181 relations: Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Abd El-Razzak El-Sanhuri, Abdullah al-Harari, Abu Bakr, Abu Hafs Umar an-Nasafi, Abu Hanifa, Adab (Islam), Ahkam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Aisha, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Al-Qurtubi, Al-Shafi‘i, Ali, Analogy, Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Asmā' bint Abi Bakr, Assize of novel disseisin, Ẓāhirī, Bahar-e-Shariat, Bailiff, Balkans, Bernard G. Weiss, Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, Case law, Central Asia, Charitable trust, Chief Justice of the United States, China, Civil law (legal system), Common law, Constitution of Medina, Contract, Crusades, Debt, East Africa, Education, Egypt, Emirate of Sicily, England, European History Online, Faqīh, Fard, Fasting in Islam, Fatwa, Glossary of Islam, Hadith, Hadith of the Quran and Sunnah, Hadith studies, ..., Hanafi, Hanbali, Haram, Hawala, Hejaz, Hisham ibn Urwah, Husayn ibn Ali, Ibadah, Ibadi, Ibn Khaldun, Ijma, Ijtihad, India, Indian subcontinent, Indonesia, Informal value transfer system, Inns of Court, Institution, Iran, Iraq, Islam, Islamic criminal jurisprudence, Islamic economics, Islamic Golden Age, Islamic hygienical jurisprudence, Islamic inheritance jurisprudence, Islamic marital jurisprudence, Islamic military jurisprudence, Islamization of knowledge, Ismail ibn Ibrahim, Istihsan, Istishab, Istislah, Italy, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Ja'fari jurisprudence, Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, John Roberts, Jurisprudence, Jury, Khawarij, Kurdistan, Law of agency, Law of France, Law school, Laythi, Lebanon, Leibniz Institute of European History, License, Limited partnership, Ma'ruf, Madhhab, Madrasa, Makruh, Malaysia, Malik ibn Anas, Maliki, Maslaha, Mecelle, Middle East, Mizan, Modern Standard Arabic, Modus operandi, Morocco, Muamalat, Mubah, Muhammad, Muhammad Abduh, Muhammad al-Baqir, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Mustahabb, Muwatta Imam Malik, Neighbourhood, Norman conquest of England, Normans, North Africa, North Carolina Law Review, Oman, Oneworld Publications, Pakistan, Palestinian law, Plaintiff, Political aspects of Islam, Precedent, Predestination in Islam, Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Qadi, Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Qirad, Qiyas, Quran, Ramadan (calendar month), Responsa, Roman Empire, Sacred, Sacrilege, Sahabah, Sahih al-Bukhari, Salah, Saudi Arabia, Scholasticism, Shafi‘i, Sharia, Shia Islam, Siege of Baghdad (1258), Sources of sharia, Sunnah, Sunni Islam, Taqlid, Trust law, Turkey, Twelver, Ulama, Umayyad Caliphate, Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim, United States, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Urf, Urwah ibn Zubayr, Verdict, Wahhabism, Waqf, West Africa, Writ, Wudu, Yazid I, Yemen, Zaidiyyah, Zayd ibn Ali. Expand index (131 more) » « Shrink index
`Abd Allah al-Zubayr or ibn Zubayr (عبد الله بن الزبير ‘Abdallāh ibn az-Zubayr; 624–692) was an Arab sahabi whose father was Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, and whose mother was Asma bint Abi Bakr, daughter of the first Caliph Abu Bakr.
Abd el-Razzak el-Sanhuri or ‘Abd al-Razzāq al-Sanhūrī (1895–1971) (عبد الرزاق السنهوري) was an Egyptian, legal scholar and professor who drafted the revised Egyptian Civil Code of 1948.
Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf Al-Harariyy (عبد الله بن محمَّد بن يوسف بن عبد الله بن جامع الشَّيبي العبدري الهرري) (1906 – September 2, 2008) was a Harari muhaddith and scholar of Islamic jurisprudence.
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.
Najm ad-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ‘Umar ibn Muḥammad an-Nasafī (نجم الدين أبو حفص عمر بن محمد النسفي‎; 1067–1142) was a Muslim jurist, theologian, mufassir, muhaddith and historian.
Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, “Abū Ḥanīfa”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
Adab (أدب) in the context of behavior, refers to prescribed Islamic etiquette: "refinement, good manners, morals, decorum, decency, humaneness".
Ahkam (أحكام "provisions", plural of (حُكْم)) is an Islamic term with several meanings.
Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shaybānī (احمد بن محمد بن حنبل ابو عبد الله الشيباني; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred to as Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Ḥanbal for short, or reverentially as Imam Aḥmad by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, ascetic, and hadith traditionist.
‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE;عائشة بنت أبي بكر or عائشة, transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah, also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha) was one of Muhammad's wives.
The Prophet's Mosque (Classical ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدُ ٱلـنَّـبَـوِيّ, Al-Masjidun-Nabawiyy; Modern Standard ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدْ اَلـنَّـبَـوِي, Al-Masjid An-Nabawī) is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.
Imam Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi or Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abu Bakr al-Ansari al-Qurtubi (أبو عبدالله القرطبي) was a famous mufassir, muhaddith and faqih scholar from Cordoba of Maliki origin.
Abū ʿAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī (أبـو عـبـد الله مـحـمـد ابـن إدريـس الـشـافـعيّ) (767-820 CE, 150-204 AH) was an Arab Muslim theologian, writer, and scholar, who was the first contributor of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Uṣūl al-fiqh).
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Asmā' bint Abu Bakr (أسماء بنت أبي بكر), c. 595 – 692 CE, was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
In English law, the Assize of novel disseisin ("recent dispossession") was an action to recover lands of which the plaintiff had been disseised, or dispossessed.
Ẓāhirī (ظاهري) madhhab or al-Ẓāhirīyyah (الظاهرية) is a school of thought in Islamic jurisprudence founded by Dawud al-Zahiri in the 9th century CE, characterised by reliance on the manifest (zahir) meaning of expressions in the Qur'an and hadith, as well as rejection of analogical deduction (qiyas).
Bahar-e-Shariat (1939) is an encyclopedia of Islamic fiqh (jurisprudence), according to the Hanafi school, spreading over 20 volumes.
A bailiff (from Middle English baillif, Old French baillis, bail "custody, charge, office"; cf. bail, based on the adjectival form, baiulivus, of Latin bajulus, carrier, manager) is a manager, overseer or custodian; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority or jurisdiction is given.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Bernard G. Weiss (born August 10, 1933; died February 8, 2018, with complications associated with Parkinson's Disease*) is professor emeritus of languages and literature at the University of Utah.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
A charitable trust is an irrevocable trust established for charitable purposes and, in some jurisdictions, a more specific term than "charitable organization".
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Constitution of Medina (دستور المدينة, Dustūr al-Madīnah), also known as the Charter of Medina (صحيفة المدينة, Ṣaḥīfat al-Madīnah; or: ميثاق المدينة, Mīthāq al-Madīnah), was drawn up on behalf of the Islamic prophet Muhammad shortly after his arrival at Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622 CE argues that the initial agreement was shortly after the Hijra and the document was amended later, after the Battle of Badr (AH 2,.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Emirate of Sicily (إِمَارَةُ صِقِلِّيَة) was an emirate on the island of Sicily which existed from 831 to 1091.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
European History Online (Europäische Geschichte Online, EGO) is an academic website that publishes articles on the history of Europe between the period of 1450 and 1950 according to the principle of open access.
A Faqīh (plural Fuqahā') (فقيه, pl.) is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.
(فرض) or (فريضة) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty commanded by Allah (God).
Fasting in Islam, known as Sawm (صَوْم) or Siyām (صِيَام), the Arabic words for fasting, also commonly known as Rūzeh or Rōzah (روزه) in some Muslim countries, is the practice of abstaining, usually from food and drink.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
The following list consists of notable concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Several hadith (oral tradition about the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad) indicate the importance as sources of Islam not only the Quran (the revelation of God to Muhammad, infallible but containing compressed information), but also of the Sunnah of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (a detailed explanation of the everyday application of the principles established in the Qur'an that is based on ahadith).
Hadith studies (علم الحديث ʻilm al-ḥadīth "knowledge of hadith", also science of hadith, or science of hadith criticism) consist of several religious disciplines used in the study and evaluation of the Islamic hadith — i.e. the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by Muslim scholars.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The Hanbali school (المذهب الحنبلي) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Haram (حَرَام) is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden".
Hawala or hewala (حِوالة, meaning transfer or sometimes trust), also known as hundi or—in Somali, xawala or xawilaad—is a popular and informal value transfer system based not on the movement of cash, or on telegraph or computer network wire transfers between banks, but instead on the performance and honour of a huge network of money brokers (known as "hawaladars").
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Hishām ibn ʿUrwah (هشام بن عروة, c. 667 – c. 772) was a prominent narrator of hadith, son of Urwah ibn al-Zubayr, grandson of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam and Asma bint Abu Bakr.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Ibadah (عبادة., ‘ibādah, also spelled ibada) is an Arabic word meaning service or servitude.
The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (الاباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim scholars basically on religious issues.
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
An informal value transfer system (IVTS) is any system, mechanism, or network of people that receives money for the purpose of making the funds or an equivalent value payable to a third party in another geographic location, whether or not in the same form.
The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic criminal law (فقه العقوبات) is criminal law in accordance with Sharia.
Islamic economics (الاقتصاد الإسلامي) is a term used to refer to Islamic commercial jurisprudence (فقه المعاملات, fiqh al-mu'āmalāt).
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Islamic hygienical jurisprudence includes a number of regulations involving cleanliness during ''salat'' (obligatory prayer) through Wudu and Ghusl, as well as dietary laws and toilet etiquette for Muslims.
Islamic Inheritance jurisprudence is a field of Islamic jurisprudence (فقه) that deals with inheritance, a topic that is prominently dealt with in the Qur'an.
In Islamic law (sharia), marriage (nikāḥ نکاح) is a legal and social contract between a man and a woman.
Islamic military jurisprudence refers to what has been accepted in Sharia (Islamic law) and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) by Ulama (Islamic scholars) as the correct Islamic manner which is expected to be obeyed by Muslims in times of war.
The phrase Islamization of knowledge has been used in contemporary Islamic philosophy since the later 20th century to refer to attempts to reconcile Islam and modernity, specifically seeking for a way to adopt the scientific method in a way consistent with Islamic ethical norms.
Ismail Ibn Ibrahim (اسماعيل بن ابراهيم) (756 – 810) was most notable for being the father of Imam Bukhari.
(Arabic) is an Arabic term for juristic discretion.
Istishab (استصحاب italic) is an Islamic term used in the jurisprudence to denote the principle of the presumption of continuity.
Istislah (Arabic استصلاح "to deem proper") is a method employed by Muslim jurists to solve problems that find no clear answer in sacred religious texts.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.
Jaʿfari jurisprudence, (Persian: فقه جعفری) Jaʿfari school of thought, Jaʿfarite School, or Jaʿfari Fiqh is the school of jurisprudence of most Shia Muslims, derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam.
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (جاوید احمد غامدی) (born 1952) is a Pakistani Islamic modernist theologist Quran scholar and exegete, and educationist.
John Glover Roberts Jr. (born January 27, 1955) is an American lawyer who serves as the 17th and current Chief Justice of the United States.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
Kurdistan (کوردستان; lit. "homeland of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.
The law of agency is an area of commercial law dealing with a set of contractual, quasi-contractual and non-contractual fiduciary relationships that involve a person, called the agent, that is authorized to act on behalf of another (called the principal) to create legal relations with a third party.
In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").
A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction.
The Laythi (الليث) madhhab was an 8th-century religious law school of Fiqh within Sunni Islam whose Imam was Al-Layth ibn Sa'd.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period.
A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).
A limited partnership (LP) is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership except that while a general partnership must have at least two general partners (GPs), a limited partnership must have at least one GP and at least one limited partner.
Miftahul Ma'ruf (معروف) is an Islamic term meaning that which is commonly known or acknowledged.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
In Islamic terminology, something which is makruh (Arabic: مكروه, transliterated: makrooh or makrūh) is a disliked or offensive act (literally "detestable" or "abominable").
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mālik b. Anas b. Mālik b. Abī ʿĀmir b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aymān b. K̲h̲ut̲h̲ayn b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Aṣbaḥī, often referred to as Mālik ibn Anas (Arabic: مالك بن أنس‎; 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH) for short, or reverently as Imam Mālik by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist.
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
Maslaha or maslahah (lit) is a concept in shari'ah (Islamic divine law) regarded as a basis of law.
The Mecelle (also transliterated Mejelle, Majalla, Medjelle, or Meğelle, from the Ottoman Turkish, Mecelle-ʾi Aḥkām-ı ʿAdlīye - from Arabic, مجلة الأحكام العدلية Majallah el-Ahkam-i-Adliya) was the civil code of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mizan (balance; scale, ميزان) is a comprehensive treatise on the contents of Islam, written by Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, a Pakistani Islamic scholar.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
A modus operandi (often shortened to M.O.) is someone's habits of working, particularly in the context of business or criminal investigations, but also more generally.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Muamalat (also muʿāmalāt, معاملات., literally "transactions"TBE, "CHAPTER A1, INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC MUAMALAT", 2012: p.6 or "dealings") is a part of Islamic jurisprudence, or fiqh.
Mubah (Arabic: مباح) is an Arabic word meaning "permitted", which has technical uses in Islamic law.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muḥammad 'Abduh (1849 – 11 July 1905) (also spelled Mohammed Abduh, محمد عبده) was an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, regarded as one of the key founding figures of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu’tazilism after the medieval Islamic school of theology based on rationalism, Muʿtazila.
Muḥammad al-Baqir, full name Muhammad bin 'Ali bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, also known as Abu Ja'far or simply al-Baqir (the one who opens knowledge) (677-733) was the fifth Shia imam, succeeding his father Zayn al-Abidin and succeeded by his son Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī (أبو عبد الله محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه الجعفي البخاري‎; 19 July 810 – 1 September 870), or Bukhārī (بخاری), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, was a Persian Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (the capital of the Bukhara Region (viloyat) of Uzbekistan).
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (محمد بن أبي بكر) was the son of Abu Bakr and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Mustahabb is an Islamic term referring to recommended, favoured or virtuous actions.
The Muwaṭṭaʾ (الموطأ) of Imam Malik is the earliest written collection of hadith comprising the subjects of Islamic law, compiled and edited by the Imam, Malik ibn Anas.
A neighbourhood (British English), or neighborhood (American English; see spelling differences), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The North Carolina Law Review is the law journal of the University of North Carolina School of Law.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palestinian law is the law administered by the Palestinian National Authority within the territory pursuant to the Oslo Accords.
A plaintiff (Π in legal shorthand) is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court.
Political aspects of Islam are derived from the Qur'an, the Sunnah (the sayings and living habits of Muhammad), Muslim history, and elements of political movements outside Islam.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
Qadar (قدر, transliterated qadar, meaning "fate", "divine fore-ordainment", "predestination", "Yes God Knows where one will lead themselves, either heaven or hell, but the individual is held responsible according to their actions and choices for the outcome".)J.
Principles of Islamic jurisprudence otherwise known as Uṣūl al-fiqh (أصول الفقه) is the study and critical analysis of the origins, sources, and principles upon which Islamic jurisprudence is based.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
Al-Qāsim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (قاسم بن محمد) (born 36 or 38 AH; died 106 AH or 108 AH (corresponding to 660/662 and 728/730 AD)The Four Imams by Muhammad Abu Zahrah) was an important jurist in early Islam.
The qirad was one of the basic financial instruments of the medieval Islamic world.
In Islamic jurisprudence, qiyās (قياس) is the process of deductive analogy in which the teachings of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with those of the Qur'an, in order to apply a known injunction (nass) to a new circumstance and create a new injunction.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان) or Ramadhan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and the month in which the Quran was revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Responsa (Latin: plural of responsum, "answers") comprise a body of written decisions and rulings given by legal scholars in response to questions addressed to them.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
Sacrilege is the violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object or person.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.
Various sources of sharia are used by Islamic jurisprudence to elucidate the body of Islamic law.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Taqlid or taqleed (Arabic تَقْليد taqlīd) is an Islamic terminology denoting the conformity of one person to the teaching of another.
A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim or Umm Farwah Fatimah was the wife of Muhammad al-Baqir, and the mother of the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Pennsylvania Law Review is a law review focusing on legal issues, published by an organization of second and third year J.D. students at the University of Pennsylvania Law School.
ʿUrf (العرف) is an Arabic Islamic term referring to the custom, or 'knowledge', of a given society.
'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam al-Asadi (عروة بن الزبير بن العوام الأسدي., died 713) was among the seven fuqaha (jurists) who formulated the fiqh of Medina in the time of the Tabi‘in and one of the Muslim historians.
In law, a verdict is the formal finding of fact made by a jury on matters or questions submitted to the jury by a judge.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
In common law, a writ (Anglo-Saxon gewrit, Latin breve) is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court.
Wuḍūʾ (الوضوء) is the Islamic procedure for washing parts of the body, a type of ritual purification.
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.; 64711 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate (and the first one through inheritance).
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.
Zayd ibn 'Alī (زيد بن علي, also spelled Zaid, Zayyed; 695–740) was the grandson of Husayn ibn Ali, and great-grandson of Ali.