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First Amendment to the United States Constitution

Index First Amendment to the United States Constitution

The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances. [1]

301 relations: Abe Fortas, Abington School District v. Schempp, Abrams v. United States, Accommodationism, Actual malice, Agostini v. Felton, Alien and Sedition Acts, American Revolutionary War, An American Tragedy, Angelo Herndon, Anthony Lewis, Anti-Federalism, Arkansas, Articles of Confederation, Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce, Awards and decorations of the United States Armed Forces, Baptists in the history of separation of church and state, Bartnicki v. Vopper, Bethel School District v. Fraser, Beyond the First Amendment, Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, Blog, Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet, Borough of Duryea v. Guarnieri, Boy Scouts of America, Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, Brandenburg v. Ohio, Branzburg v. Hayes, Buckley v. Valeo, C. E. Ruthenberg, California Motor Transport Co. v. Trucking Unlimited, Campaign finance, Candidate, Canton, Ohio, Cantwell v. Connecticut, Censorship in the United States, Central Connecticut State University, Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corp. v. Public Service Commission, Charles Evans Hughes, Charlotte Anita Whitney, Child pornography, Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah, Citizens United v. FEC, City of Boerne v. Flores, Civil liberties, Civil rights movement, Clear and present danger, Cohen v. California, ..., Cohen v. Cowles Media Co., Colorado, Common law, Communist Party USA, Competition law, Congregationalism in the United States, Connecticut, Conscription, Conservatism in the United States, Consolidated Laws of New York, Constitutional Convention (United States), Constitutionality, Criminal syndicalism, Crisis pregnancy center, Cyber Rights, D. H. Lawrence, Dallas, Daniel Ellsberg, David Berkowitz, Davis v. FEC, Debs v. United States, Defamation, Dennis v. United States, Draft-card burning, Due Process Clause, Duke University Press, Dun & Bradstreet, Inc. v. Greenmoss Builders, Inc., Edward Coke, Employment Division v. Smith, Endorsement test, Engel v. Vitale, English law, Escrow, Espionage Act of 1917, Establishment Clause, Eugene Dennis, Eugene V. Debs, Everson v. Board of Education, Facial challenge, FCC v. Pacifica Foundation, FEC v. Wisconsin Right to Life, Inc., Federal Communications Commission, Federal Election Campaign Act, Federalist Party, Felix Frankfurter, First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti, First Red Scare, Flag desecration, Flag Desecration Amendment, Flag of the United States, Foreign Agents Registration Act, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fred M. Vinson, Free Exercise Clause, Free speech zone, Free Speech, "The People's Darling Privilege", Freedom for the Thought That We Hate, Freedom of assembly, Freedom of association, Freedom of Expression (book), Freedom of speech, Freedom of speech in the United States, Freedom of the press in the United States, Freedom of thought, Frohwerk v. United States, Gag rule, George Bancroft, George Mason, Georgia (U.S. state), Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc., Gitlow v. New York, Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal, Government speech, Grand jury, Gregory Lee Johnson, Grosjean v. American Press Co., Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, Healy v. James, Hicklin test, HighBeam Research, Hurley v. Irish-American Gay, Lesbian, & Bisexual Group of Boston, Hustler, Hustler Magazine v. Falwell, I know it when I see it, Imminent lawless action, Incorporation of the Bill of Rights, Infobase Publishing, Intentional infliction of emotional distress, Jacobellis v. Ohio, James Joyce, James Madison, James Meredith, Janus v. AFSCME, Jerry Falwell, John Adams, John Marshall, John Marshall Harlan II, John Paul Stevens, Kashrut, Lady Chatterley's Lover, Learned Hand, Lee v. Weisman, Lemon v. Kurtzman, Lewis F. Powell Jr., List of amendments to the United States Constitution, List of United States Supreme Court cases involving the First Amendment, Los Angeles County, California, Louis Brandeis, Lovell v. City of Griffin, Lynch v. Donnelly, Mark David Hall, Marketplace of ideas, Massachusetts, McConnell v. FEC, McCreary County v. American Civil Liberties Union, McCutcheon v. FEC, McIntyre v. Ohio Elections Commission, Medal of Honor, Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo, Military expression, Milkovich v. Lorain Journal Co., Miller test, Miller v. California, Montgomery, Alabama, Morality, Morrison Waite, Morse v. Frederick, NAACP v. Alabama, National Institute of Family and Life Advocates v. Becerra, Near v. Minnesota, New Jersey, New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, New York Times Co. v. United States, New York v. Ferber, Noerr–Pennington doctrine, North Carolina, Obscenity, October Revolution, Ohio, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Opinion privilege, Osborne v. Ohio, Owen Roberts, Oxford University Press, Packingham v. North Carolina, Parody, Pentagon Papers, Perilous Times, Philadelphia Newspapers v. Hepps, Photography is Not a Crime, Pledge of Allegiance (United States), Political action committee, Political party, Pornography, Posadas de Puerto Rico Associates v. Tourism Co. of Puerto Rico, Potter Stewart, Prior restraint, PROTECT Act of 2003, Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins, Public sector, Puerto Rico, Religious Freedom Restoration Act, Religious qualifications for public office in the United States, Reynolds v. United States, Rhode Island, Richard Nixon, Riding circuit, Right to petition, Roberts v. United States Jaycees, Rosen v. United States, Roth v. United States, Salazar v. Buono, Santería, Sati (practice), Schenck v. United States, School speech (First Amendment), SCOTUSblog, Seditious libel, Separation of church and state, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Sex offender, Sherbert v. Verner, Sherman Antitrust Act, Shield laws in the United States, Simon & Schuster, Inc. v. Crime Victims Board, Smith Act, Smith Act trials of Communist Party leaders, Social media, Socialist Party of America, Son of Sam law, South Carolina, Stanley v. Georgia, State religion, Stolen Valor Act of 2005, Street v. New York, Strict scrutiny, Stromberg v. California, Students for a Democratic Society, Subpoena, Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, Supreme Court of the United States, Talley v. California, Texas v. Johnson, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Theodore Dreiser, Thomas Jefferson, Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, Tom C. Clark, Torcaso v. Watkins, Trade union, Ulysses (novel), United States Attorney General, United States Bill of Rights, United States Congress, United States Constitution, United States district court, United States free speech exceptions, United States tort law, United States v. Alvarez, United States v. Cruikshank, United States v. Eichman, United States v. O'Brien, United States v. One Book Called Ulysses, United States v. Williams (2008), Valentine v. Chrestensen, Van Orden v. Perry, Vietnam War, Virginia Declaration of Rights, Virginia General Assembly, Virginia State Pharmacy Board v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council, Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, Walz v. Tax Commission of the City of New York, West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, Westmoreland v. CBS, Whitney v. California, William Blackstone, William J. Brennan Jr., William O. Douglas, Williamsburg Charter, Wisconsin v. Yoder, Woodrow Wilson, World War I, Yale Law Journal, Yale University Press, Yates v. United States, Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, 1984 Republican National Convention, 1st United States Congress, 44 Liquormart, Inc. v. Rhode Island. Expand index (251 more) »

Abe Fortas

Abraham "Abe" Fortas (June 19, 1910 – April 5, 1982) was a U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice from 1965 to 1969.

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Abington School District v. Schempp

Abington School District v. Schempp,,. was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court decided 8–1 in favor of the respondent, Edward Schempp, and declared school-sponsored Bible reading in public schools in the United States to be unconstitutional.

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Abrams v. United States

Abrams v. United States,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States upholding the 1918 Amendment to the Espionage Act of 1917, which made it a criminal offense to urge curtailment of production of the materials necessary to the war against Germany with intent to hinder the progress of the war.

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Accommodationism

Accommodationism is a judicial interpretation which espouses that "the government may support or endorse religious establishments as long as it treats all religions equally and does not show preferential treatment." Accommodationists espouse the view that "religious individuals, and/or religious entities may be accommodated by government in regard to such things as free exercise rights, access to government programs and facilities, and religious expression." Accommodationists hold that religion "has beneficial consequences for human behavior; that is, religion provides a transcendent basis for morality and provides limits for the scope of political conflict".

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Actual malice

Actual malice in United States law is a legal requirement imposed upon public officials or public figures when they file suit for libel (defamatory printed communications).

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Agostini v. Felton

Agostini v. Felton,, is a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States.

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Alien and Sedition Acts

The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed by the Federalist-dominated 5th United States Congress and signed into law by President John Adams in 1798.

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American Revolutionary War

The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.

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An American Tragedy

An American Tragedy (1925) is a novel by the American writer Theodore Dreiser.

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Angelo Herndon

Angelo Braxton Herndon (May 6, 1913, Wyoming, Ohio – December 9, 1997, Sweet Home, Arkansas) was an African-American labor organizer arrested and convicted for insurrection after attempting to organize black and white industrial workers alike in 1932 in Atlanta, Georgia.

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Anthony Lewis

Anthony Lewis (March 27, 1927 – March 25, 2013) was an American public intellectual and journalist.

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Anti-Federalism

Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution.

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Arkansas

Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.

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Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.

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Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition

Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition,, struck down two overbroad provisions of the Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 because they abridged "the freedom to engage in a substantial amount of lawful speech".

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Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce

Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce, 494 U.S. 652 (1990) is a United States corporate law case of the Supreme Court of the United States holding that the Michigan Campaign Finance Act, which prohibited corporations from using treasury money to make independent expenditures to support or oppose candidates in elections, did not violate the First and Fourteenth Amendments.

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Awards and decorations of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces awards and decorations are primarily the medals, service ribbons, and specific badges which recognize military service and personal accomplishments while a member of the U.S. Armed Forces.

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Baptists in the history of separation of church and state

Separation of church and state is one of the primary theological distinctions of the Baptist tradition.

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Bartnicki v. Vopper

Bartnicki v. Vopper, 532 U.S. 514 (2001),.

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Bethel School District v. Fraser

Bethel School District v. Fraser, 478 U.S. 675 (1986), was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court involving free speech in public schools.

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Beyond the First Amendment

Beyond the First Amendment: The Politics of Free Speech and Pluralism is a book about freedom of speech and the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, written by author Samuel Peter Nelson.

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Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act

The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA, McCain–Feingold Act) is a United States federal law that amended the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974, which regulates the financing of political campaigns.

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Blog

A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").

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Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet

Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet,, was a case in which the United States Supreme Court ruled on the constitutionality of a school district created with boundaries that matched that of a religious community.

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Borough of Duryea v. Guarnieri

Borough of Duryea v. Guarnieri,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held the public concern test limits Petition Clause claims by public employees.

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Boy Scouts of America

The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) is one of the largest Scouting organizations in the United States of America and one of the largest youth organizations in the United States, with more than 2.4 million youth participants and nearly one million adult volunteers.

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Boy Scouts of America v. Dale

Boy Scouts of America et al.

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Brandenburg v. Ohio

Brandenburg v. Ohio,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case based on the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

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Branzburg v. Hayes

Branzburg v. Hayes, 408 U.S. 665 (1972), was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision invalidating the use of the First Amendment as a defense for reporters summoned to testify before a grand jury.

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Buckley v. Valeo

Buckley v. Valeo,, is a U.S. constitutional law Supreme Court case on campaign finance.

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C. E. Ruthenberg

Charles Emil Ruthenberg (July 9, 1882 – March 1, 1927), known to his friends as C.E., was an American Marxist politician and a founder and head of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA).

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California Motor Transport Co. v. Trucking Unlimited

California Motor Transport Co.

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Campaign finance

Campaign finance refers to all funds raised to promote candidates, political parties, or policy initiatives and referenda.

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Candidate

A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some kind of position; for example.

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Canton, Ohio

Canton is a city in and the county seat of Stark County, Ohio, United States.

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Cantwell v. Connecticut

Cantwell v. Connecticut,, is a decision by United States Supreme Court holding that the First Amendment's federal protection of religious free exercise incorporates via the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and so applies to state governments too.

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Censorship in the United States

Censorship in the United States involves the suppression of speech or public communication and raises issues of freedom of speech, which is protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Central Connecticut State University

Central Connecticut State University (also known as Central and frequently abbreviated as Central Connecticut, Central Connecticut State, and CCSU) is a regional, comprehensive public university in New Britain, Connecticut, United States.

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Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corp. v. Public Service Commission

Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corp.

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Charles Evans Hughes

Charles Evans Hughes Sr. (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was an American statesman, Republican politician, and the 11th Chief Justice of the United States.

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Charlotte Anita Whitney

Charlotte Anita Whitney (July 7, 1867 – February 4, 1955), best known as "Anita Whitney," was an American women's rights activist, political activist, suffragist, and early Communist Labor Party of America and Communist Party USA organizer in California.

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Child pornography

Child pornography is pornography that exploits children for sexual stimulation.

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Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996

The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 (CPPA) was a United States federal law to restrict child pornography on the internet, including virtual child pornography.

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Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah

Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc.

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Citizens United v. FEC

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission,, is a landmark U.S. constitutional law, campaign finance, and corporate law case dealing with regulation of political campaign spending by organizations.

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City of Boerne v. Flores

City of Boerne v. Flores,, was a US Supreme Court case concerning the scope of Congress's enforcement power under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

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Civil liberties

Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.

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Civil rights movement

The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.

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Clear and present danger

Clear and present danger was a doctrine adopted by the Supreme Court of the United States to determine under what circumstances limits can be placed on First Amendment freedoms of speech, press, or assembly.

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Cohen v. California

Cohen v. California, 403 U.S. 15 (1971), was a United States Supreme Court case dealing with freedom of speech.

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Cohen v. Cowles Media Co.

Cohen v. Cowles Media Co., 501 U.S. 663 (1991), was a U.S. Supreme Court case holding that the First Amendment freedom of the press does not exempt journalists from generally applicable laws.

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Colorado

Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Communist Party USA

The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) is a communist political party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America.

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Competition law

Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.

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Congregationalism in the United States

Congregationalism in the United States consists of Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition that have a congregational form of church government and trace their origins mainly to Puritan settlers of colonial New England.

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Connecticut

Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Conscription

Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Conservatism in the United States

American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.

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Consolidated Laws of New York

The Consolidated Laws of the State of New York are the codification of the permanent laws of a general nature of New York enacted by the New York State Legislature.

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Constitutional Convention (United States)

The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.

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Constitutionality

Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.

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Criminal syndicalism

Criminal syndicalism has been defined as a doctrine of criminal acts for political, industrial, and social change.

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Crisis pregnancy center

A crisis pregnancy center (CPC), sometimes called a pregnancy resource center (PRC), is a type of nonprofit organization established to counsel pregnant women against having an abortion.

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Cyber Rights

Cyber Rights: Defending Free speech in the Digital Age is a non-fiction book about cyberlaw, written by free speech lawyer Mike Godwin.

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D. H. Lawrence

Herman Melville, Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, Lev Shestov, Walt Whitman | influenced.

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Dallas

Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.

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Daniel Ellsberg

Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is an American activist and former United States military analyst who, while employed by the RAND Corporation, precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of U.S. government decision-making in relation to the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.

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David Berkowitz

David Richard Berkowitz (born Richard David Falco; June 1, 1953), known also as the Son of Sam and the.44 Caliber Killer, is an American serial killer who pleaded guilty to eight separate shooting attacks that began in New York City during the summer of 1976.

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Davis v. FEC

Davis v. Federal Election Commission, 554 U.S. 724 (2008), is a decision by the United States Supreme Court, which held that Sections 319(a) and (b) of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (popularly known as the McCain-Feingold Act) unconstitutionally infringed on a candidate's First Amendment rights.

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Debs v. United States

Debs v. United States, was a United States Supreme Court decision, relevant for US labor law and constitutional law, that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917.

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Defamation

Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.

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Dennis v. United States

Dennis v. United States,, was a United States Supreme Court case relating to Eugene Dennis, General Secretary of the Communist Party USA.

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Draft-card burning

Draft-card burning was a symbol of protest performed by thousands of young men in the US and Australia in the 1960s and early 1970s.

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Due Process Clause

The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution each contain a due process clause.

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Duke University Press

Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.

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Dun & Bradstreet, Inc. v. Greenmoss Builders, Inc.

Dun & Bradstreet, Inc.

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Edward Coke

Sir Edward Coke ("cook", formerly; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras.

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Employment Division v. Smith

Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith,, is a United States Supreme Court case that held that the state could deny unemployment benefits to a person fired for violating a state prohibition on the use of peyote, even though the use of the drug was part of a religious ritual.

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Endorsement test

The endorsement test proposed by United States Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor in the 1984 case of Lynch v. Donnelly asks whether a particular government action amounts to an endorsement of religion, thus violating the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

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Engel v. Vitale

Engel v. Vitale,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools.

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English law

English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.

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Escrow

An escrow is a contractual arrangement in which a third party receives and disburses money or documents for the primary transacting parties, with the disbursement dependent on conditions agreed to by the transacting parties, or an account established by a broker for holding funds on behalf of the broker's principal or some other person until the consummation or termination of a transaction; or, a trust account held in the borrower's name to pay obligations such as property taxes and insurance premiums.

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Espionage Act of 1917

The Espionage Act of 1917 is a United States federal law passed on June 15, 1917, shortly after the U.S. entry into World War I. It has been amended numerous times over the years.

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Establishment Clause

In United States law, the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, together with that Amendment's Free Exercise Clause, form the constitutional right of freedom of religion.

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Eugene Dennis

Francis Xavier Waldron (August 10, 1905 – January 31, 1961), best known by the pseudonym Eugene Dennis and Tim Ryan, was an American communist politician and union organizer, best remembered as the long-time leader of the Communist Party USA and as named party in Dennis v. United States, a famous McCarthy Era Supreme Court case.

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Eugene V. Debs

Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American democratic socialist political activist and trade unionist, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.

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Everson v. Board of Education

Everson v. Board of Education, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court which applied the Establishment Clause in the country's Bill of Rights to State law.

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Facial challenge

In U.S. constitutional law, a facial challenge is a challenge to a statute in which the plaintiff alleges that the legislation is always unconstitutional, and therefore void.

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FCC v. Pacifica Foundation

Federal Communications Commission v. Pacifica Foundation, is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision that defined the power of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) over indecent material as applied to broadcasting.

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FEC v. Wisconsin Right to Life, Inc.

Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life, Inc., 551 U.S. 449 (2007), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that issue ads may not be banned from the months preceding a primary or general election.

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Federal Communications Commission

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.

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Federal Election Campaign Act

The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (FECA,, et seq.) is the primary United States federal law regulating political campaign spending and fundraising.

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Federalist Party

The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress (as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party), was the first American political party.

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Felix Frankfurter

Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882February 22, 1965) was an American lawyer, professor, and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

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First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti

First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti, 435 U.S. 765 (1978),.

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First Red Scare

The First Red Scare was a period during the early 20th-century history of the United States marked by a widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism, due to real and imagined events; real events included those such as the Russian Revolution and anarchist bombings.

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Flag desecration

Flag desecration is a term applied to the desecration of flags or violation of flag protocol, a various set of acts that intentionally destroy, damage, or mutilate a flag in public.

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Flag Desecration Amendment

The Flag Desecration Amendment (often referred to as the Flag-burning Amendment) is an American proposed law, in the form of constitutional amendment to the Bill of Rights, that would allow the U.S. Congress to prohibit by statute and provide punishment for the physical "desecration" of the flag of the United States.

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Flag of the United States

The flag of the United States of America, often referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States.

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Foreign Agents Registration Act

The Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA) is a United States law passed in 1938 requiring that agents representing the interests of foreign powers in a "political or quasi-political capacity" disclose their relationship with the foreign government and information about related activities and finances.

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Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.

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Fred M. Vinson

Frederick "Fred" Moore Vinson (January 22, 1890 – September 8, 1953) was an American Democratic politician who served the United States in all three branches of government.

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Free Exercise Clause

The Free Exercise Clause accompanies the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Free speech zone

Free speech zones (also known as First Amendment zones, free speech cages, and protest zones) are areas set aside in public places for the purpose of political protesting.

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Free Speech, "The People's Darling Privilege"

Free Speech, "The People’s Darling Privilege": Struggles for Freedom of Expression in American History is a non-fiction book about the history of freedom of speech in the United States written by Michael Kent Curtis and published in 2000 by Duke University Press.

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Freedom for the Thought That We Hate

Freedom for the Thought That We Hate: A Biography of the First Amendment is a 2007 non-fiction book by journalist Anthony Lewis about freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of thought, and the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Freedom of assembly

Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.

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Freedom of association

Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.

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Freedom of Expression (book)

Freedom of Expression® is a book written by Kembrew McLeod about freedom of speech issues involving concepts of intellectual property.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Freedom of speech in the United States

In the United States, freedom of speech and expression is strongly protected from government restrictions by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, many state constitutions, and state and federal laws.

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Freedom of the press in the United States

Freedom of the press in the United States is legally protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Freedom of thought

Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.

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Frohwerk v. United States

Frohwerk v. United States,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld the conviction of a newspaperman for violating the Espionage Act of 1917 in connection with criticism of U.S. involvement in foreign wars.

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Gag rule

A gag rule is a rule that limits or forbids the raising, consideration, or discussion of a particular topic by members of a legislative or decision-making body.

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George Bancroft

George Bancroft (October 3, 1800 – January 17, 1891) was an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state, at the national and international level.

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George Mason

George Mason (sometimes referred to as George Mason IV; October 7, 1792) was a Virginia planter, politician and delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, one of three delegates, together with fellow Virginian Edmund Randolph and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, who refused to sign the Constitution.

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Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.

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Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc.

Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc., 418 U.S. 323 (1974), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States established the standard of First Amendment protection against defamation claims brought by private individuals.

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Gitlow v. New York

Gitlow v. New York,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States holding that the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had extended the reach of certain limitations on federal government authority set forth in the First Amendment—specifically the provisions protecting freedom of speech and freedom of the press—to the governments of the individual states.

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Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal

Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that, under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, the government had failed to show a compelling interest in prosecuting religious adherents for drinking a sacramental tea containing a Schedule I controlled substance.

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Government speech

The government speech doctrine, in American constitutional law, says that the government is not infringing the free speech rights of individual people when the government declines to use viewpoint neutrality in its own speech.

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Grand jury

A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.

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Gregory Lee Johnson

Gregory Lee "Joey" Johnson (born 1956) is an American revolutionary Communist activist whose burning of the flag of the United States in a political demonstration during the 1984 Republican National Convention in Dallas, Texas, in violation of a Texas law prohibiting flag desecration, led to his role as defendant in the landmark United States Supreme Court case Texas v. Johnson (1989).

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Grosjean v. American Press Co.

Grosjean v. American Press Co.,, was a decision of the United States Supreme Court over a challenge to a separate sales tax on newspapers with circulation of over 20,000.

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Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier

Hazelwood School District et al.

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Healy v. James

Healy v. James,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that Central Connecticut State College's refusal to recognize a campus chapter of Students for a Democratic Society was unconstitutional.

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Hicklin test

The Hicklin test is a legal test for obscenity established by the English case Regina v. Hicklin (1868).

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HighBeam Research

HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.

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Hurley v. Irish-American Gay, Lesbian, & Bisexual Group of Boston

Hurley v. Irish American Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Group of Boston,, is a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States regarding free speech rights, specifically the rights of groups to determine what message their activities convey to the public.

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Hustler

Hustler is a monthly pornographic magazine published in the United States.

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Hustler Magazine v. Falwell

Hustler Magazine, Inc.

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I know it when I see it

The phrase "I know it when I see it" is a colloquial expression by which a speaker attempts to categorize an observable fact or event, although the category is subjective or lacks clearly defined parameters.

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Imminent lawless action

"Imminent lawless action" is a standard currently used that was established by the United States Supreme Court in Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969), for defining the limits of freedom of speech.

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Incorporation of the Bill of Rights

Incorporation, in United States law, is the doctrine by which portions of the Bill of Rights have been made applicable to the states.

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Infobase Publishing

Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.

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Intentional infliction of emotional distress

Intentional infliction of emotional distress (IIED; sometimes called the tort of outrage) is a common law tort that allows individuals to recover for severe emotional distress caused by another individual who intentionally or recklessly inflicted emotional distress by behaving in an "extreme and outrageous" way.

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Jacobellis v. Ohio

Jacobellis v. Ohio,, was a United States Supreme Court decision handed down in 1964 involving whether the state of Ohio could, consistent with the First Amendment, ban the showing of the Louis Malle film The Lovers (Les Amants), which the state had deemed obscene.

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James Joyce

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.

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James Madison

James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.

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James Meredith

James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is a Civil Rights Movement figure, writer, political adviser and Air Force veteran.

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Janus v. AFSCME

Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees, Council 31,, was a landmark US labor law United States Supreme Court case concerning the power of labor unions to collect fees from non-union members for the service of collective bargaining.

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Jerry Falwell

Jerry Lamon Falwell Sr. (August 11, 1933 – May 15, 2007) was an American Southern Baptist pastor, televangelist, and conservative activist.

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John Adams

John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).

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John Marshall

John James Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.

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John Marshall Harlan II

John Marshall Harlan (May 20, 1899 – December 29, 1971) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1955 to 1971.

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John Paul Stevens

John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is an American lawyer and jurist who served as an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1975 until his retirement in 2010.

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Kashrut

Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.

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Lady Chatterley's Lover

Lady Chatterley's Lover is a novel by D. H. Lawrence, first published privately in 1928 in Italy, and in 1929 in France and Australia.

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Learned Hand

Billings Learned Hand (January 27, 1872 – August 18, 1961) was an American judge and judicial philosopher.

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Lee v. Weisman

Lee v. Weisman, was a United States Supreme Court decision regarding school prayer.

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Lemon v. Kurtzman

Lemon v. Kurtzman.

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Lewis F. Powell Jr.

Lewis Franklin Powell Jr. (September 19, 1907 – August 25, 1998) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from 1971 to 1987.

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List of amendments to the United States Constitution

Thirty-three amendments to the United States Constitution have been proposed by the United States Congress and sent to the states for ratification since the Constitution was put into operation on March 4, 1789.

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List of United States Supreme Court cases involving the First Amendment

This is a list of cases that appeared before the Supreme Court of the United States involving the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Los Angeles County, California

Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017.

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Louis Brandeis

Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939.

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Lovell v. City of Griffin

Lovell v. City of Griffin, 303 U.S. 444 (1938), is a United States Supreme Court case.

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Lynch v. Donnelly

Lynch v. Donnelly,, was a United States Supreme Court case challenging the legality of Christmas decorations on town property.

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Mark David Hall

Mark David Hall (born 22 February 1966), is Herbert Hoover Distinguished Professor of Politics and Faculty Fellow in the William Penn Honors Program at George Fox University.

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Marketplace of ideas

The marketplace of ideas is a rationale for freedom of expression based on an analogy to the economic concept of a free market.

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Massachusetts

Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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McConnell v. FEC

McConnell v. Federal Election Commission,, is a case in which the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of most of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA), often referred to as the McCain–Feingold Act.

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McCreary County v. American Civil Liberties Union

McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky,, was a case argued before the Supreme Court of the United States on March 2, 2005.

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McCutcheon v. FEC

McCutcheon v. Federal Election Commission,, is a landmark campaign finance decision of the United States Supreme Court.

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McIntyre v. Ohio Elections Commission

McIntyre v. Ohio Elections Commission, 514 U.S. 334 (1995),.

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Medal of Honor

The Medal of Honor is the United States of America's highest and most prestigious personal military decoration that may be awarded to recognize U.S. military service members who distinguished themselves by acts of valor.

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Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo

Miami Herald Publishing Co.

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Military expression

Military expression is an area of military law pertaining to the United States military that relates to the free speech rights of its service members.

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Milkovich v. Lorain Journal Co.

Milkovich v. Lorain Journal Co.,, was a United States Supreme Court case that rejected the argument that a separate opinion privilege existed against libel.

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Miller test

The Miller test, also called the three-prong obscenity test, is the United States Supreme Court's test for determining whether speech or expression can be labeled obscene, in which case it is not protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and can be prohibited.

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Miller v. California

Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973),.

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Montgomery, Alabama

Montgomery is the capital city of the U.S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Montgomery County.

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Morality

Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Morrison Waite

Morrison Remick "Mott" Waite (November 29, 1816 – March 23, 1888) was an attorney, judge, and politician from Ohio.

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Morse v. Frederick

Morse v. Frederick,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held, 5–4, that the First Amendment does not prevent educators from suppressing, at or across the street from a school-supervised event, student speech that is reasonably viewed as promoting illegal drug use.

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NAACP v. Alabama

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People v. Alabama, (1958), was an important civil rights case brought before the United States Supreme Court.

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National Institute of Family and Life Advocates v. Becerra

National Institute of Family and Life Advocates v. Becerra,, was a case before the Supreme Court of the United States addressing the constitutionality of California's FACT Act, which mandated that crisis pregnancy centers provide certain disclosures about state services.

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Near v. Minnesota

Near v. Minnesota,, is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision that found that prior restraints on publication violate freedom of the press as protected under the First Amendment, a principle that was applied to free speech generally in subsequent jurisprudence.

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New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.

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New York Times Co. v. Sullivan

New York Times Co.

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New York Times Co. v. United States

New York Times Co.

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New York v. Ferber

New York v. Ferber,, is a precedential decision given by the United States Supreme Court, which ruled unanimously that the First Amendment right to free speech did not forbid states from banning the sale of material depicting children engaged in sexual activity, even if the material was not obscene.

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Noerr–Pennington doctrine

Under the Noerr–Pennington doctrine, private entities are immune from liability under the antitrust laws for attempts to influence the passage or enforcement of laws, even if the laws they advocate for would have anticompetitive effects.

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North Carolina

North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Obscenity

An obscenity is any utterance or act that strongly offends the prevalent morality of the time.

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October Revolution

The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Ohio

Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.

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Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.

Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, and as Acting Chief Justice of the United States from January–February 1930.

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Opinion privilege

Opinion privilege is a protected form of speech, of importance to US federal and state law.

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Osborne v. Ohio

Osborne v. Ohio,, is a U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the First Amendment allows states to outlaw the mere possession, as distinct from the distribution, of child pornography.

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Owen Roberts

Owen Josephus Roberts (May 2, 1875 – May 17, 1955) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1930 to 1945.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Packingham v. North Carolina

Packingham v. North Carolina, 582 U.S. ___ (2017), is a United States Supreme Court decision holding that a North Carolina statute that prohibited sex offenders from accessing social media websites violated the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Parody

A parody (also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on something, caricature, or joke) is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.

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Pentagon Papers

The Pentagon Papers, officially titled Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.

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Perilous Times

Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism is a 2004 book by American Constitutional law scholar Geoffrey R. Stone, reviewing the treatment of the United States First Amendment during times of war.

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Philadelphia Newspapers v. Hepps

Philadelphia Newspapers v. Hepps is a United States Supreme Court case (475 U.S. 767) decided April 21, 1986.

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Photography is Not a Crime

Photography is Not a Crime, abbreviated to PINAC and published under the trade names PINAC News, is an organization and news website that focuses on rights of civilians who photograph and film police and other government organizations in the United States.

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Pledge of Allegiance (United States)

The Pledge of Allegiance of the United States is an expression of allegiance to the Flag of the United States and the republic of the United States of America.

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Political action committee

In the United States and Canada, a political action committee (PAC) is an organization that pools campaign contributions from members and donates those funds to campaign for or against candidates, ballot initiatives, or legislation.

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Political party

A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.

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Pornography

Pornography (often abbreviated porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal.

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Posadas de Puerto Rico Associates v. Tourism Co. of Puerto Rico

Posadas de Puerto Rico Associates, dba Condado Holiday Inn v. Tourism Company of Puerto Rico et al.; 106 S. Ct 2968; 92 L. Ed.

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Potter Stewart

Potter Stewart (January 23, 1915December 7, 1985) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from 1958 to 1981.

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Prior restraint

Prior restraint (also referred to as prior censorship or pre-publication censorship) is censorship imposed, usually by a government or institution, on expression, that prohibits particular instances of expression.

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PROTECT Act of 2003

The PROTECT Act of 2003 (117 Stat. 650, S. 151, enacted April 30, 2003) is a United States law with the stated intent of preventing child abuse as well as investigating and prosecuting violent crimes against children.

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Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins

Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins,, was a U.S. Supreme Court decision issued on June 9, 1980 which affirmed the decision of the California Supreme Court in a case that arose out of a free speech dispute between the Pruneyard Shopping Center in Campbell, California, and several local high school students (who wished to solicit signatures for a petition against United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379).

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Public sector

The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.

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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.

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Religious Freedom Restoration Act

The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, Pub.

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Religious qualifications for public office in the United States

Religious qualifications for public office in the United States have always been prohibited at the national level of the federal system of government under the Constitution.

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Reynolds v. United States

Reynolds v. United States, 98 U.S. 145 (1878), was a Supreme Court of the United States case that held that religious duty was not a defense to a criminal indictment.

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Rhode Island

Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.

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Richard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.

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Riding circuit

Riding circuit is the practice of judges and lawyers, sometimes referred to as circuit riders, travelling to a regular series of locations in order to hold court there, but the term remains in the name "circuit court", commonly applied to levels of court that oversee many lower district courts.

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Right to petition

The right to petition government for redress of grievances is the right to make a complaint to, or seek the assistance of, one's government, without fear of punishment or reprisals.

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Roberts v. United States Jaycees

Roberts v. United States Jaycees,, was an opinion of the Supreme Court of the United States overturning the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit's application of a Minnesota antidiscrimination law.

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Rosen v. United States

Rosen v. United States,, was a case decided by the United States Supreme Court dealing with the concept of obscenity.

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Roth v. United States

Roth v. United States,, along with its companion case Alberts v. Christopher Sommer, was a landmark case before the United States Supreme Court which redefined the Constitutional test for determining what constitutes obscene material unprotected by the First Amendment.

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Salazar v. Buono

Salazar v. Buono, 559 U.S. 700 (2010) was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States regarding the establishment clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Santería

Santería, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla de Ifá, or Lucumí, is an Afro-American religion of Caribbean origin that developed in the Spanish Empire among West African descendants.

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Sati (practice)

Sati or suttee is an obsolete funeral custom where a widow immolates herself on her husband's pyre or takes her own life in another fashion shortly after her husband's death.

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Schenck v. United States

Schenck v. United States,, is a United States Supreme Court case concerning enforcement of the Espionage Act of 1917 during World War I. A unanimous Supreme Court, in an opinion by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., concluded that defendants who distributed fliers to draft-age men, urging resistance to induction, could be convicted of an attempt to obstruct the draft, a criminal offense.

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School speech (First Amendment)

The issue of school speech or curricular speech as it relates to the First Amendment to the United States Constitution has been the center of controversy and litigation since the mid-20th century.

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SCOTUSblog

SCOTUSblog is a law blog written by lawyers, law professors, and law students about the Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes abbreviated "SCOTUS").

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Seditious libel

Sedition and seditious libel were criminal offences under English common law, and are still criminal offences in Canada.

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Separation of church and state

The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.

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Seventh-day Adventist Church

The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.

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Sex offender

A sex offender (sexual offender, sex abuser, or sexual abuser) is a person who has committed a sex crime.

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Sherbert v. Verner

Sherbert v. Verner,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment required the government to demonstrate both a compelling interest and that the law in question was narrowly tailored before it denied unemployment compensation to someone who was fired because her job requirements substantially conflicted with her religion.

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Sherman Antitrust Act

The Sherman Antitrust Act (Sherman Act) is a landmark federal statute in the history of United States antitrust law (or "competition law") passed by Congress in 1890 under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison.

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Shield laws in the United States

A shield law is legislation designed to protect reporters' privilege.

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Simon & Schuster, Inc. v. Crime Victims Board

Simon & Schuster v. Crime Victims Board, 502 U.S. 105 (1991), was a Supreme Court case dealing with Son of Sam laws, which are state laws that prevent convicted criminals from publishing books about their crime for profit.

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Smith Act

The Alien Registration Act, popularly known as the Smith Act, 76th United States Congress, 3d session, ch.

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Smith Act trials of Communist Party leaders

The Smith Act trials of Communist Party leaders were a series of federal prosecutions conducted from 1949 to 1958 in which leaders of the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) were accused of violating the Smith Act, a statute which imposed penalties on those who advocated violent overthrow of the government.

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Social media

Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.

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Socialist Party of America

The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a multi-tendency democratic socialist and social democratic political party in the United States formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America which had split from the main organization in 1899.

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Son of Sam law

A Son of Sam law is a US English term for any law designed to keep criminals from profiting from the publicity of their crimes, often by selling their stories to publishers.

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South Carolina

South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Stanley v. Georgia

Stanley v. Georgia,, was a United States Supreme Court decision that helped to establish an implied "right to privacy" in U.S. law, in the form of mere possession of obscene materials.

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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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Stolen Valor Act of 2005

The Stolen Valor Act of 2005, signed into law by President George W. Bush on December 20, 2006, was a U.S. law that broadened the provisions of previous U.S. law addressing the unauthorized wear, manufacture, or sale of any military decorations and medals.

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Street v. New York

Street v. New York,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that a New York state law making it a crime "publicly mutilate, deface, defile, or defy, trample upon, or cast contempt upon either by words or act " was, in part, unconstitutional because it prohibited speech against the flag.

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Strict scrutiny

Strict scrutiny is the most stringent standard of judicial review used by United States courts.

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Stromberg v. California

Stromberg v. California,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled 7–2 that a 1919 California statute banning red flags was unconstitutional because it violated the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution.

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Students for a Democratic Society

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main representations of the New Left.

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Subpoena

A subpoena (also subpœna) or witness summons is a writ issued by a government agency, most often a court, to compel testimony by a witness or production of evidence under a penalty for failure.

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Supreme Court of Puerto Rico

The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico —Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico (TSPR)— is the highest court of Puerto Rico, having judicial authority to interpret and decide questions of Puerto Rican law.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Talley v. California

Talley v. California, 362 U.S. 60 (1960), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States voided a Los Angeles city ordinance which forbade the distribution of any handbills in any place under any circumstances if the handbills did not contain the name and address of the person for whom it was prepared, distributed, or sponsored.

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Texas v. Johnson

Texas v. Johnson,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated prohibitions on desecrating the American flag enforced in 48 of the 50 states.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Theodore Dreiser

Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (August 27, 1871 – December 28, 1945) was an American novelist and journalist of the naturalist school.

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Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.

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Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District

Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969), was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools.

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Tom C. Clark

Thomas Campbell Clark (September 23, 1899June 13, 1977), who preferred Tom C. Clark, was a Texas lawyer who served as the 59th United States Attorney General from 1945 to 1949.

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Torcaso v. Watkins

Torcaso v. Watkins, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the court reaffirmed that the United States Constitution prohibits States and the Federal Government from requiring any kind of religious test for public office, in the specific case, as a notary public.

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Trade union

A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.

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Ulysses (novel)

Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce.

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United States Attorney General

The United States Attorney General (A.G.) is the head of the United States Department of Justice per, concerned with all legal affairs, and is the chief lawyer of the United States government.

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United States Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States Constitution

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.

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United States district court

The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.

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United States free speech exceptions

Exceptions to free speech in the United States are limitations on the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech and expression as recognized by the United States Supreme Court.

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United States tort law

This article addresses torts in United States law.

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United States v. Alvarez

United States v. Alvarez, 567 U.S. 709 (2012), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court struck down the Stolen Valor Act, a federal law that criminalized false statements about having a military medal.

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United States v. Cruikshank

United States v. Cruikshank, was an important United States Supreme Court decision in United States constitutional law, one of the earliest to deal with the application of the Bill of Rights to state governments following the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment.

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United States v. Eichman

United States v. Eichman, 496 U.S. 310 (1990), was a United States Supreme Court case that invalidated a federal law against flag desecration as violating of free speech under the First Amendment.

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United States v. O'Brien

United States v. O'Brien,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States, which ruled that a criminal prohibition against burning a draft card did not violate the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech.

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United States v. One Book Called Ulysses

United States v. One Book Called Ulysses was a December 6, 1933 decision by the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York in a case dealing with freedom of expression.

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United States v. Williams (2008)

United States v. Williams,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that a federal statute prohibiting the "pandering" of child pornography (offering or requesting to transfer, sell, deliver, or trade the items) did not violate the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, even if a person charged under the code did not in fact possess child pornography with which to trade.

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Valentine v. Chrestensen

Valentine v. Chrestensen, 316 U.S. 52 (1942),.

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Van Orden v. Perry

Van Orden v. Perry,, was a United States Supreme Court case involving whether a display of the Ten Commandments on a monument given to the government at the Texas State Capitol in Austin violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Virginia Declaration of Rights

The Virginia Declaration of Rights is a document drafted in 1776 to proclaim the inherent rights of men, including the right to reform or abolish "inadequate" government.

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Virginia General Assembly

The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World, established on July 30, 1619.

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Virginia State Pharmacy Board v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council

Virginia State Pharmacy Board v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council,, was a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that a state could not limit pharmacists’ right to provide information about prescription drug prices.

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Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was drafted in 1777 (however it was not first introduced into the Virginia General Assembly until 1779) by Thomas Jefferson in the city of Fredericksburg, Virginia.

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Walz v. Tax Commission of the City of New York

Walz v. Tax Commission of the City of New York, was a case before the United States Supreme Court.

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West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette

West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette,, is a decision by the United States Supreme Court holding that the Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment protects students from being forced to salute the American flag or say the Pledge of Allegiance in public school.

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Westmoreland v. CBS

Westmoreland v. CBS was a $120 million libel suit brought in 1982 by former U.S. Army Chief of Staff General William Westmoreland against CBS, Inc. for broadcasting a documentary entitled ''The Uncounted Enemy: A Vietnam Deception''.

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Whitney v. California

Whitney v. California,, was a United States Supreme Court decision upholding the conviction of an individual who had engaged in speech that raised a threat to society.

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William Blackstone

Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.

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William J. Brennan Jr.

William Joseph Brennan Jr. (April 25, 1906 – July 24, 1997) was an American judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1956 to 1990.

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William O. Douglas

William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898January 19, 1980) was an American jurist and politician who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

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Williamsburg Charter

The Williamsburg Charter is a document that was drafted in 1986 by several Americans, each a member of a prominent religious community and/or non-religious philosophy in the United States.

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Wisconsin v. Yoder

Wisconsin v. Jonas Yoder,, is the case in which the United States Supreme Court found that Amish children could not be placed under compulsory education past 8th grade.

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Woodrow Wilson

Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Yale Law Journal

The Yale Law Journal is a student-run law review affiliated with the Yale Law School.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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Yates v. United States

Yates v. United States,, was a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States that held that the First Amendment protected radical and reactionary speech, unless it posed a "clear and present danger.".

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Zelman v. Simmons-Harris

Zelman v. Simmons-Harris,, was a 5-4 decision of the United States Supreme Court that upheld an Ohio program that used school vouchers.

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1984 Republican National Convention

The 1984 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States convened on August 20 to August 23, 1984, at Dallas Convention Center in downtown Dallas, Texas.

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1st United States Congress

The First United States Congress, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met from March 4, 1789, to March 4, 1791, during the first two years of George Washington's presidency, first at Federal Hall in New York City and later at Congress Hall in Philadelphia.

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44 Liquormart, Inc. v. Rhode Island

44 Liquormart, Inc.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution

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