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First Balkan War

Index First Balkan War

The First Balkan War (Балканска война; Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; Први балкански рат, Prvi Balkanski rat; Birinci Balkan Savaşı), lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League (the kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire. [1]

273 relations: Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Agios Efstratios, Ahmed Izzet Pasha, Albanian revolt of 1912, Alexandroupoli, Ali Rıza Pasha, Andranik, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Aristeidis Moraitinis (aviator), Armed merchantman, Armored cruiser, Army of Thessaly, Austria-Hungary, Ayvalık, Çatalca, İpek Detachment, İsmail Hakkı Okday, Şarköy, Šar Mountains, Balkan League, Balkan Wars, Balkans, Battle of Şarköy, Battle of Bizani, Battle of Bulair, Battle of Elli, Battle of Kaliakra (1912), Battle of Kardzhali, Battle of Kirk Kilisse, Battle of Kumanovo, Battle of Lemnos (1913), Battle of Lule Burgas, Battle of Merhamli, Battle of Monastir, Battle of Pente Pigadia, Battle of Prilep, Battle of Sarantaporo, Battle of Sorovich, Battle of Yenidje, Battlecruiser, Beirut, Bitola, Bizani, Black Hand (Serbia), Black Sea, Božidar Janković, Bolayır, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian crisis, ..., British Empire, British naval missions to the Ottoman Empire, Broadside, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Bulgarian unification, Capture of Korytsa, Central Powers, Chios, Cholera, Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz, Committee of Union and Progress, Constantine I of Greece, Constantinople, Crossing the T, Danilo, Crown Prince of Montenegro, Dardanelles, Didymoteicho, Dimitrios Matthaiopoulos, Division (military), Dodecanese, Doiran Lake, Douglas Gamble, Durrës, East Thrace, Eastern Army (Ottoman Empire), Eastern Question, Eastern Rumelia, Edirne, Eleftherios Venizelos, Enez, Enver Pasha, Epirus, Evzones, Farman MF.7, Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, First Army (Bulgaria), First Battle of Çatalca, Firzovik Detachment, Florina, Fourth Army (Bulgaria), Franco-Prussian War, French military mission to Greece (1911–14), French Third Republic, Gallipoli, Garegin Nzhdeh, George I of Greece, Georgi Todorov (general), German Empire, German Imperial War Council of 8 December 1912, Goudi coup, Great power, Greco-Turkish War (1897), Greek cruiser Georgios Averof, Greek–Serbian Alliance of 1913, Hans Freiherr von Wangenheim, Hasan Rıza Pasha, Hasan Tahsin Pasha, Hellenic Army, Himara, Himara revolt of 1912, I Corps (Ottoman Empire), Icaria, II Corps (Ottoman Empire), III Corps (Ottoman Empire), Imbros, In situ, Independent Albania, Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, Ioannina, Ionian Sea, Ironclad warship, Isthmus, Italo-Turkish War, Italy, IV Corps (Ottoman Empire), Ivan Fichev, Janko Vukotić, Jihad, Journalists of the Balkan Wars, July Crisis, Karaağaç, Edirne, Kavala, Kâmil Pasha, Kölemen Abdullah Pasha, Kırcaali Detachment, Kırklareli, Kıyıköy, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Montenegro, Kingdom of Serbia, Konstantinos Damianos, Konstantinos Sapountzakis, Korçë, Kosovo, Kriva Palanka, Kumkale, Çanakkale, Lüleburgaz, Lefkada, Lemnos, Lesbos, Libya, List of places burned during the Balkan Wars, List of Russian rulers, List of Serbian–Turkish conflicts, Macedonia (region), Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps, Mehmed V, Mehmet Esat Bülkat, Michael Moutoussis, Mihail Savov, Mitrovica, Kosovo, Montenegro, Moudros, Nara Burnu, Naval mine, Nazım Pasha, Nicholas I of Montenegro, Nikola Ivanov, Nikolaos Votsis, Northern Epirus, Ohrid, Old Style and New Style dates, Order of battle, Order of battle of the Hellenic Army in the First Balkan War, Otto von Lossow, Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ottoman countercoup of 1909, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Syria, Ovče Pole, Panagiotis Danglis, Pangaion Hills, Pavlos Kountouriotis, Pınarhisar, Periklis Argyropoulos, Petar Bojović, Peter I of Serbia, Pirin, Pomaks, Port Said, Pre-dreadnought battleship, Preveza, Prince Peter of Montenegro, Principality of Samos, Provisional Government of Albania, Prussia, Psara, Ptolemaida, Radko Dimitriev, Radomir Putnik, Radomir Vešović, Rauf Orbay, Red Sea, Rhodope Mountains, Romania, Rumelia, Russian Empire, Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Samos, Samothrace, Sandžak, Sanjak of Novi Pazar, Sarantaporo, Scutari Corps, Sea of Marmara, Second Army (Bulgaria), Second Balkan War, Second Battle of Çatalca, Serbia, Shkodër, Sick man of Europe, Siege of Adrianople (1912–13), Siege of Scutari (1912–13), Sinecure, Skopje, Spyros Spyromilios, Status quo ante bellum, Stepa Stepanović, Stiliyan Kovachev, Stracin, Strandzha, Struma Corps, Sublime Porte, Suez, Sultan, Syros, Taşlıca Detachment, Thasos, Thessaloniki, Thessaly, Third Army (Bulgaria), Thrace, Thracia, Torpedo boat, Treaty of Berlin (1878), Treaty of London (1913), Treaty of San Stefano, Tundzha, V Corps (Ottoman Empire), Vardar Army, Vardar Macedonia, Vasil Kutinchev, Veles, Macedonia, VI Corps (Ottoman Empire), VII Corps (Ottoman Empire), VIII Corps (Ottoman Empire), Vlorë, Western Army (Ottoman Empire), Western Thrace, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, World War I, XVII Corps (Ottoman Empire), Yambol, Yanya Corps, Yemen Vilayet, Young Turk Revolution, Young Turks, Zeki Pasha, 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, 31 March Incident, 5th Airmobile Brigade (Greece). Expand index (223 more) »

Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Agios Efstratios

Agios Efstratios or Saint Eustratius (Άγιος Ευστράτιος), colloquially Ai Stratis (Άη Στράτης) is a small Greek island in the northern Aegean Sea about southwest of Lemnos and northwest of Lesbos.

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Ahmed Izzet Pasha

Ahmed İzzet Pasha (1864 – 31 March 1937), known as Ahmet İzzet Furgaç after the Turkish Surname Law of 1934, was an Ottoman general during World War I. He was also one of the last Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire (14 October 1918 - 8 November 1918) and its last Minister of Foreign Affairs.

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Albanian revolt of 1912

The Albanian revolt of 1912 was the last Albanian revolt in the Ottoman Empire and lasted from January until August 1912.

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Alexandroupoli

Alexandroupoli (Αλεξανδρούπολη) or Alexandroupolis is a city in Greece and the capital of the Evros regional unit in East Macedonia and Thrace.

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Ali Rıza Pasha

Ali Rıza Pasha (Ali Rıza Paşa, 1860–1932) was an Ottoman statesman, who was one of the last Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire, under the reign of the last Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI, between 14 October 1919 and 2 March 1920.

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Andranik

Andranik Ozanian, commonly known as Andranik (Անդրանիկ; 25 February 186531 August 1927) was an Armenian military commander and statesman, the best known fedayi and a key figure of the Armenian national liberation movement.

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Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.

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Aristeidis Moraitinis (aviator)

Aristeidis Moraitinis DSO (Αριστείδης Μωραϊτίνης, 1891–1918) was a pioneer Greek military aviator of the early 20th century.

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Armed merchantman

An armed merchantman is a merchant ship equipped with guns, usually for defensive purposes, either by design or after the fact.

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Armored cruiser

The armored cruiser was a type of warship of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Army of Thessaly

The Army of Thessaly (Στρατιά Θεσσαλίας) was a field army of Greece, activated in Thessaly during the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 and the First Balkan War in 1912, both times against the Ottoman Empire and commanded by Crown Prince Constantine.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Ayvalık

Ayvalık is a seaside town on the northwestern Aegean coast of Turkey.

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Çatalca

Çatalca (Metrae, Μέτραι in Ancient Greek) is a city and a rural district in Istanbul, Turkey.

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İpek Detachment

The İpek Detachment of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: İpek Müfrezesi) was one of the Detachment under the command of the Ottoman Western Army.

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İsmail Hakkı Okday

İsmail Hakkı Okday (1881–1977) was an Ottoman military commander, who participated in the First Balkan War.

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Şarköy

Şarköy, at Greek known as Peristasi (Περίσταση), is a seaside town and district of Tekirdağ Province situated on the north coast of the Marmara Sea in Thrace in Turkey.

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Šar Mountains

The Šar Mountains (Macedonian and Шар планина, Šar planina) or Sharr Mountains (Malet e Sharrit), form a mountain range in the Balkans that extends from Kosovo and the northwest of the Republic of Macedonia, to northeastern Albania.

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Balkan League

The Balkan League was an alliance formed by a series of bilateral treaties concluded in 1912 between the Balkan kingdoms of Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, and directed against the Ottoman Empire, which at the time still controlled much of the Balkan peninsula.

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Balkan Wars

The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.

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Balkans

The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Battle of Şarköy

The Battle of Şarköy or Sarkoy operation (Битка при Шаркьой, Şarköy Çıkarması) took place between 9 and 11 February 1913 during the First Balkan War between Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire.

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Battle of Bizani

The Battle of Bizani (Turkish:Bizani Muharebesi) took place in Epirus on.

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Battle of Bulair

The battle of Bulair (Битка при Булаир, Bolayır Muharebesi) took place on 26 January 1913 between the Bulgarian Seventh Rila Infantry Division under General Georgi Todorov and the Ottoman 27th Infantry Division.

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Battle of Elli

The Battle of Elli (Ναυμαχία της Έλλης, İmroz Deniz Muharebesi) or the Battle of the Dardanelles took place near the mouth of the Dardanelles on as part of the First Balkan War between the fleets of the Kingdom of Greece and the Ottoman Empire. It was the largest sea battle of the Balkan Wars.

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Battle of Kaliakra (1912)

The Battle of Kaliakra, usually known as the Attack of the Drazki (Атаката на Дръзки) in Bulgaria, was a maritime action between four Bulgarian torpedo boats and the Ottoman cruiser Hamidiye in the Black Sea.

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Battle of Kardzhali

The Battle of Kircaali or Battle of Kardzhali was part of the First Balkan War between the armies of Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire.

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Battle of Kirk Kilisse

The Battle of Kirk Kilisse or Battle of Kirkkilise or Battle of Lozengrad was part of the First Balkan War between the armies of Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire.

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Battle of Kumanovo

The Battle of Kumanovo (Кумановска битка/Kumanovska bitka, Kumanova Muharebesi) on 23–24 October 1912 was a major battle of the First Balkan War.

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Battle of Lemnos (1913)

The Battle of Lemnos (Ναυμαχία της Λήμνου, Mondros Deniz Muharebesi), fought on, was a naval battle during the First Balkan War, which defeated the second and last attempt of the Ottoman Empire to break the Greek naval blockade of the Dardanelles and reclaim supremacy over the Aegean Sea from Greece.

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Battle of Lule Burgas

The Battle of Lule Burgas (Lüleburgaz Muharebesi) or Battle of Luleburgas – Bunarhisar (Битка при Люлебургас – Бунархисар, Lüleburgaz – Pınarhisar Muharebesi) was a battle between the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire.

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Battle of Merhamli

The Battle of Merhamli was part of the First Balkan War between the armies of Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire which took place on 14/27 November 1912.

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Battle of Monastir

The Battle of Monastir took place near the town of Bitola, Macedonia (then known as Monastir) during the First Balkan War, from 16 to 19 November 1912.

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Battle of Pente Pigadia

The Battle of Pente Pigadia or Battle of Beshpinar (Μάχη των Πέντε Πηγαδιών, Beşpınar Muharebesi) was fought during the First Balkan War between the Ottomans and the Kingdom of Greece.

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Battle of Prilep

The Battle of Prilep or Battle of Pirlepe in the First Balkan War took place on November 3, 1912.

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Battle of Sarantaporo

The Battle of Sarantaporo, variously also transliterated as Sarantaporon or Sarandaporon (Μάχη του Σαρανταπόρου) took place on October 9–10 (O.S.), 1912.

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Battle of Sorovich

The Battle of Sorovich (Μάχη του Σόροβιτς, Soroviç Muharebesi) took place between 22–24 October 1912 (O.S.), during the First Balkan War.

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Battle of Yenidje

The Battle of Yenidje or Yenice or Battle of Giannitsa, was a battle between the Greek Army and the Ottoman Army on October 19–20 1912, during the First Balkan War.

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Battlecruiser

The battlecruiser, or battle cruiser, was a type of capital ship of the first half of the 20th century.

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Beirut

Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

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Bitola

Bitola (Битола known also by several alternative names) is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia.

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Bizani

Bizani (Μπιζάνι) is a village and a former municipality in the Ioannina regional unit, Epirus, Greece.

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Black Hand (Serbia)

Unification or Death (Уједињење или смрт / Ujedinjenje ili smrt), popularly known as the Black Hand (Црна рука / Crna ruka), was a secret military society formed on 9 May 1911 by officers in the Army of the Kingdom of Serbia, originating in the conspiracy group that assassinated the Serbian royal couple (1903), led by captain Dragutin Dimitrijević "Apis".

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Božidar Janković

Božidar Janković (Божидар Јанковић; 7 December 1849 – 7 July 1920) was a Serbian army general commander of the Serbian Third Army during the First Balkan War between the Balkan League and the Ottoman Empire.

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Bolayır

Bolayır is a town in the Gelibolu district of Çanakkale Province, situated on the Gallipoli Peninsula in the European part of Turkey.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Bosnian crisis

The Bosnian crisis of 1908–09, also known as the Annexation crisis or the First Balkan Crisis, erupted when on 8 October 1908, Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, territories formally within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British naval missions to the Ottoman Empire

In the lead-up to World War I, there were three British naval missions to the Ottoman Empire, sent to help modernize and reform the Ottoman Navy.

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Broadside

A broadside is the side of a ship, the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their coordinated fire in naval warfare.

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Bulgarian Orthodox Church

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква, Balgarska pravoslavna tsarkva) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church.

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Bulgarian unification

The Unification of Bulgaria (Съединение на България, Saedinenie na Balgariya) was the act of unification of the Principality of Bulgaria and the province of Eastern Rumelia in the autumn of 1885.

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Capture of Korytsa

The Capture of Korytsa or Korçë by the Greek armed forces, happened at 20 December 1912, at the first Balkan War.

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Chios

Chios (Χίος, Khíos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast.

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Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz

Freiherr Wilhelm Leopold Colmar von der Goltz (12 August 1843 – 19 April 1916), also known as Goltz Pasha, was a Prussian Field Marshal and military writer.

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Committee of Union and Progress

The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti إتحاد و ترقى جمیعتی), later Party of Union and Progress (İttihad ve Terakki Fırkası, Birlik ve İlerleme Partisi) began as a secret society established as the "Committee of Ottoman Union" (İttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti) in Istanbul on February 6, 1889 by medical students Ibrahim Temo, Mehmed Reshid, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti, Ali Hüseyinzade, Kerim Sebatî, Mekkeli Sabri Bey, Nazım Bey, Şerafettin Mağmumi, Cevdet Osman and Giritli Şefik.

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Constantine I of Greece

Constantine I (Κωνσταντίνος Αʹ, Konstantínos I; – 11 January 1923) was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Crossing the T

Crossing the T or capping the T is a classic naval warfare tactic used from the late 19th to mid 20th centuries, in which a line of warships crosses in front of a line of enemy ships, allowing the crossing line to bring all their guns to bear while receiving fire from only the forward guns of the enemy.

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Danilo, Crown Prince of Montenegro

Danilo Aleksandar Petrović-Njegoš (29 June 1871 – 24 September 1939) was the Crown Prince of Montenegro.

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Dardanelles

The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.

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Didymoteicho

Didymóteicho (Διδυμότειχο) is a town located on the eastern edge of the Evros regional unit of East Macedonia and Thrace, in northeastern Greece.

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Dimitrios Matthaiopoulos

Dimitrios Matthaiopoulos (Δημήτριος Ματθαιόπουλος, 1861–1923) was a senior Greek Army officer who participated in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913.

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Division (military)

A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.

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Dodecanese

The Dodecanese (Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), of which 26 are inhabited.

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Doiran Lake

Doiran Lake (Dojransko Ezero;, Límni Doïráni), also spelled Dojran Lake is a lake with an area of shared between the Republic of Macedonia and Greece.

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Douglas Gamble

Admiral Sir Douglas Austin Gamble KCVO (8 November 1856 - 23 May 1934) was a Royal Navy officer who commanded the 4th Battle Squadron.

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Durrës

Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.

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East Thrace

East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe.

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Eastern Army (Ottoman Empire)

The Eastern Army of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Şark Ordusu) was one of the field armies of the Ottoman Army.

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Eastern Question

In diplomatic history, the "Eastern Question" refers to the strategic competition and political considerations of the European Great Powers in light of the political and economic instability in the Ottoman Empire from the late 18th to early 20th centuries.

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Eastern Rumelia

Eastern Rumelia (Източна Румелия, Iztochna Rumeliya; روم الى شرقى, Rumeli-i Şarkî; Ανατολική Ρωμυλία, Anatoliki Romylia) was an autonomous territory (oblast in Bulgarian, vilayet in Turkish) in the Ottoman Empire, created in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin and de facto ended in 1885, when it was united with the principality of Bulgaria, also under Ottoman suzerainty.

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Edirne

Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.

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Eleftherios Venizelos

Eleftherios Kyriakou Venizelos (full name Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos, Ελευθέριος Κυριάκου Βενιζέλος,; 23 August 1864 – 18 March 1936) was an eminent Greek leader of the Greek national liberation movement and a charismatic statesman of the early 20th century remembered for his promotion of liberal-democratic policies.

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Enez

Enez is a town and a district of Edirne Province, in Thrace, Turkey.

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Enver Pasha

Ismail Enver Pasha (اسماعیل انور پاشا; İsmail Enver Paşa; 22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922) was an Ottoman military officer and a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution.

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Epirus

Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.

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Evzones

The Evzones or Evzonoi (Εύζωνες, Εύζωνοι), is the name of several historical elite light infantry and mountain units of the Greek Army.

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Farman MF.7

The Maurice Farman MF.7 Longhorn is a French biplane developed before World War I which was used for reconnaissance by both the French and British air services in the early stages of the war before being relegated to service as a trainer.

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Ferdinand I of Bulgaria

Ferdinand I (Фердинанд I; 26 February 1861 – 10 September 1948),Louda, 1981, ''Lines of Succession'', Table 149 born Ferdinand Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was the second monarch of the Third Bulgarian State, firstly as knyaz (ruling prince) from 1887 to 1908, and later as tsar (emperor) from 1908 until his abdication in 1918.

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First Army (Bulgaria)

The Bulgarian First Army was a Bulgarian field army during the Balkan Wars, World War I, and World War II.

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First Battle of Çatalca

The First Battle of Çatalca was one of the heaviest battles of the First Balkan War fought between.

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Firzovik Detachment

The Firzovik Detachment of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Firzovik Müfrezesi) was one of the Detachments under the command of the Ottoman Vardar Army of the Western Army.

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Florina

Florina (Φλώρινα, known also by some alternative names) is a town and municipality in the mountainous northwestern Macedonia, Greece.

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Fourth Army (Bulgaria)

The Bulgarian Fourth Army was a Bulgarian field army during the Balkan Wars, World War I, and World War II.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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French military mission to Greece (1911–14)

The 1911–1914 French military mission to Greece was called to Greece by the government of Eleftherios Venizelos to reorganize the Hellenic Army, parallel to a British naval mission for the Royal Hellenic Navy.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

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Gallipoli

The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.

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Garegin Nzhdeh

Garegin Ter-Harutyunyan (Գարեգին Տէր-Յարութիւնեան) better known by his nom de guerre Garegin Nzhdeh (Գարեգին Նժդեհ) (1 January 1886 – 21 December 1955) was an Armenian statesman and military strategist.

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George I of Greece

George I (Γεώργιος Αʹ, Geórgios I; born Prince William of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg; Prins Vilhelm; 24 December 1845 – 18 March 1913) was King of Greece from 1863 until his assassination in 1913.

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Georgi Todorov (general)

Georgi Stoyanov Todorov (Георги Тодоров) (born on 10 August 1858 in Bolgrad (contemporary Ukraine); died on 16 November 1934 in Sofia) was a Bulgarian general who fought in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Serbo-Bulgarian War (1885), Balkan Wars (1912–1913) and First World War (1914–1918).

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German Imperial War Council of 8 December 1912

The German Imperial War Council of 8 December 1912 was an informal conference of some of the highest military leaders of the German Empire.

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Goudi coup

The Goudi coup (κίνημα στο Γουδί) was a military coup d'état that took place in Greece on the night of, starting at the barracks in Goudi, a neighbourhood on the eastern outskirts of Athens.

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Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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Greco-Turkish War (1897)

The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, also called the Thirty Days' War and known in Greece as the Black '97 (Mauro '97) or the Unfortunate War (Ατυχής πόλεμος, Atychis polemos) (Turkish: 1897 Osmanlı-Yunan Savaşı or 1897 Türk-Yunan Savaşı), was a war fought between the Kingdom of Greece and the Ottoman Empire.

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Greek cruiser Georgios Averof

Georgios Averof (Θ/Κ Γεώργιος Αβέρωφ) is a modified armored cruiser built in Italy for the Royal Hellenic Navy in the first decade of the 20th century.

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Greek–Serbian Alliance of 1913

The Greek–Serbian Alliance of 1913 was signed at Thessaloniki on 1 June 1913, in the aftermath of the First Balkan War, when both countries wanted to preserve their gains in Macedonia from Bulgarian expansionism.

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Hans Freiherr von Wangenheim

Hans, Baron von Wangenheim (1859 – October 26, 1915) was a diplomat for Imperial Germany.

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Hasan Rıza Pasha

Hasan Rıza Pasha (1871 – 30 January 1913), was a general in the Ottoman Army.

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Hasan Tahsin Pasha

Hasan Tahsin Pasha (1845–1918) was a senior Ottoman military officer, who served in Yemen and in the First Balkan War.

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Hellenic Army

The Hellenic Army (Ελληνικός Στρατός, Ellinikós Stratós, sometimes abbreviated as ΕΣ), formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece (with Hellenic being a synonym for Greek).

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Himara

Himara or Himarë (from Χειμάρρα, Himarra) is a bilingual region and municipality in southern Albania, part of Vlorë County.

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Himara revolt of 1912

The Himara revolt (Εξέγερση της Χειμάρρας), was a Greek uprising during the First Balkan War that took place in the region of Himara (Himarë, today southern Albania), on.

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I Corps (Ottoman Empire)

The I Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 1 nci Kolordu or Birinci Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.

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Icaria

Icaria, also spelled Ikaria (Ικαρία), is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, 10 nautical miles (19 km) southwest of Samos.

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II Corps (Ottoman Empire)

The II Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 2 nci Kolordu or İkinci Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.

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III Corps (Ottoman Empire)

The III Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 3üncü Kolordu or Üçüncü Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.

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Imbros

Imbros or İmroz, officially changed to Gökçeada since 29 July 1970,Alexis Alexandris, "The Identity Issue of The Minorities In Greece An Turkey", in Hirschon, Renée (ed.), Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey, Berghahn Books, 2003, (older name in Turkish: İmroz; Greek: Ίμβρος Imvros), is the largest island of Turkey and the seat of Gökçeada District of Çanakkale Province.

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In situ

In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".

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Independent Albania

Independent Albania (Shqipëria e Pavarur) was a parliamentary state declared in Vlorë (then Ottoman Empire, today Republic of Albania) on 28 November 1912.

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Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization

The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO; Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация (ВМРО), Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyutsionna Organizatsiya (VMRO); Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija) was a revolutionary national liberation movement in the Ottoman territories in Europe, that operated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Ioannina

Ioannina (Ιωάννινα), often called Yannena (Γιάννενα) within Greece, is the capital and largest city of the Ioannina regional unit and of Epirus, an administrative region in north-western Greece.

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Ionian Sea

The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.

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Ironclad warship

An ironclad is a steam-propelled warship protected by iron or steel armor plates used in the early part of the second half of the 19th century.

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Isthmus

An isthmus (or; plural: isthmuses; from neck) is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated.

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Italo-Turkish War

The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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IV Corps (Ottoman Empire)

The IV Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 4 ncü Kolordu or Dördüncü Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.

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Ivan Fichev

Ivan Fichev (Иван Фичев) (born on 15 April 1860 in Tarnovo, died on 13 November 1931 in Sofia) was a Bulgarian general, Minister of Defense, military historian and academician.

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Janko Vukotić

Janko Vukotić (Јанко Вукотић; 18 February 1866 – 4 February 1927) was a Serdar, general in the armies of the Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro in the Balkan Wars and World War I.

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Jihad

Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.

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Journalists of the Balkan Wars

This page lists the known war correspondents, war photographers, war artists, and war cinematographers who were active during the First and Second Balkan Wars.

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July Crisis

The July Crisis was a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that was the penultimate cause of World War I. The crisis began on June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian and Yugoslavic partisan, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.

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Karaağaç, Edirne

Karaağaç (Turkish: "elm, elm wood") is a suburb of Edirne in northwestern Turkey at the border with Greece.

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Kavala

Kavala (Καβάλα) is a city in northern Greece, the principal seaport of eastern Macedonia and the capital of Kavala regional unit.

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Kâmil Pasha

Mehmed Kâmil Pasha (محمد كامل پاشا; Kıbrıslı Mehmet Kâmil Paşa, "Mehmed Kamil Pasha the Cypriot"), also spelled as Kiamil Pasha (1833 – 14 November 1913), was an Ottoman statesman of Turkish Cypriot origin in the late-19th-century and early-20th-century, who became, as aside regional or international posts within the Ottoman state structure.

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Kölemen Abdullah Pasha

Abdullah Pasha or Abdullah Kölemen (1846–1937) was an Ottoman general in the First Balkan War, notable as the Ottoman commander in the Battle of Kirk Kilisse in 1912, the Battle of Lule Burgas, and the Battle of Adrianople (1913) in which the Ottoman forces were defeated by the Bulgarians.

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Kırcaali Detachment

The Kırcaali Detachment of the Ottoman Empire (Modern Turkish: Kırcaali Müfrezesi or Kırcaali Kolordusu) was one of the Detachments under the command of the Ottoman Eastern Army.

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Kırklareli

Kırklareli is a city on the European part of Turkey.

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Kıyıköy

Kıyıköy, formerly Midye, ancient/medieval Medea (Μήδεια), is a village in the district of Vize in Kırklareli Province at northwestern Turkey.

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Kingdom of Bulgaria

The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.

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Kingdom of Greece

The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

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Kingdom of Montenegro

The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora), was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present day Montenegro, during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice.

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Kingdom of Serbia

The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.

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Konstantinos Damianos

Konstantinos Damianos (Κωνσταντίνος Δαμιανός, 1853–1915) was a senior Greek Army officer who fought in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913.

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Konstantinos Sapountzakis

Konstantinos Sapountzakis (Κωνσταντίνος Σαπουντζάκης, 1846 – 1931) was a Greek Army officer.

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Korçë

Korçë ((Korça), other names see below) is a city and municipality in southeastern Albania, and the seat of Korçë County.

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Kosovo

Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).

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Kriva Palanka

Kriva Palanka (Крива Паланка) is a town located in the northeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia.

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Kumkale, Çanakkale

Kumkale is a village in Çanakkale Province, Turkey.

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Lüleburgaz

Lüleburgaz, (Люлебургас, Lyuleburgas, or Беркулен, Berkulen), historically Arcadiopolis (Αρκαδιούπολις/Αρκαδιούπολη, Arkadioupoli) is a town and district of Kırklareli Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.

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Lefkada

Lefkada (Λευκάδα, Lefkáda), also known as Lefkas or Leukas (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Λευκάς, Leukás, modern pronunciation Lefkás) and Leucadia, is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea on the west coast of Greece, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge.

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Lemnos

Lemnos (Λήμνος) is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.

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Lesbos

Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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List of places burned during the Balkan Wars

List of places burned during the Balkan Wars (1912-1913) is a list of places totally or partly burned during the Balkan Wars (1912-1913).

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List of Russian rulers

This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia.

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List of Serbian–Turkish conflicts

Serbian–Turkish conflicts or Serbian–Ottoman conflicts include those of medieval Serbia against the Ottoman Empire, until World War I (modern Turkey).

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Macedonia (region)

Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.

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Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps

The Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps (Македоно-одринско опълчение, Makedono-odrinsko opalchenie) was a volunteer corps of the Bulgarian Army during the Balkan Wars.

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Mehmed V

Mehmed V. Reşâd (Ottoman Turkish: محمد خامس Meḥmed-i ẖâmis, Beşinci Mehmet Reşat or Reşat Mehmet) (2 November 1844 – 3 July 1918) was the 35th and penultimate Ottoman Sultan.

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Mehmet Esat Bülkat

Mehmed Esad Pasha (18 October 1862 – 2 November 1952), known as Mehmet Esat Bülkat after the 1934 Surname Law, was an Ottoman general active during the First Balkan War, where he led the Yanya Corps, and in World War I, where he was the senior Ottoman commander in the Dardanelles Campaign.

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Michael Moutoussis

Michael Moutoussis (Μιχαήλ Μουτούσης, 1885 – 16 March 1956) was one of the first military aviators in the Greek Armed Forces.

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Mihail Savov

Mihail Savov (Михаил Савов) (born on 14 November 1857 in Stara Zagora, died on 21 July 1928 in Saint-Vallier-de-Thiey, France) was a Bulgarian general, twice Minister of Defence (1891–1894 and 1903–1907), second in command of the Bulgarian army during the Balkan Wars.

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Mitrovica, Kosovo

Mitrovica (Mitrovicë) or Kosovska Mitrovica (Serbian Cyrillic: Косовска Митровица) is a city and municipality located in the Mitrovica District of Kosovo.

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Montenegro

Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.

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Moudros

Moudros (Μούδρος) is a town and a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece.

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Nara Burnu

Nara Burnu (Turkish "Cape Nara"), formerly Nağara Burnu, in English Nagara Point, and in older sources Point Pesquies, is a headland on the Anatolian side of the Dardanelles Straits, north of Çanakkale.

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Naval mine

A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.

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Nazım Pasha

Hüseyin Nazım Pasha (Hüseyin Nâzım Paşa; 1848 – 23 January 1913) was the Ottoman Chief of Staff of the Ottoman Army during the First Balkan War of 1912–13.

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Nicholas I of Montenegro

Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš (Никола I Петровић-Његош; – 1 March 1921) was the ruler of Montenegro from 1860 to 1918, reigning as sovereign prince from 1860 to 1910 and as king from 1910 to 1918.

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Nikola Ivanov

Nikola Ivanov (Никола Иванов) (2 March 1861, Kalofer – 10 September 1940, Sofia) was a Bulgarian general, Chief of the Headquarters of the Bulgarian Army between 10 May 1894 and 29 November 1896, Minister of war between 29 November 1896 - 30 January 1899.

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Nikolaos Votsis

Nikolaos Votsis (Νικόλαος Βότσης; 1877–1931) was a Greek naval officer who distinguished himself during the Balkan Wars and rose to the rank of Rear Admiral.

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Northern Epirus

Northern Epirus (Βόρειος Ήπειρος, Vorios Ipiros, Epiri i Veriut) is a term used to refer to those parts of the historical region of Epirus, in the western Balkans, which today are part of Albania.

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Ohrid

Ohrid (Охрид) is a city in the Republic of Macedonia and the seat of Ohrid Municipality.

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Old Style and New Style dates

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.

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Order of battle

In modern use, the order of battle of an armed force participating in a military operation or campaign shows the hierarchical organization, command structure, strength, disposition of personnel, and equipment of units and formations of the armed force.

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Order of battle of the Hellenic Army in the First Balkan War

The following is the order of battle of the Hellenic Army during the First Balkan War.

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Otto von Lossow

General Otto Hermann von Lossow (15 January 1868 – 25 November 1938) was a Bavarian Army and then German Army officer who played a prominent role in the events surrounding the attempted Beer Hall Putsch by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in November 1923.

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Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Islamic Ottoman Empire era of rule in the Bosnia and Herzegovina region lasted from 1463/1482 to 1878.

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Ottoman countercoup of 1909

The Ottoman countercoup of 1909 (13 April 1909) was an attempt to dismantle the Second Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire and replace it with an autocracy under Sultan/Caliph Abdul Hamid II.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Syria

Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.

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Ovče Pole

Ovče Pole (Овче Поле, meaning: Plain of sheep) is a plain situated around the flow of Sveti Nikole's River, which is a tributary to the Bregalnica river, in the east-central part of Republic of Macedonia.

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Panagiotis Danglis

Panagiotis Danglis (Παναγιώτης Δαγκλής; 30 August 1853 – 9 March 1924) was a Greek Army general and politician.

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Pangaion Hills

The Pangaion Hills (Greek, Παγγαίο, ancient forms: Pangaeon, Pangaeum, Homeric name: Nysa) are a mountain range in Greece, approximately 40 km from Kavala.

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Pavlos Kountouriotis

Pavlos Kountouriotis (Παύλος Κουντουριώτης, 9 April 1855 – 22 August 1935) was a Greek rear admiral during the Balkan Wars, regent, and the first President of the Second Hellenic Republic.

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Pınarhisar

Pınarhisar, ancient Brysis (Βρύσις in Ancient Greek), is a large town and district of Kırklareli Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.

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Periklis Argyropoulos

Periklis Argyropoulos (Περικλής Ι. Αργυρόπουλος; 1871–1953) was a Greek naval officer, politician and diplomat.

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Petar Bojović

Field Marshal Petar Bojović (16 July 1858 in Miševići, Nova Varoš – 19 January 1945 in Belgrade) was a Serbian military commander who fought in the Serbo-Turkish War, the Serbo-Bulgarian War, the First Balkan War, the Second Balkan War, World War I and World War II.

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Peter I of Serbia

Peter I (Petar/Петар; – 16 August 1921) reigned as the last King of Serbia (1903–1918) and as the first King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1921).

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Pirin

The Pirin Mountains (Пирин) are a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria, with Vihren at an altitude of 2,914 m being the highest peak.

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Pomaks

Pomaks (Помаци/Pomatsi, Πομάκοι/Pomákoi, Pomaklar) is a term used for Slavic Muslims inhabiting Bulgaria, northeastern Greece and northwestern Turkey, mainly referring to the ca.

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Port Said

Port Said (بورسعيد, the first syllable has its pronunciation from Arabic; unurbanized local pronunciation) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787 (2010).

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Pre-dreadnought battleship

Pre-dreadnought battleships were sea-going battleships built between the mid- to late 1880s and 1905, before the launch of.

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Preveza

Preveza (Πρέβεζα) is a town in the region of Epirus, northwestern Greece, located at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf.

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Prince Peter of Montenegro

Prince Peter Petrovich-Njegosh of Montenegro, Grand Duke of Zahumlie (10 October 1889 – 7 May 1932)Burkes Royal Families of the World.

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Principality of Samos

The island of Samos had participated in the Greek War of Independence and had successfully resisted several Turkish and Egyptian attempts to occupy it, but it was not included with the boundaries of the newly independent Kingdom of Greece after 1832.

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Provisional Government of Albania

The Provisional Government of Albania (Qeveria e Përkohshme e Shqipërisë) was the first government of Albania, created by the Assembly of Vlorë on 4 December 1912.

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Prussia

Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Psara

Psara (Ψαρά, Psará,; formerly known as Ψύρα, Psyra, or Ψυρίη, Psyriī) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea.

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Ptolemaida

Ptolemaida (Ptolemaïda, Katharevousa: Πτολεμαΐς, Ptolemaïs, before 1927: Καϊλάρια - Kailaria) is a town and a former municipality in Kozani regional unit, West Macedonia, Greece.

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Radko Dimitriev

Radko Dimitriev (Радко Димитриев) (24 September 1859 in Gradets – 18 October 1918 near Pyatigorsk) was a Bulgarian general, Head of the General Staff of the Bulgarian Army from 1 January 1904 to 28 March 1907, as well as a general in the Russian Army during the First World War.

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Radomir Putnik

Field Marshal Radomir Putnik (Радомир Путник;; 24 January 1847 – 17 May 1917) was the first Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of the General Staff of the Serbian army in the Balkan Wars and in the First World War.

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Radomir Vešović

Radomir Vešović (1871–1938) was Montenegrin and Yugoslav military officer and politician.

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Rauf Orbay

Hüseyin Rauf Orbay (27 July 1881 – 16 July 1964) was an Ottoman-born Turkish naval officer, statesman and diplomat.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Rhodope Mountains

The Rhodopes (Родопи, Rodopi; Ροδόπη, Rodopi; Rodoplar) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece.

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Romania

Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Rumelia

Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.

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Samos

Samos (Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait.

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Samothrace

Samothrace (also Samothraki, Samothracia) (Σαμοθρᾴκη, Ionic Σαμοθρηΐκη; Σαμοθράκη) is a Greek island in the northern Aegean Sea.

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Sandžak

Sandžak (Санџак) or Sanjak is a historical geo-political region, now divided by the border between Serbia and Montenegro.

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Sanjak of Novi Pazar

The Sanjak of Novi Pazar (Novopazarski sandžak; Новопазарски санџак; Yeni Pazar sancağı) was an Ottoman sanjak (second-level administrative unit) that was created in 1865.

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Sarantaporo

Sarantaporo (Σαραντάπορο) is a village and a former municipality in the Larissa regional unit, Thessaly, Greece.

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Scutari Corps

The Scutari Corps, Işkodra Corps or Shkodër Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: İşkodra Kolordusu) was one of the corps under the command of the Ottoman Western Army.

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Sea of Marmara

The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.

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Second Army (Bulgaria)

The Bulgarian Second Army was a Bulgarian field army during the Balkan Wars, World War I, and World War II.

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Second Balkan War

The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) / 29 (N.S.) June 1913.

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Second Battle of Çatalca

The Second Battle of Çatalca fought between 03 February 1913 - 03 April 1913 was one of the continuous skirmishes of the First Balkan War.

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Serbia

Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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Shkodër

Shkodër or Shkodra, historically known as Scutari (in Italian, English and most Western European landuages) or Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania.

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Sick man of Europe

"Sick man of Europe" is a label given to a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty or impoverishment.

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Siege of Adrianople (1912–13)

The Battle of Adrianople or Siege of Adrianople (Обсада на Одрин, Опсада Једрена, Edirne Kuşatması) was fought during the First Balkan War, beginning in mid-November 1912 and ending on 26 March 1913 with the capture of Edirne (Adrianople) by the Bulgarian 2nd Army.

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Siege of Scutari (1912–13)

The Siege of Scutari / Skadar took place from October 28, 1912 to April 23, 1913, with allied forces of Montenegro and Serbia against forces of the Ottoman Empire.

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Sinecure

A sinecure (from Latin sine.

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Skopje

Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.

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Spyros Spyromilios

No description.

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Status quo ante bellum

The term status quo ante bellum (often shortened to status quo ante) is a Latin phrase meaning "the state existing before the war".

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Stepa Stepanović

Field Marshal Stepan "Stepa" Stepanović (Степан Степа Степановић,; – 29 April 1929) was a Serbian military commander who fought in the Serbo-Turkish War, the Serbo-Bulgarian War, the First Balkan War, the Second Balkan War and World War I. Having joined the Serbian military in 1874, he fought against the forces of the Ottoman Empire in 1876.

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Stiliyan Kovachev

Stiliyan Kovachev (Стилиян Ковачев) (born on 26 February 1860 in Yanbolu (Yambol), died on 11 July 1939 in Sofia) was a Bulgarian general.

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Stracin

Stracin or Stratsin (Страцин) is a village in northeastern Republic of Macedonia, in the Kratovo Municipality.

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Strandzha

Strandzha (Странджа, also transliterated as Strandja; Istranca or Yıldız) is a mountain massif in southeastern Bulgaria and the European part of Turkey.

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Struma Corps

The Struma Corps or Usturma Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Usturma Kolordusu) was one of the corps under the command of the Ottoman Western Army.

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Sublime Porte

The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.

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Suez

Suez (السويس; Egyptian Arabic) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.

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Sultan

Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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Syros

Syros (Σύρος), or Siros or Syra is a Greek island in the Cyclades, in the Aegean Sea.

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Taşlıca Detachment

The Taşlıca Detachment of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Taşlıca Müfrezesi) was one of the Detachment under the command of the Ottoman Vardar Army of the Western Army.

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Thasos

Thasos or Thassos (Θάσος) is a Greek island, geographically part of the North Aegean Sea, but administratively part of the Kavala regional unit.

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Thessaloniki

Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.

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Thessaly

Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.

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Third Army (Bulgaria)

The Bulgarian Third Army was a Bulgarian field army during the Balkan Wars, World War I, and World War II.

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Thrace

Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.

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Thracia

Thracia or Thrace (Θρᾴκη Thrakē) is the ancient name given to the southeastern Balkan region, the land inhabited by the Thracians.

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Torpedo boat

A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to carry torpedoes into battle.

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Treaty of Berlin (1878)

The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on July 13, 1878.

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Treaty of London (1913)

The Treaty of London (1913) was signed on 30 May during the London Conference of 1912–13.

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Treaty of San Stefano

The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano (Russian: Сан-Стефанский мир; Peace of San-Stefano, Сан-Стефанский мирный договор; Peace treaty of San-Stefano, Turkish: Ayastefanos Muahedesi or Ayastefanos Antlaşması) was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.

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Tundzha

The Tundzha (Τόνζος) is a river in Bulgaria and Turkey and the most significant tributary of the Maritsa, emptying into it on Turkish territory near Edirne.

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V Corps (Ottoman Empire)

The V Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 5 nci Kolordu or Beşinci Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.

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Vardar Army

The Vardar Army of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Vardar Ordusu) was one of the field armies under the command of the Western Army.

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Vardar Macedonia

Vardar Macedonia (Macedonian and Вардарска Македонија, Vardarska Makedonija) was the name given to the territory of Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia roughly corresponding to today's Republic of Macedonia.

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Vasil Kutinchev

Vasil Ivanov Kutinchev (Васил Иванов Кутинчев) (born February 25, 1859 in Rusçuk, died March 30, 1941) was a Bulgarian officer.

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Veles, Macedonia

Veles (Велес) is a city in the central part of the Republic of Macedonia on the Vardar river.

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VI Corps (Ottoman Empire)

The VI Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 6 ncı Kolordu or Altıncı Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.

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VII Corps (Ottoman Empire)

The VII Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 7 nci Kolordu or Yedinci Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.

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VIII Corps (Ottoman Empire)

The VIII Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 8 nci Kolordu or Sekizinci Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.

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Vlorë

Vlorë is the third most populous city of the Republic of Albania.

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Western Army (Ottoman Empire)

The Western Army of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Garp Ordusu) was one of the field armies of the Ottoman Army.

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Western Thrace

Western Thrace (Θράκη, Thráki; Batı Trakya; Западна Тракия, Zapadna Trakiya or Беломорска Тракия, Belomorska Trakiya) is a geographic and historical region of Greece, between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country; Eastern Thrace, which lies east of the river Evros, forms the European part of Turkey, and the area to the north, in Bulgaria, is known as Northern Thrace.

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Wilhelm II, German Emperor

Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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XVII Corps (Ottoman Empire)

The XVII Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 17 nci Kolordu or On Yedinci Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.

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Yambol

Yambol (Ямбол) is a city in southeastern Bulgaria and administrative centre of Yambol Province.

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Yanya Corps

The Yanya Corps or Independent Yanya Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Yanya Kolordusu) was one of the major formations under the command of the Ottoman Western Army.

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Yemen Vilayet

Yemen Vilayet (Ottoman Turkish: ولايت یمن Vilâyet-i Yemen) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.

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Young Turk Revolution

The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was when the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushered in multi-party politics in a two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament.

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Young Turks

Young Turks (Jön Türkler, from Les Jeunes Turcs) was a Turkish nationalist party in the early 20th century that consisted of Ottoman exiles, students, civil servants, and army officers.

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Zeki Pasha

Zeki Pasha or Zekki Pasha or Zeki Kolaçİzzettin Çalışlar, On yıllık savaşın günlüğü: Balkan, Birinci Dünya ve İstiklal Savaşları, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 1997, or Mehmet Zeki Baraz (Halepli Zeki Paşa; 1862–1943), known as Zeki Baraz Kolaç Kılıçoğlu after the 1934 Surname Law,Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu name, Osmanlı Askerlik Literatürü Tarihi: History of Military Art and Science Literature during the Ottoman Period, İslâm Tarih, Sanat ve Kültür Araştırma Merkezi (IRCICA), 2004, was a Turkish Balkan Wars and World War I field marshal of the Ottoman Army.

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1913 Ottoman coup d'état

The 1913 Ottoman coup d'état (January 23, 1913), also known as the Raid on the Sublime Porte (Bâb-ı Âlî Baskını), was a coup d'état carried out in the Ottoman Empire by a number of Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) members led by Ismail Enver Bey and Mehmed Talaat Bey, in which the group made a surprise raid on the central Ottoman government buildings, the Sublime Porte (Bâb-ı Âlî).

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31 March Incident

The 31 March Incident (31 Mart Vakası, 31 Mart Olayı, 31 Mart Hadisesi, or 31 Mart İsyanı) was the defeat of the Ottoman countercoup of 1909 by the Hareket Ordusu ("Army of Action"), which was the 11th Salonika Reserve Infantry Division of the Third Army stationed in the Balkans and commanded by Mahmud Shevket Pasha on 24 April 1909.

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5th Airmobile Brigade (Greece)

The 5th Airmobile Brigade "5th Cretan Division" (5η Αερομεταφερόμενη Ταξιαρχία Πεζικού «V Μεραρχία Κρητών»), formerly the 5th Infantry Division (V Μεραρχία Πεζικού) and commonly referred to simply as the Cretan Division (Μεραρχία Κρητών), is an air assault brigade of the Hellenic Army responsible for the defense of the southern Aegean sea.

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Redirects here:

1st balkan war, Balkan War (1912-13), Balkan War (1912–13), Drac County (Kingdom of Serbia), Durres County (Kingdom of Serbia), Epirus front, First Balkan war, First Balkans War, Serbian-Turkish War (1912-1913).

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Balkan_War

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