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Firearm

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A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge. [1]

197 relations: Acheng District, Action (firearms), Air gun, AK-47, American Civil War, American Revolutionary War, Anti-materiel rifle, AR-15 style rifle, Arquebus, Artillery, Assault rifle, Škorpion, Ballistics, Bamboo, Battle rifle, Bean bag round, Beretta Cx4 Storm, Bombard (weapon), Breaching round, Breda 30, Breech-loading weapon, Bullet, Bullpup, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Burst mode (weapons), Caliber, Caplock mechanism, Carbine, Cartridge (firearms), Celebratory gunfire, Centerfire ammunition, Clip (firearms), Compressor, Concealed carry, Concealed carry in the United States, Deflagration, Dominion of Canada Rifle Association, Double action, East Asia, Electrothermal-chemical technology, Eugene Stoner, External ballistics, Eye–hand coordination, FAMAS, Fedorov Avtomat, Fire lance, Firearm Owners Protection Act, Flintlock, Flintlock mechanism, FN Minimi, ..., FN P90, Frizzen, Gatling gun, Gauge (firearms), Gewehr 98, Glock, Glossary of firearms terms, Gun, Gun barrel, Gun control, Gun cultures, Gun safety, Gun violence, Gunpowder, Gunsmith, Hand cannon, Heckler & Koch MP5, Heckler & Koch MP7, Heilongjiang, Henry rifle, History of science and technology in China, Huot Automatic Rifle, IMI Galil, Index of gun politics articles, Intermediate cartridge, Internal ballistics, Iron sights, Jungle Carbine, Karabiner 98k, Kel-Tec SUB-2000, Korean War, Lee–Enfield, Leonardo da Vinci, Lewis gun, Light machine gun, Lighter, List of aircraft weapons, List of battle rifles, List of common World War II infantry weapons, List of firearm brands, List of firearms, List of infantry weapons of World War I, List of pistols, List of secondary and special-issue World War II infantry weapons, List of shotguns, List of sniper rifles, List of submachine guns, List of weapons of military aircraft of Germany during World War II, Long gun, M1 carbine, M1 Garand, M14 rifle, M16 rifle, M1903 Springfield, M1911 pistol, M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle, M1919 Browning machine gun, M2 Browning, M4 carbine, M60 machine gun, Magazine (firearms), Matchlock, Maxim gun, MG 08, Middle East, Mikhail Kalashnikov, Miquelet lock, Mosin–Nagant, Musket, Muzzleloader, National Firearms Act, National Rifle Association, National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom, Non-lethal weapon, Open carry in the United States, Overview of gun laws by nation, Percussion cap, Personal defense weapon, Physics of firearms, Pistol, Polymath, PROGUN, Projectile, Propellant, Ranged weapon, Repeating rifle, Revolver, Rifle, Rifling, Right to keep and bear arms, Rimfire ammunition, Round shot, Ruger Mini-14, SA80, Saturday night special, Scout rifle, Selective fire, Semi-automatic pistol, Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party, Shooting range, Shooting sports, Shot (pellet), Shotgun, Shotgun slug, Sichuan, Siege of De'an, SIG SG 550, Single-shot, SKS, Small arms trade, Smokeless powder, Smoothbore, Snaphance, Sniper rifle, South Asia, Soviet Union, Speedloader, Spencer repeating rifle, Sporting Shooters Association of Australia, Steyr AUG, Steyr Mannlicher, StG 44, Stock (firearms), Stripper clip, Submachine gun, Superposed load, Suppressive fire, Swiss Arms, Telescopic sight, Terminal ballistics, The Economic Journal, Thompson submachine gun, Transitional ballistics, Uzi, Vertical forward grip, Wadding, Wheellock, Winchester Model 1892, Windage, World War I, World War II, .22 Long Rifle, .45 ACP, .50 BMG, 5.56×45mm NATO, 7.62×51mm NATO, 9×19mm Parabellum. Expand index (147 more) »

Acheng District

Acheng District, formerly Acheng County, (Manchu Language: Alcuka Hoton) is one of nine districts of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, covering part of the southeastern suburbs.

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Action (firearms)

In firearms terminology, an action is the mechanism that handles the ammunition (loads, locks, fires, extracts and ejects) or the method by which that mechanism works.

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Air gun

An air gun (or airgun) is any kind of gun that launches projectiles pneumatically with compressed air or other gases that are pressurized mechanically without involving any chemical reactions, in contrast to a firearm, which relies on an exothermic chemical oxidation (deflagration) of combustible propellants to generate propulsive energy.

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AK-47

The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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American Revolutionary War

The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.

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Anti-materiel rifle

An anti-materiel rifle (AMR) is a rifle that is designed for use against military equipment (materiel), rather than against other combatants ("anti-personnel").

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AR-15 style rifle

An AR-15 style rifle is a lightweight semi-automatic rifle based on the Colt AR-15 design.

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Arquebus

The arquebus, derived from the German Hakenbüchse, was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe during the 15th century.

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Artillery

Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

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Assault rifle

An assault rifle is a selective-fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.

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Škorpion

The Škorpion vz.

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Ballistics

Ballistics is the field of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, unguided bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.

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Bamboo

The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.

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Battle rifle

"Battle rifle" is a post-World War II term for military service rifles that are fed ammunition via detachable magazines and fire a full-powered rifle cartridge.

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Bean bag round

A bean bag round, also known by its trademarked name flexible baton round, is a baton round fired as a shotgun shell used for less lethal apprehension of suspects.

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Beretta Cx4 Storm

The Beretta Cx4 Storm is a pistol-caliber semi-automatic carbine aimed at the sporting, personal defense, and law enforcement markets.

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Bombard (weapon)

The bombard is a cannon or mortar used throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period.

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Breaching round

A breaching round or slug-shot is a shotgun shell specially made for door breaching.

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Breda 30

The Fucile Mitragliatore Breda modello 30 was the standard light machine gun of the Royal Italian Army during World War II.

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Breech-loading weapon

A breech-loading gun is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel.

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Bullet

A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition that is expelled from the gun barrel during shooting.

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Bullpup

A bullpup is a firearm with its action and magazine far behind its trigger group.

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Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) is a federal law enforcement organization within the United States Department of Justice.

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Burst mode (weapons)

In automatic firearms, burst mode or burst-fire is a firing mode enabling the shooter to fire a predetermined number of rounds, usually two or three rounds on hand held weapons and 50-100+ on anti-aircraft weapons and autocannons, with a single pull of the trigger.

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Caliber

In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the gun barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it shoots.

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Caplock mechanism

The caplock mechanism or percussion lock was the successor of the flintlock mechanism in firearm technology, and used a percussion cap struck by the hammer to set off the main charge, rather than using a piece of flint to strike a steel frizzen.The caplock mechanism consists of a hammer, similar to the hammer used in a flintlock, and a nipple (sometimes referred to as a "cone"), which holds a small percussion cap.

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Carbine

A carbine, from French carabine, is a long gun firearm but with a shorter barrel than a rifle or musket.

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Cartridge (firearms)

A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.

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Celebratory gunfire

Celebratory gunfire (also called aerial firing or happy fire) is the shooting of a firearm into the air in celebration.

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Centerfire ammunition

A centerfire cartridge is a cartridge with a primer located in the center of the cartridge case head.

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Clip (firearms)

A clip is a device that is used to store multiple rounds of ammunition together as a unit, ready for insertion into the magazine or cylinder of a firearm.

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Compressor

A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.

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Concealed carry

Concealed carry (carrying a concealed weapon (CCW)), refers to the practice of carrying a handgun or other weapon in public in a concealed or hidden manner, either on one's person or in close proximity.

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Concealed carry in the United States

Concealed carry or carrying a concealed weapon (CCW), is the practice of carrying a weapon (such as a handgun) in public in a concealed manner, either on one's person or in close proximity.

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Deflagration

Deflagration (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.

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Dominion of Canada Rifle Association

The Dominion of Canada Rifle Association (DCRA) was founded in 1868 and incorporated by an Act of Parliament 63-64 Victoria Chapter 99, assented to July 7, 1900, to promote and encourage the training of marksmanship throughout Canada.

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Double action

Double action or Double-action refers to one of two systems in firearms where the trigger both cocks and releases the hammer.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Electrothermal-chemical technology

Electrothermal-chemical (ETC) technology is an attempt to increase accuracy and muzzle energy of future tank, artillery, and close-in weapon system guns by improving the predictability and rate of expansion of propellants inside the barrel.

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Eugene Stoner

Eugene Morrison Stoner (November 22, 1922 – April 24, 1997) was an American firearms designer who is most associated with the development of the AR-15 rifle that was adopted by the US military as the M16.

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External ballistics

External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.

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Eye–hand coordination

Eye–hand coordination (also known as hand–eye coordination) is the coordinated control of eye movement with hand movement, and the processing of visual input to guide reaching and grasping along with the use of proprioception of the hands to guide the eyes.

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FAMAS

The FAMAS (Fusil d'Assaut de la Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-Étienne, in English "Assault Rifle from the Saint-Étienne Weapon Factory") is a bullpup-styled assault rifle designed and manufactured in France by MAS located in Saint-Étienne, which is now a member of the French government-owned Nexter group.

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Fedorov Avtomat

The Fedorov Avtomat (also anglicized as Federov,MILITARY SMALL ARMS OF THE 20TH CENTURY, 7TH EDITION, BY IAN V. HOGG & JOHN S. WEEKS, KRAUSE PUBLICATIONS, 2000, PAGE 267, Russian: Автомат Фёдорова) (English: Federov Automatic Rifle) or FA was a select-fire, crew-served automatic rifle, designed by Vladimir Grigoryevich Fyodorov in 1915 and produced in the Russian Empire and later in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

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Fire lance

The fire lance was a very early gunpowder weapon that appeared in 10th century China during the Jin-Song Wars.

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Firearm Owners Protection Act

The Firearm Owners' Protection Act of 1986 (FOPA) is a United States federal law that revised many provisions of the Gun Control Act of 1968.

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Flintlock

Flintlock is a general term for any firearm that uses a flint striking ignition mechanism.

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Flintlock mechanism

The flintlock mechanism is a type of lock used on muskets, pistols, and rifles in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

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FN Minimi

The FN Minimi (short for Mini Mitrailleuse; "mini machine gun") is a Belgian 5.56mm Squad Automatic Weapon, or SAW developed by Fabrique Nationale (FN) in Herstal by Ernest Vervier.

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FN P90

The FN P90, also known as the FN Project 1990, is a personal defense weapon (PDW) designed and manufactured by FN Herstal in Belgium.

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Frizzen

The frizzen, historically called the steel, is an "L"-shaped piece of steel hinged at the front used in flintlock firearms.

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Gatling gun

The Gatling gun is one of the best-known early rapid-fire spring loaded, hand cranked weapons and a forerunner of the modern machine gun.

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Gauge (firearms)

The gauge of a firearm is a unit of measurement used to express the inner diameter (bore diameter) of the barrel.

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Gewehr 98

The Gewehr 98 (abbreviated G98, Gew 98 or M98) is a German bolt-action Mauser rifle firing cartridges from a 5-round internal clip-loaded magazine that was the German service rifle from 1898 to 1935, when it was replaced by the Karabiner 98k, a shorter weapon using the same basic design.

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Glock

The Glock pistol is a series of polymer-framed, short recoil-operated, locked-breech semi-automatic pistols designed and produced by Austrian Glock Ges.m.b.H..

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Glossary of firearms terms

The following are terms related to firearms and ammunition topics.

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Gun

A gun is a tubular ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles that are solid (most guns) but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser guns, spearguns and harpoon guns).

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Gun barrel

A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.

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Gun control

Gun control (or firearms regulation) is the set of laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms by civilians.

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Gun cultures

Gun cultures are found around the world, and evidence various attitudes towards guns in such places as the United States, Canada, Israel, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Yemen and Pakistan.

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Gun safety

Gun safety rules and practice recommendations are intended to avoid accidental discharge or negligent discharge, or the consequences of firearm malfunctions.

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Gun violence

Gun-related violence is violence committed with the use of a gun (firearm or small arm).

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Gunpowder

Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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Gunsmith

A gunsmith is a person who repairs, modifies, designs, or builds guns.

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Hand cannon

The hand cannon (Chinese: 手銃), also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance.

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Heckler & Koch MP5

The Heckler & Koch MP5 (from Maschinenpistole 5, meaning Submachine gun 5) is a 9mm submachine gun, developed in the 1960s by a team of engineers from the German small arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH (H&K) of Oberndorf am Neckar.

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Heckler & Koch MP7

The Heckler & Koch MP7 (Maschinenpistole 7) is a German personal defence weapon (PDW) designed and manufactured by Heckler & Koch (H&K) and chambered for the HK 4.6×30mm cartridge.

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Heilongjiang

Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.

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Henry rifle

The Henry repeating rifle is a lever-action, breech-loading, tubular magazine rifle famed both for its use at the Battle of the Little Bighorn and being the basis for the iconic Winchester rifle of the American Wild West.

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History of science and technology in China

Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.

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Huot Automatic Rifle

The Huot Automatic Rifle was a Canadian World War I era light machine gun project.

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IMI Galil

The Galil is a family of Israeli small arms designed by Yisrael Galil and Yaacov Lior in the late 1960s and produced by Israel Military Industries (IMI) (IMI privatized their small arms division, now called IWI) of Ramat HaSharon.

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Index of gun politics articles

No description.

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Intermediate cartridge

An intermediate cartridge is a rifle/carbine cartridge that is less powerful than typical full-power battle rifle cartridges (such as the.303 British, 7.62×54mmR, 7.92×57mm Mauser,.30-06 Springfield or 7.62×51mm NATO), but still has significantly longer effective range than pistol/personal defense weapon cartridges.

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Internal ballistics

Internal ballistics (also interior ballistics), a subfield of ballistics, is the study of the propulsion of a projectile.

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Iron sights

Iron sights are a system of shaped alignment markers (usually metal) used as a sighting device to assist in the aiming of a device such as a firearm, crossbow, or telescope, and exclude the use of optics as in reflector (reflex) sights, holographic sights, and telescopic sights.

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Jungle Carbine

The Rifle No.

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Karabiner 98k

The Karabiner 98 kurz ("carbine 98 short", often abbreviated Kar98k or K98k) is a bolt-action rifle chambered for the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge that was adopted on 21 June 1935 as the standard service rifle by the German Wehrmacht.

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Kel-Tec SUB-2000

The SUB-2000 is a pistol-caliber carbine manufactured by Kel-Tec CNC Industries of Cocoa, Florida, United States.

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Korean War

The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).

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Lee–Enfield

The Lee–Enfield is a bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle that served as the main firearm used by the military forces of the British Empire and Commonwealth during the first half of the 20th century.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Lewis gun

The Lewis gun (or Lewis automatic machine gun or Lewis automatic rifle) is a First World War-era light machine gun of US design that was perfected and mass-produced in the United Kingdom, and widely used by British and British Empire troops during the war.

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Light machine gun

A light machine gun (LMG) is a machine gun designed to be employed by an individual soldier, with or without an assistant, as an infantry support weapon.

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Lighter

A lighter is a portable device used to create a flame, and to ignite a variety of combustible materials, such as cigars, gas stoves, fireworks, candles or cigarettes.

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List of aircraft weapons

This is a list of weapons (aircraft ordnance) carried by aircraft.

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List of battle rifles

Battle rifles are full-powered rifles, that use detachable box magazines, often with selective fire capability.

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List of common World War II infantry weapons

This is a list of infantry weapons which were in mainstream use during World War II (1939–1945).

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List of firearm brands

This is a list of firearm brands.

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List of firearms

This is an extensive list of small arms—including pistols, shotguns, sniper rifles, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, assault rifles, battle rifles, designated marksman rifles, carbines, machine guns, flamethrowers, multiple barrel firearms, grenade launchers, and anti-tank rifles—that includes variants.

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List of infantry weapons of World War I

This is a list of infantry weapons of World War I (1914–1918).

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List of pistols

This is a list of pistols.

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List of secondary and special-issue World War II infantry weapons

This is a list of weapons which, while not being mainstream, were used in significant enough numbers to warrant mention.

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List of shotguns

This article is a list of shotguns.

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List of sniper rifles

This page is a listing of major sniper rifle variants from around the world.

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List of submachine guns

This is a list of submachine guns.

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List of weapons of military aircraft of Germany during World War II

In World War II, the Luftwaffe (German air force), used a variety of weapons to keep their aircraft equipped with the most modern weaponry available at that time, until later in the war when resources got thin.

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Long gun

A long gun is a category of firearms with longer barrels than other classes.

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M1 carbine

The M1 carbine (formally the United States Carbine, Caliber.30, M1) is a lightweight, easy to use,.30 caliber (7.62 mm) semi-automatic carbine that was a standard firearm for the U.S. military during World War II, the Korean War and well into the Vietnam War.

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M1 Garand

The M1 GarandOfficially designated as U.S. rifle, caliber.30, M1, later simply called Rifle, Caliber.30, M1, also called US Rifle, Cal.

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M14 rifle

The M14 rifle, officially the United States Rifle, 7.62 mm, M14, is an American automatic rifle that fires 7.62×51mm NATO (.308 in) ammunition.

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M16 rifle

The M16 rifle, officially designated Rifle, Caliber 5.56 mm, M16, is a United States military adaptation of the ArmaLite AR-15 rifle.Kern, Danford Allan (2006).. m-14parts.com. A thesis presented to the Faculty of the US Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE, Military History. Fort Leavenworth, KansasKokalis, Peter G.. Nodakspud.com The original M16 was a selective fire 5.56mm rifle with a 20-round magazine. In 1964, the M16 entered U.S. military service and the following year was deployed for jungle warfare operations during the Vietnam War. In 1969, the M16A1 replaced the M14 rifle to become the U.S. military's standard service rifle.Ezell, Edward Clinton (1983). Small Arms of the World. New York: Stackpole Books. pp. 46–47..Urdang, p. 801. The M16A1 improvements include a bolt-assist, chrome plated bore and a new 30-round magazine. In 1983, the U.S. Marine Corps adopted the M16A2 rifle and the U.S. Army adopted it in 1986. The M16A2 fires the improved 5.56×45mm NATO (M855/SS109) cartridge and has a new adjustable rear sight, case deflector, heavy barrel, improved handguard, pistol grip and buttstock, as well as a semi-auto and three-round burst only fire selector. Adopted in 1998, the M16A4 is the fourth generation of the M16 series.Weapons of the Modern Marines, by Michael Green, MBI Publishing Company, 2004, page 16 It is equipped with a removable carrying handle and Picatinny rail for mounting optics and other ancillary devices. The M16 has also been widely adopted by other militaries around the world. Total worldwide production of M16s has been approximately 8 million, making it the most-produced firearm of its 5.56 mm caliber. The U.S. Military has largely replaced the M16 in combat units with a shorter and lighter version named the M4 carbine.

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M1903 Springfield

The M1903 Springfield, formally the United States Rifle, Caliber.30-06, Model 1903, is an American five-round magazine fed, bolt-action service repeating rifle, used primarily during the first half of the 20th century.

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M1911 pistol

The M1911 is a single-action, semi-automatic, magazine-fed, recoil-operated pistol chambered for the.45 ACP cartridge.

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M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle

The Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) is a family of American automatic rifles and machine guns used by the United States and numerous other countries during the 20th century. The primary variant of the BAR series was the M1918, chambered for the.30-06 Springfield rifle cartridge and designed by John Browning in 1917 for the U.S. Expeditionary Corps in Europe as a replacement for the French-made Chauchat and M1909 Benét–Mercié machine guns that US forces had previously been issued. The BAR was designed to be carried by infantrymen during an assault Article by Maxim Popenker, 2014. advance while supported by the sling over the shoulder, or to be fired from the hip. This is a concept called "walking fire" — thought to be necessary for the individual soldier during trench warfare.Chinn, George M.: The Machine Gun, Volume I: History, Evolution, and Development of Manual, Automatic, and Airborne Repeating Weapons, p. 175. Bureau of Ordnance, Department of the Navy, 1951. The BAR never entirely lived up to the original hopes of the war department as either a rifle or a machine gun. The U.S. Army, in practice, used the BAR as a light machine gun, often fired from a bipod (introduced on models after 1938).Bishop, Chris: The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, p. 239. Sterling Publishing, 2002. A variant of the original M1918 BAR, the Colt Monitor Machine Rifle, remains the lightest production automatic gun to fire the.30-06 Springfield cartridge, though the limited capacity of its standard 20-round magazine tended to hamper its utility in that role. Although the weapon did see some action in World War I, the BAR did not become standard issue in the US Army until 1938, when it was issued to squads as a portable light machine gun. The BAR saw extensive service in both World War II and the Korean War and saw limited service in the Vietnam War. The US Army began phasing out the BAR in the late 1950s, when it was intended to be replaced by a squad automatic weapon (SAW) variant of the M14, and was without a portable light machine gun until the introduction of the M60 machine gun in 1957. The M60, however, was really a general-purpose machine gun (GPMG) and was used as a SAW only because the army had no other tool for the job until the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon in the mid-1980s.

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M1919 Browning machine gun

The M1919 Browning is a.30 caliber medium machine gun that was widely used during the 20th century, especially during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.

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M2 Browning

The M2 Machine Gun or Browning.50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed toward the end of World War I by John Browning.

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M4 carbine

The M4 carbine is a shorter and lighter variant of the M16A2 assault rifle.

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M60 machine gun

The M60, officially the United States Machine Gun, Caliber 7.62 mm, M60, is a family of American general-purpose machine guns firing 7.62×51mm NATO or modified 7.62×54mmR cartridges from a disintegrating belt of M13 links.

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Magazine (firearms)

A magazine is an ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating firearm.

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Matchlock

The matchlock was the first mechanism invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm.

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Maxim gun

The Maxim gun was a weapon invented by American-born British inventor Hiram Stevens Maxim in 1884: it was the first recoil-operated machine gun in production.

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MG 08

The Maschinengewehr 08, or MG 08, was the German Army's standard machine gun in World War I and is an adaptation of Hiram S. Maxim's original 1884 Maxim gun.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Mikhail Kalashnikov

Lieutenant-General Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (p; 10 November 1919 – 23 December 2013) was a Russian general, inventor, military engineer and small arms designer.

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Miquelet lock

Miquelet lock is a modern term used by collectors and curators, largely in the English-speaking world, for a type of firing mechanism used in muskets and pistols.

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Mosin–Nagant

The 3-line rifle M1891 (трёхлинейная винтовка образца 1891 года, tryokhlineynaya vintovka obraztsa 1891 goda), colloquially known as Mosin–Nagant (винтовка Мосина, ISO 9) is a five-shot, bolt-action, internal magazine–fed, military rifle developed from 1882 to 1891, and used by the armed forces of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and various other nations.

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Musket

A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.

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Muzzleloader

A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and usually the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (i.e., from the forward, open end of the gun's barrel).

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National Firearms Act

The National Firearms Act (NFA), 73rd Congress, Sess.

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National Rifle Association

The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is an American nonprofit organization that advocates for gun rights.

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National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom

The National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom (NRA) is the governing body of full bore rifle and pistol shooting sports in the United Kingdom.

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Non-lethal weapon

Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than-lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons such as knives and firearms.

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Open carry in the United States

In the United States, open carry refers to the practice of "openly carrying a firearm in public", as distinguished from concealed carry, where firearms cannot be seen by the casual observer.

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Overview of gun laws by nation

Gun laws and policies (collectively referred to as firearms regulation or gun control) regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification and use of small arms by civilians.

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Percussion cap

The percussion cap, introduced circa 1820, is a type of single-use ignition device used on muzzleloading firearms that enabled them to fire reliably in any weather conditions.

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Personal defense weapon

Personal defense weapons (PDWs) are a class of compact semi-automatic (selective fire for military and law enforcement), magazine-fed, submachine gun like firearms – essentially a hybrid between a submachine gun and compact rifles.

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Physics of firearms

From the viewpoint of physics (dynamics, to be exact), a firearm, as for most weapons, is a system for delivering maximum destructive energy to the target with minimum delivery of energy on the shooter.

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Pistol

A pistol is a type of handgun.

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Polymath

A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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PROGUN

PROGUN is a firearms advocacy group based in the Philippines.

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Projectile

A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.

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Propellant

A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.

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Ranged weapon

A ranged weapon is any weapon that can engage targets beyond hand-to-hand distance, i.e. at distances greater than the physical reach of the weapon itself.

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Repeating rifle

A repeating rifle, or repeater for short, is a single-barrel rifle capable of repeated discharges following a single ammunition reload, typically by having multiple cartridges stored in a magazine (within or attached to the gun) and then fed into the chamber by the bolt via either a manual or automatic mechanism, while the act of chambering the rifle typically also recocks the action for the following shot.

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Revolver

A revolver (also called a wheel gun) is a repeating handgun that has a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers and at least one barrel for firing.

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Rifle

A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.

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Rifling

In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting.

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Right to keep and bear arms

The right to keep and bear arms (often referred to as the right to bear arms) is the people's right to possess weapons (arms) for their own defense, as described in the philosophical and political writings of Aristotle, Cicero, John Locke, Machiavelli, the English Whigs and others.

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Rimfire ammunition

Rimfire is a method of ignition for metallic firearm cartridges as well as the cartridges themselves.

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Round shot

A round shot (or solid shot, or a cannonball, or simply ball) is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon.

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Ruger Mini-14

The Mini-14 is a lightweight semi-automatic rifle manufactured by Sturm, Ruger & Co. used by law enforcement personnel and civilians.

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SA80

The SA80 is a British family of 5.56×45mm NATO small arms, all of which are selective fire, gas-operated assault rifles.

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Saturday night special

The phrase Saturday night special is a colloquial term used in the United States and Canada for any inexpensive handgun, especially a mousegun/pocket pistol.

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Scout rifle

The scout rifle is a class of general-purpose rifles defined and promoted by Jeff Cooper in the early 1980s.

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Selective fire

Selective fire means the capability of a weapon to be adjusted to fire in semi-automatic, burst mode, and/or fully automatic firing mode.

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Semi-automatic pistol

A semi-automatic pistol is a type of pistol that is semi-automatic, meaning it uses the energy of the fired cartridge to cycle the action of the firearm and advance the next available cartridge into position for firing.

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Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party

The Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party is an Australian political party.

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Shooting range

A shooting range or firing range or archery range or pistol range or rifle range or shooting gallery or shooting ground is a specialized facility designed for archery or firearms practice.

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Shooting sports

Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns, rifles and shotguns) and bows/crossbows.

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Shot (pellet)

Shot is a collective term for small balls or pellets, often made of lead.

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Shotgun

A shotgun (also known as a scattergun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug.

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Shotgun slug

A modern shotgun slug is a heavy projectile made of lead, copper, or other material and fired from a shotgun.

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Sichuan

Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.

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Siege of De'an

The Siege of De'an (德安之戰) was fought as part of the Jin-Song Wars of China in 1132, during the Jin invasion of Hubei and Shaanxi.

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SIG SG 550

The SG 550 is an assault rifle manufactured by Swiss Arms AG (formerly a division of Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft now known as Sig Holding AG) in Switzerland.

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Single-shot

Single-shot firearms are firearms that hold only a single round of ammunition, and must be reloaded after each shot.

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SKS

The SKS is a Soviet semi-automatic carbine chambered for the 7.62×39mm round, designed in 1943 by Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov.

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Small arms trade

Small arms trade or the small arms market refer to both authorized and illicit markets for small arms and light weapons (SALW), and their parts, accessories, and ammunition.

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Smokeless powder

Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced.

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Smoothbore

A smoothbore weapon is one that has a barrel without rifling.

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Snaphance

A snaphance or snaphaunce is a type of lock for firing a gun or is a gun using that mechanism.

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Sniper rifle

A sniper rifle is a high-precision rifle designed for sniper missions.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Speedloader

A speedloader is a device used to reduce the time and/or effort needed to reload a firearm.

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Spencer repeating rifle

The Spencer 1860 was an American lever action rifle.

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Sporting Shooters Association of Australia

The Sporting Shooters' Association of Australia (SSAA) was established in 1948 to promote the shooting sports and protect firearm owners' interests in Australia.

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Steyr AUG

The Steyr AUG (Armee-Universal-Gewehr—"universal army rifle") is an Austrian 5.56×45mm NATO bullpup assault rifle, designed in the 1960s by Steyr-Daimler-Puch and now manufactured by Steyr Mannlicher GmbH & Co KG.

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Steyr Mannlicher

Steyr Mannlicher is a firearms manufacturer based in St. Peter in der Au, Austria.

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StG 44

The StG 44 (abbreviation of Sturmgewehr 44, "assault rifle 44") is a German selective-fire rifle developed during World War II.

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Stock (firearms)

A gunstock, often simply stock, also known as a shoulder stock, a buttstock or simply a butt, is a part of a long gun such as rifle, to which the barrelled action and firing mechanism are attached and is held against the user's shoulder when shooting the gun.

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Stripper clip

A stripper clip (also known as a charger or charger clip, especially in British and in Commonwealth military vocabulary) is a speedloader that holds several cartridges (usually consisting between 5 and 10 rounds) together in a single unit for easier and faster loading of a firearm's magazine.

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Submachine gun

A submachine gun (SMG) is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire pistol cartridges.

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Superposed load

A superposed load or stacked charge or superimposed load is a method used by various muzzleloading firearms, from matchlocks to caplocks, as well as newer Metal Storm weapons, to fire multiple shots from a single barrel without reloading.

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Suppressive fire

In military science, suppressive fire (commonly called covering fire) is "fire that degrades the performance of an enemy force below the level needed to fulfill its mission".

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Swiss Arms

Swiss Arms AG is a Swiss manufacturer of armaments.

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Telescopic sight

A telescopic sight, commonly called a scope, is an optical sighting device that is based on a refracting telescope.

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Terminal ballistics

Terminal ballistics (also known as wound ballistics), a sub-field of ballistics, is the study of the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits and transfers its energy to a target.

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The Economic Journal

The Economic Journal (EJ) is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics published on behalf of the Royal Economic Society (RES) by Wiley-Blackwell.

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Thompson submachine gun

The Thompson submachine gun is an American submachine gun, invented by John T. Thompson in 1918, that became infamous during the Prohibition era, becoming a signature weapon of various organized crime syndicates in the United States.

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Transitional ballistics

Transitional ballistics, also known as intermediate ballistics, at Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Accessed April 27, 2009 is the study of a projectile's behavior from the time it leaves the muzzle until the pressure behind the projectile is equalized, so it lies between internal ballistics and external ballistics.

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Uzi

The Uzi (עוזי, officially cased as UZI) is a family of Israeli open-bolt, blowback-operated submachine guns.

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Vertical forward grip

A vertical forward grip is a vertical grip that is designed to attach to a firearm for the forward hand (or "off hand").

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Wadding

Wadding is a disc of material used in guns to seal gas behind a projectile or to separate powder for shot.

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Wheellock

A wheellock, wheel-lock or wheel lock, is a friction-wheel mechanism to cause a spark for firing a firearm.

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Winchester Model 1892

The Winchester Model 1892 was a lever-action repeating rifle designed by John Browning as a smaller, lighter version of his large-frame Model 1886, and which replaced the Model 1873 as the company's lever-action for pistol-caliber rounds such as the.44-40.

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Windage

Windage is a force created on an object by friction when there is relative movement between air and the object.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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.22 Long Rifle

The.22 Long Rifle (metric designation: 5.6×15mmR) cartridge is a long-established variety of.22 caliber rimfire ammunition, and in terms of units sold is still by far the most common ammunition in the world today.

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.45 ACP

The.45 ACP (Automatic Colt Pistol), or.45 Auto (11.43×23mm) is a handgun cartridge designed by John Browning in 1905, for use in his prototype Colt semi-automatic pistol.

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.50 BMG

The.50 Browning Machine Gun (.50 BMG, 12.7×99mm NATO and designated as the 50 Browning by the C.I.P.) is a cartridge developed for the Browning.50 caliber machine gun in the late 1910s.

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5.56×45mm NATO

The 5.56×45mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 5.56 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate cartridge family developed in Belgium by FN Herstal.

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7.62×51mm NATO

The 7.62×51mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 7.62 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge developed in the 1950s as a standard for small arms among NATO countries.

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9×19mm Parabellum

The 9×19mm Parabellum is a firearms cartridge that was designed by Georg Luger and introduced in 1902 by the German weapons manufacturer Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) (German Weapons and Munitions Factory) for their Luger semi-automatic pistol.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firearm

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