed or known) parent language of a group of languages assumed to be genetically related.
Võro (võro kiil|, võru keel) is a language belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.
Veps, or Vepsians (Veps: vepsläižed), are a Finnic people who speak the Veps language, which belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
The Volga Finns (sometimes referred to as Eastern Finns) are a historical group of indigenous peoples of Russia living in the vicinity of the Volga, who speak Uralic languages.
Votes, sometimes also Vods (vađđalaizõd) are a Finnic ethic group native to Votia in Ingria, the part of modern-day northwestern Russia that is roughly southwest of Saint Petersburg and east of the Estonian border-town of Narva.
Critique of Finno-Ugric and Uralic language Groups, Critique of Finno-Ugric and Uralic language groups, Fenno Ugric, Fenno ugric languages, Fenno-Ugric, Fenno-Ugric languages, Fenno-ugric, Fenno-ugric languages, Finno Ugric, Finno-Ugrian, Finno-Ugrian languages, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Ugric Languages, Finno-Ugric language, Finno-Ugric language family, Finno-Ugric language group, Finno-ugric, Finno-ugric family, Finno-ugric group, Finno-ugric language family, Finno-ugric language group, Finno-ugric languages, Finno-urgic, ISO 639:fiu, Proto-Finno-Ugric, Proto-Finno-Ugric language, The Finnic language group, Ugro finnic, Ugro-Finnic languages.