472 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah, Absolute monarchy, Achillius of Larissa, Acolouthia, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Agios Germanos, Al-Masudi, Ala (demon), Alans, Alcek, Alexander (Byzantine emperor), Almopia, Anatolia, Animal husbandry, Antes (people), Apocrypha, Apse, Arab–Byzantine wars, Arabs, Archbishopric of Ohrid, Armenia, Arnulf of Carinthia, Asparuh of Bulgaria, Atrium (architecture), Ausones, Autocracy, Autonomy, Avar Khaganate, Çermenikë, Balkan Mountains, Balkan–Danubian culture, Balkans, Basil II, Batbayan, Battering ram, Battle axe, Battle of Achelous (917), Battle of Anchialus (708), Battle of Anchialus (763), Battle of Berzitia, Battle of Boulgarophygon, Battle of Constantinople (922), Battle of Katasyrtai, Battle of Kleidion, Battle of Marcellae, Battle of Marcellae (756), Battle of Ongal, Battle of Pegae, ..., Battle of Pliska, Battle of Silistra, Battle of Skopje, Battle of Southern Buh, Battle of the Gates of Trajan, Battle of the Rishki Pass, Battle of Versinikia, Belgrade, Bessarabia, Bitola, Black Sea, Bogomil (priest), Bogomilism, Boila, Boril of Bulgaria, Boris I of Bulgaria, Boris II of Bulgaria, Boston, Bow and arrow, Boyar, Braničevo (region), Bulgar language, Bulgaria, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgarian lands across the Danube, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Bulgarian–Hungarian wars, Bulgarian–Serbian wars (medieval), Bulgarian–Serbian wars of 917–924, Bulgars, Buthrotum, Byzantine architecture, Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria, Byzantine diplomacy, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine law, Byzantine–Bulgarian Treaty of 716, Byzantine–Bulgarian Treaty of 815, Byzantine–Bulgarian war of 894–896, Byzantine–Bulgarian war of 913–927, Byzantine–Bulgarian wars, Byzantium, Caesar (title), Calabria, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Carolingian architecture, Carpathian Mountains, Castration, Casus belli, Catapult, Catharism, Cattle, Caucasus, Central Asia, Chatalar Inscription, Chernorizets Hrabar, Christianity, Christianization of Bulgaria, Christianization of Kievan Rus', Chronography of 354, Church of Saints Clement and Panteleimon, Church of St. George, Sofia, Church of St. Sophia, Ohrid, Clement of Ohrid, Code of law, Cometopuli dynasty, Constantine IV, Constantine Manasses, Constantine of Preslav, Constantine V, Constantinople, Cosmas the Priest, Council of Preslav, County, Crimea, Croatian–Bulgarian battle of 926, Croatian–Bulgarian wars, Cruciform, Cumans, Cyrillic script, Dagger, Danube, Danube Bend, Danube Delta, De Administrando Imperio, Debelt, Demetrius of Bulgaria, Devnya, Divination, Dnieper, Dniester, Dobruja, Dropull, Dualistic cosmology, Duklja, Dulo clan, Early Cyrillic alphabet, Early Middle Ages, East Francia, East–West Schism, Eastern Europe, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Edessa, Greece, Edirne, Elijah, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Enravota, Epirus, Eurasian nomads, Eurasian Steppe, Europe, Fatimid Caliphate, Fourth Council of Constantinople (Catholic Church), Francia, Gavril Radomir of Bulgaria, George Bell & Sons, Glagolitic script, Gnosticism, Golden Age, Good and evil, Goths, Grape, Great Basilica, Pliska, Great Moravia, Greek alphabet, Griffin, Hagiography, Han Krum (village), Harrassowitz Verlag, Heavy cavalry, Hellas (theme), Heraclius, Heresy, Hexameron, Himarë (town), Hincmar, Horse, Horses in warfare, Hungarians, Huns, Ichirgu-boil, International Council on Monuments and Sites, Ioannina, Iranian peoples, Irene Lekapene, Isbul, Iskar (river), Islam, Italy, Ivan Vladislav of Bulgaria, Jeremiah (Bulgarian priest), Jesus, John Geometres, John I Tzimiskes, John of Debar, John of Rila, John the Exarch, John Van Antwerp Fine Jr., Jovan Vladimir, Justinian I, Justinian II, Kalabaka, Kalugerovo, Haskovo Province, Kamchiya, Kanasubigi, Kaolinite, Kardam of Bulgaria, Kastoria, Kavhan, Khan (title), Khazars, Kiev, Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Hungary, Knyaz, Kotrag, Krum, Krum's dynasty, Ktetor, Kuber, Kubrat, Kutmichevitsa, Kutrigurs, Kyustendil, Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa, Lasso, Leiden, Leo the Deacon, Leo V the Armenian, Leontius of Bulgaria, Linen, Lingua franca, Lipljan, List of Bulgarian monarchs, Locust, London, Los Angeles, Louis the Pious, Macedonia (region), Madara (village), Madara Rider, Mahdia, Mail (armour), Malamir of Bulgaria, Maritsa, Mark Whittow, Mary, mother of Jesus, Medieval Bulgarian army, Medieval Croatia, Medieval Greek, Menologion of Basil II, Michael III, Middle Ages, Middle East, Mihail of Bulgaria, Millet, Mithra, Moesia, Moldavia, Moldova, Monastery of Saint Naum, Monasticism, Most favoured nation, Mostich, Murfatlar Cave Complex, Nave, Necropolis, Nesebar, New York City, Niš, Nikephoros I, Nikephoros II Phokas, Noah, Nomad, Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans, Northern Thrace, Novi Pazar, Shumen Province, Nymph, Ohrid, Ohrid Literary School, Old Church Slavonic, Old Great Bulgaria, Old Testament, Omurtag of Bulgaria, Onogurs, Orchard, Ostrogoths, Ox, Oxford, Oxford University Press, Palace of Omurtag, Paleo-Balkan mythology, Palmette, Panegyric, Pannonia, Pannonian Avars, Pannonian Basin, Patleina Monastery, Paul Bairoch, Paul Fouracre, Păcuiul lui Soare, Pechenegs, Pelagonia, Peloponnese, Pentarchy, Pereyaslavets, Persian Empire, Perun, Peter (diplomat), Peter I of Bulgaria, Petra, Pieria, Phaethon, Phoenicia, Pig, Pike (weapon), Pliska, Plovdiv, Pontoon bridge, Pope, Pope Adrian II, Pope Nicholas I, Potter's wheel, Pottery, Presian I of Bulgaria, Presian II of Bulgaria, Presian Inscription, Preslav Literary School, Prespa (medieval town), Princeton University Press, Principality of Serbia (medieval), Prizren, Procopius, Proto-Indo-Europeans, Proto-Slavic, Relief, Rhodope Mountains, Rila, Rila Monastery, Roman Empire, Roman of Bulgaria, Romanos I Lekapenos, Rome, Rosamond McKitterick, Rotunda (architecture), Round Church, Preslav, Rusalka, Ruse de guerre, Rye, Sabin of Bulgaria, Sabre, Sack of Thessalonica (904), Saint Naum, Saints Cyril and Methodius, Salt mining, Samodiva (mythology), Samuel of Bulgaria, Sasanian Empire, Satan, Scale armour, Sclaveni, Scorpio (weapon), Scythia Minor, Sea of Azov, Second Bulgarian Empire, Sect, Serbia in the Middle Ages, Servia, Greece, Sevar of Bulgaria, Seven Slavic tribes, Severians, Shamanism, Sheep, Shem, Shumen, Siege engine, Siege of Constantinople (674–678), Siege of Constantinople (717–718), Siege of Serdica (809), Siege tower, Sigebert of Gembloux, Silistra, Simeon I of Bulgaria, Sirmium, Skopje, Slavic dragon, Slavic paganism, Slavs, Sofia, South Slavs, Southeast Europe, Southern Bug, Spear, Stari Ras, State (polity), Stephen I of Hungary, Steven Runciman, Struma (river), Strumica, Suda, Supernatural beings in Slavic religion, Sviatoslav I of Kiev, Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria, Sword, Tarkhan, Telerig of Bulgaria, Tengri, Tengrism, Tervel of Bulgaria, Thebes, Greece, Theodore of Amasea, Theophanes Continuatus, Theophanes the Confessor, Theophylact of Constantinople, Thessaloniki, Thessaly, Thrace, Thracian horseman, Thracians, Tisza, Tomislav of Croatia, Transylvania, Tsar, Turkic peoples, Ukraine, UNESCO, Universal history, University College London, University of California Press, University of Chicago Press, University of Michigan Press, University of Washington Press, Uprising of Asen and Peter, Utigurs, Varna, Vasil Zlatarski, Veliki Preslav, Veliko Tarnovo, Veranda, Veselin Beshevliev, Vladimir of Bulgaria, Vladimir Toporov, Vlorë, Volga Bulgaria, Volga River, Wallachia, Walls of Constantinople, Water buffalo, Western Turkic Khaganate, Wheat, Wiesbaden, Wiley-Blackwell, World Heritage site, Yale University Press, Zadruga, Zagore, Zeno (emperor), Ziezi, 1300th Anniversary of the Bulgarian State. Expand index (422 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abu Muḥammad ʿAlī / ʿAbd Allāh al-Mahdi Billah (873 – 4 March 934) (أبو محمد عبد الله المهدي بالله), was the founder of the Ismaili Fatimid Caliphate, the only major Shi'a caliphate in Islam, and established Fatimid rule throughout much of North Africa, Hejaz, Palestine and the Levant.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Saint Achillius of Larissa, also known as Achilles, Ailus, Achillas, or Achilius (Άγιος Αχίλλειος) (died 330 AD), was one of the 318 persons present at the First Council of Nicaea.
Acolouthia (Greek: ἀκολουθία, "a following"; Slavonic: posledovanie) in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches, signifies the arrangement of the Divine Services (Canonical Hours or Divine Office), perhaps because the parts are closely connected and follow in order.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Agios Germanos, (Άγιος Γερμανός, meaning Saint Germanus; Macedonian Slavic Герман, German), known before 1926 as German (Γέρμαν), is a village in the Prespes Municipality in West Macedonia, Greece.
Al-Mas‘udi (أبو الحسن علي بن الحسين بن علي المسعودي,; –956) was an Arab historian and geographer.
An ala or hala (plural: ale or hali) is a female mythological creature recorded in the folklore of Bulgarians, Macedonians, and Serbs.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
Alcek or Alzeco was allegedly a son of Kubrat and led the Altsikurs to Ravenna that later settled in the villages of Gallo Matese, Sepino, Boiano and Isernia in the Matese mountains of central Italy.
Alexander (Αλέξανδρος, Alexandros, 870 6 June 913), sometimes numbered Alexander III,Enumerated after Alexander Severus, and the usurper Domitius Alexander.
Almopia (Αλμωπία), or Enotia, also known in the Middle Ages as Moglena (Greek: Μογλενά, Macedonian: Меглен and Bulgarian: Меглен or Мъглен), is a municipality and a former province (επαρχία) of the Pella regional unit in Macedonia, Greece.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
The Antes or Antae (Áνται) were an early Slavic tribal polity which existed in the 6th century lower Danube and northwestern Black Sea region (modern-day Moldova and central Ukraine).
Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.
In architecture, an apse (plural apses; from Latin absis: "arch, vault" from Greek ἀψίς apsis "arch"; sometimes written apsis, plural apsides) is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome, also known as an Exedra.
The Arab–Byzantine wars were a series of wars between the mostly Arab Muslims and the East Roman or Byzantine Empire between the 7th and 11th centuries AD, started during the initial Muslim conquests under the expansionist Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs in the 7th century and continued by their successors until the mid-11th century.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Archbishopric of Ohrid (Охридска архиепископија/Ohridska arhiepiskopija), also known as the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid (Българска Охридска архиепископия), originally called Ohrid Archbishopric of Justiniana prima and all Bulgaria (Αρχιεπίσκοπος της πρωτης 'Ιουστινιανης και πάσης Βουλγαριας), was an autonomous Orthodox Church under the tutelage of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople between 1019 and 1767.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Arnulf of Carinthia (850 – December 8, 899) was the duke of Carinthia who overthrew his uncle, Emperor Charles the Fat, became the Carolingian king of East Francia from 887, the disputed King of Italy from 894 and the disputed Holy Roman Emperor from February 22, 896 until his death at Regensburg, Bavaria.
Asparukh (also Ispor; Asparuh or (rarely) Isperih) was а ruler of Bulgars in the second half of the 7th century and is credited with the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 680/681.
In architecture, an atrium (plural: atria or atriums) is a large open air or skylight covered space surrounded by a building.
"Ausones", the original Greek form for the Latin "Aurunci," was a name applied by Greek writers to describe various Italic peoples inhabiting the southern and central regions of Italy.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
The Avar Khaganate was a khanate established in Central Europe, specifically in the Pannonian Basin region, in 567 by the Avars, a nomadic people of uncertain origins and ethno-linguistic affiliation.
Çermenikë or Çermenika is an upland northeast of Elbasan, in central Albania.
The Balkan mountain range (Bulgarian and Стара планина, Latin Serbian Stara planina, "Old Mountain") is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula.
The Balkan–Danubian culture was an early medieval archaeological culture which emerged in the region of the Lower Danube in the 8th century and flourished until the 11th century.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Basil II (Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025.
Batbayan (died 690) (also known as Bayan or Boyan, Bezmer or Bezmes, Bazmei + an) was the eldest son of Khagan Kubrat.
A battering ram is a siege engine that originated in ancient times and designed to break open the masonry walls of fortifications or splinter their wooden gates.
A battle axe (also battle-axe or battle-ax) is an axe specifically designed for combat.
The Battle of Achelous or Acheloos (Битката при Ахелой, Μάχη του Αχελώου), also known as the Battle of Anchialus,Stephenson (2004), p. 23 took place on 20 August 917, on the Achelous River near the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, close to the fortress Tuthom (modern Pomorie) between Bulgarian and Byzantine forces.
The Battle of Anchialus (Битката при Анхиало) occurred in 708 near the modern-day town of Pomorie, Bulgaria.
The battle of Anchialus (Битката при Анхиало) occurred in 763, near the town of Pomorie on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
The Battle of Berzitia (Битката при Берзития, Битка при Литосория) occurred in the fall of 774 near the region of Berzitia, Macedonia.
The Battle of Boulgarophygon or Battle of Bulgarophygon (Битка при Булгарофигон or Битка при Българофигон) was fought in the summer of 896 near the town of Bulgarophygon, modern Babaeski in Turkey, between the Byzantine Empire and the First Bulgarian Empire.
The Battle of Constantinople was fought in June 922 at the outskirts of the capital of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople, between the forces of the First Bulgarian Empire and the Byzantines during the Byzantine–Bulgarian war of 913–927.
The battle of Katasyrtai (Kατασυρται) occurred in the fall of 917, shortly after the striking Bulgarian triumph at Achelous near the village of the same name close to the Byzantine capital Constantinople, (now Istanbul).
The Battle of Kleidion (or Clidium, after the medieval name of the village of Klyuch, "(the) key"; also known as the Battle of Belasitsa) took place on July 29, 1014 between the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarian Empire.
The Battle of Marcellae (Битката при Маркели, Μάχη των Μαρκελλών) took place in 792 at Markeli, near the modern town of Karnobat in south eastern Bulgaria.
The battle of Marcellae (Битката при Маркели, Μάχη των Μαρκελλών) took place in 756 between the armies of the First Bulgarian Empire and the Byzantine Empire at Markeli, near the town of Karnobat in south eastern Bulgaria.
The Battle of Ongal took place in the summer of 680 in the Ongal area, an unspecified location in around the Danube delta near the Peuce Island, present-day Tulcea County, Romania.
The Battle of Pegae (битка при Пиги) was fought between 11 and 18 March 921 in the outskirts of Constantinople between the forces of the Bulgarian Empire and the Byzantine Empire during the Byzantine–Bulgarian war of 913–927.
The Battle of Pliska or Battle of Vărbitsa Pass was a series of battles between troops, gathered from all parts of the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Nicephorus I Genik, and Bulgaria, governed by Khan Krum.
The Battle of Silistra occurred in the spring of 968 near the Bulgarian town of Silistra, but most probably on the modern territory of Romania.
The Battle of Skopje occurred in the vicinity of the city of Skopje in 1004.
The Battle of Southern Buh occurred near the banks of the eponymous river, in modern Ukraine.
The Battle of the Gates of Trajan (Битката при Траянови Врата, Μάχη στις Πύλες του Τραϊανού) was a battle between Byzantine and Bulgarian forces in the year 986.
The Battle of the Rishki Pass took place in the pass of the same name, in Stara Planina, Bulgaria in 759.
The Battle of Versinikia (Битката при Версиникия, Μάχη της Βερσινικίας) was fought in 813 between the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarian Empire, near the city of Adrianople (Edirne) in present-day Turkey.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
Bitola (Битола known also by several alternative names) is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bogomil (Богомил) was a 10th-century Bulgarian priest and heresiarch, who was connected with the origins of Bogomilism.
Bogomilism (Богомилство, Bogumilstvo/Богумилство) was a Christian neo-Gnostic or dualist sect founded in the First Bulgarian Empire by the priest Bogomil during the reign of Tsar Peter I in the 10th century.
Boila (боила or боил; бъɪля; βοιλα) was a title worn by some of the Bulgar aristocrats (mostly of regional governors and noble warriors) in First Bulgarian Empire (681-1018).
Boril (Борил) was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1207 to 1218.
Boris I, also known as Boris-Mikhail (Michael) and Bogoris (Борис I / Борис-Михаил; died 2 May 907), was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in 852–889.
Boris II (Борис II) was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 969 to 977 (in Byzantine captivity from 971).
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Wallachian and Moldavian and later, Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century.
Braničevo (Serbian Cyrillic: Браничево) is a geographical region in east-central Serbia.
Bulgar (also spelled Bolğar, Bulghar) is an extinct language which was spoken by the Bulgars.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (abbreviated BAS, in Bulgarian: Българска академия на науките, Balgarska akademiya na naukite, abbreviated БАН) is the National Academy of Bulgaria, established in 1869.
In the Middle Ages the Bulgarian Empire controlled vast areas to the north of the river Danube (with interruptions) from its establishment in 681 to its fragmentation in 1371.
The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква, Balgarska pravoslavna tsarkva) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church.
The Bulgarian–Hungarian wars were a series of conflicts that occurred during the 9th–14th centuries between the Bulgarian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Bulgarian-Serbian wars were a series of conflicts between the Bulgarian Empire and the medieval Serbian states between the 9th and 14th centuries in the western Balkans.
The Bulgarian–Serbian wars of 917–924 (Българо–сръбски войни от 917–924) were a series of conflicts fought between the Bulgarian Empire and the Principality of Serbia as a part of the greater Byzantine–Bulgarian war of 913–927.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
Butrint (Buthrōtum; from Bouthrōtón) was an ancient Greek and later Roman city and bishopric in Epirus.
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire.
Byzantine diplomacy concerns the principles, methods, mechanisms, ideals, and techniques that the Byzantine Empire espoused and used in order to negotiate with other states and to promote the goals of its foreign policy.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantine law was essentially a continuation of Roman law with increased Christian influence.
The Treaty of 716 was an agreement between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire.
The Treaty of 815 (Договор от 815) was a 30-year peace agreement signed in Constantinople between the Bulgarian Khan Omurtag and the Byzantine Emperor Leo V the Armenian.
The Byzantine–Bulgarian war of 894–896 (Българо–византийска война от 894–896), also called the Trade war (Търговската война), was fought between the Bulgarian Empire and the Byzantine Empire as a result of the decision of the Byzantine emperor Leo VI to move the Bulgarian market from Constantinople to Thessaloniki which would greatly increase the expenses of the Bulgarian merchants.
The ByzantineBulgarian war of 913927 (Българо–византийска война от 913–927) was fought between the Bulgarian Empire and the Byzantine Empire for more than a decade.
The Byzantine–Bulgarian wars were a series of conflicts fought between the Byzantines and Bulgarians which began when the Bulgars first settled in the Balkan peninsula in the 5th century, and intensified with the expansion of the Bulgarian Empire to the southwest after 680 AD.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carolingian architecture is the style of north European Pre-Romanesque architecture belonging to the period of the Carolingian Renaissance of the late 8th and 9th centuries, when the Carolingian dynasty dominated west European politics.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.
Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and what is now southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Chatalar Inscription is a medieval Greek inscribed text upon a column in the village of Chatalar (modern Han Krum, North East Bulgaria) by the Bulgarian Kanasubigi Omurtag (815-831).
Chernorizets Hrabar (Чрьнори́зьць Хра́бръ, Črĭnorizĭcĭ Hrabrŭ, Черноризец Храбър)Sometimes modernized as Chernorizetz Hrabar, Chernorizets Hrabr or Crnorizec Hrabar was a Bulgarian monk, scholar and writer who worked at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Christianization of Bulgaria was the process by which 9th-century medieval Bulgaria converted to Christianity.
The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages.
The Chronography of 354, also known as the Calendar of 354, was a 4th-century illuminated manuscript, which was produced in 354 AD for a wealthy Roman Christian named Valentinus by the calligrapher and illuminator Furius Dionysius Filocalus.
The Church of Saints Clement and Panteleimon (Црква Свети Климент и Пантелеjмон, Crkva Sveti Kliment i Pantelejmon; Άγιος Παντελεήμων) is a Byzantine church situated on Plaošnik in Ohrid, Macedonia.
The Church of St George (Ротонда „Свети Георги“ Rotonda "Sveti Georgi") is an Early Christian red brick rotunda that is considered the oldest building in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
For eponymous churches, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). The Church of St.
Saint Clement of Ohrid (Bulgarian, Macedonian: Свети Климент Охридски,, Άγιος Κλήμης της Αχρίδας, Slovak: svätý Kliment Ochridský / Sloviensky) (ca. 840 – 916) was a medieval Bulgarian saint, scholar, writer and enlightener of the Slavs.
A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.
The Cometopuli dynasty (Династия на комитопулите; Byzantine Greek: Κομητόπουλοι) was the last royal dynasty in the First Bulgarian Empire, ruling from ca.
Constantine IV (translit; Flavius Constantinus Augustus; c. 652 – 14 September 685), sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos (Πωγωνάτος), "the Bearded", out of confusion with his father, was Byzantine Emperor from 668 to 685.
Constantine Manasses (Κωνσταντῖνος Μανασσῆς; c. 1130 - c. 1187) was a Byzantine chronicler who flourished in the 12th century during the reign of Manuel I Komnenos (1143-1180).
Constantine of Preslav was a medieval Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century.
Constantine V (Κωνσταντῖνος Ε΄; July, 718 AD – September 14, 775 AD), denigrated by his enemies as Kopronymos or Copronymus, meaning the dung-named, was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Cosmas the Priest (Презвитер Козма, Prezviter Kozma), also known as Cosmas the Presbyter or Presbyter Cosmas, was a medieval Bulgarian priest and writer.
The People's Council of Preslav (Преславски народен събор) took place in 893.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
In 926 a battle was fought in the Bosnian highlands between the armies the Bulgarian Empire, under the rule of Bulgarian Tsar Simeon I, who at the time also fought a war with the Byzantine Empire, and the Kingdom of Croatia under Tomislav, the first king of the Croatian state.
The Croatian–Bulgarian Wars were a series of conflicts that erupted three times during the 9th and 10th centuries between the medieval realms of Croatia and Bulgaria.
Cruciform means having the shape of a cross or Christian cross.
The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
A dagger is a knife with a very sharp point and one or two sharp edges, typically designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Danube Bend (Hungarian Dunakanyar) is a curve of the Danube in Hungary, close to the city of Visegrád.
The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării; Дельта Дунаю, Deľta Dunayu) is the second largest river delta in Europe, after the Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent.
De Administrando Imperio ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII.
Debelt (Bulgarian: Дебелт) is a village in Burgas Province in southeastern Bulgaria.
Demetrius (Димитрий Български) was the second Patriarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and the first one to have been recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople as a result of the Byzantine–Bulgarian Treaty of 927, which affirmed the Bulgarian victory in the War of 913–927 against the Byzantine Empire.
Devnya (Девня) is a town in Varna Province, Northeastern Bulgaria, located about 25 km away to the west from the city of Varna and The Black Sea Coast.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
Dobruja or Dobrudja (Добруджа, transliterated: Dobrudzha or Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region in Eastern Europe that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania.
Dropull (Δρόπολις, Dropolis) is a municipality and a predominantly Greek-inhabited region in Gjirokastër County, in southern Albania.
Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other.
Duklja (Διοκλεία, Diokleia; Dioclea; Serbian Cyrillic: Дукља) was a medieval Serb state which roughly encompassed the territories of present-day southeastern Montenegro, from the Bay of Kotor in the west to the Bojana river in the east, and to the sources of the Zeta and Morača rivers in the north.
The Dulo clan was the ruling dynasty of the Bulgars.
The Early Cyrillic alphabet is a writing system that was developed during the late ninth century on the basis of the Greek alphabet for the Orthodox Slavic population in Europe.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.
The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Edessa (Έδεσσα, Édessa,; until 1923: Vodena (Greek: Βοδενά, Vodená); known as "city of waters"), is a city in northern Greece and the capital of the Pella regional unit, in the Central Macedonia region of Greece.
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
Elijah (meaning "My God is Yahu/Jah") or latinized form Elias (Ἡλίας, Elías; ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab (9th century BC).
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
Saint Enravota (Свети Енравота) or Voin (Воин, "warrior") or Boyan (Боян) was the eldest son of Omurtag of Bulgaria and the first Bulgarian Christian martyr, as well as the earliest Bulgarian saint to be canonized.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
The Eurasian nomads were a large group of nomadic peoples from the Eurasian Steppe, who often appear in history as invaders of Europe, the Middle East and China.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
The Fourth Council of Constantinople was the eighth Catholic Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople from October 5, 869, to February 28, 870.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Gavril Radomir (Гаврил Радомир, Γαβριὴλ Ρωμανός/Gavriil Romanos, anglicized as "Gabriel Radomir") was the emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from October 1014 to August or September 1015.
George Bell & Sons was a book publishing house located in London, United Kingdom, from 1839 to 1986.
The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
In religion, ethics, philosophy, and psychology "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
The Great Basilica of Pliska (Голяма базилика в Плиска, Golyama bazilika v Pliska) is an architectural complex in Pliska, the first capital of the First Bulgarian Empire, which includes a cathedral, an archbishop's palace and a monastery.
Great Moravia (Regnum Marahensium; Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Megálī Moravía; Velká Morava; Veľká Morava; Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland (including Silesia), and Hungary.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Greek: γρύφων, grýphōn, or γρύπων, grýpōn, early form γρύψ, grýps; gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and an eagle's talons as its front feet.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
Han Krum (Хан Крум) is a village in the municipality of Preslav, Shumen Province, north-eastern Bulgaria.
Harrassowitz Verlag is a German academic publishing house, based in Wiesbaden.
Heavy cavalry is a class of cavalry whose primary role was to engage in direct combat with enemy forces, and are heavily armed and armoured compared to light cavalry.
The Theme of Hellas (θέμα Ἑλλάδος, Thema Hellados) was a Byzantine military-civilian province (thema, theme) located in southern Greece.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
The term Hexameron (Greek: Ἡ Ἑξαήμερος Δημιουργία Hē Hexaēmeros Dēmiourgia) refers either to the genre of theological treatise that describes God's work on the six days of creation or to the six days of creation themselves.
Himarë (Himara) is a bilingual town in Southern Albania along the Albanian Riviera and part of the Vlorë County.
Hincmar (806 – 21 December 882), archbishop of Reims, was the friend, advisor and propagandist of Charles the Bald.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
The first use of horses in warfare occurred over 5,000 years ago.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
The Ichirgu-boila or Chargobilya (Old Bulgarian чрьгѹбылꙗ, Ичиргу боила) was a high-ranking official in the First Bulgarian Empire.
The International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS; Conseil international des monuments et des sites) is a professional association that works for the conservation and protection of cultural heritage places around the world.
Ioannina (Ιωάννινα), often called Yannena (Γιάννενα) within Greece, is the capital and largest city of the Ioannina regional unit and of Epirus, an administrative region in north-western Greece.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Irene Lekapene (born Maria; Ирина Лакапина, Μαρία/Ειρήνη Λακαπηνή, died ca. 966) was the Empress consort of Peter I of Bulgaria.
Isbul (Исбул) (fl. 820s–830s) was the kavhan, or first minister, of the First Bulgarian Empire during the reigns of Omurtag, Malamir and Presian I. Appointed to the kavhan office under Omurtag, Isbul was a regent or co-ruler of the underage Malamir and his successor Presian.
The Iskar (Искър; Oescus) is a right tributary of the Danube.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivan Vladislav (Иван Владислав) ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from August or September 1015 to February 1018.
Jeremiah (Йеремия, Yeremia) was a 10th-century Bulgarian priest and writer usually associated with the origins of Bogomilism.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
John Geometres or Kyriotes (Ιωάννης Γεωμέτρης/Κυριώτης), was a Byzantine poet, soldier, and monk.
John I Tzimiskes (Iōánnēs I Tzimiskēs; c. 925 – 10 January 976) was the senior Byzantine Emperor from 11 December 969 to 10 January 976.
John of Debar (Йоан Дебърски; fl. 1018-1037) was an 11th-century Bulgarian clergyman.
Saint John of Rila (Bulgarian: Свети Йоан (Иван) Рилски, sveti Ioan Rilski) (876 – c. 946) was the first Bulgarian hermit.
John the Exarch (also transcribed Joan Ekzarh) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century.
John V. A. Fine Jr. (born 1939) is an American historian and author.
Jovan Vladimir or John Vladimir (Јован Владимир; c. 990 – 22 May 1016) was the ruler of Duklja, the most powerful Serbian principality of the time, from around 1000 to 1016.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Justinian II (Ἰουστινιανός Β΄, Ioustinianos II; Flavius Iustinianus Augustus; 668 – 11 December 711), surnamed the Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus (ὁ Ῥινότμητος, "the slit-nosed"), was the last Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711.
Kalabaka (Καλαμπάκα, Kalabáka, alternative transliterations are Kalambaka and Kalampaka) is a town and a municipality in the Trikala regional unit, part of Thessaly in Greece.
Kalugerovo, Haskovo Province is a village in the municipality of Simeonovgrad, in Haskovo Province, in southern Bulgaria.
The Kamchiya (also Kamchia and Kamčija, Bulgarian: Камчия) is a river in eastern Bulgaria, the longest river on the Balkan Peninsula to flow directly into the Black Sea.
Kanasubigi, possibly read as Kanas Ubigi or Kanas U Bigi was a title of the early rulers of the Bulgars.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
Kardam (Кардам) was the ruler of Bulgaria (777 – after 796/before 803).
Kastoria (Καστοριά, Kastoriá) is a city in northern Greece in the region of West Macedonia.
The kavhan (Кавхан; according to some historians it should be read as kaphan, others pay attention to the fact that in most Byzantine sources it is written as KaukhanMoravcsik, G. Byzantinoturcica II. Sprachreste der Türkvölker in den byzantinischen Quellen. Leiden 1983,, p. 156) was one of the most important officials in the First Bulgarian Empire.
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands.
Kotrag (translit, Кăтра Паттăр, Kătra Pattăr) meaning "Ostrogoth" was according to Nikephoros I of Constantinople a "son" of Kubrat of the Dulo clan of Bulgars.
Krum (Крум, Κρούμος/Kroumos) was the Khan of Bulgaria from sometime after 796 but before 803 until his death in 814.
Krum's dynasty (Крумова династия) refers to the royal and later imperial family founded by the Khan of Bulgaria Krum (r. 803–814), producing the monarchs of First Bulgarian Empire between 803 and 991.
Ktetor (κτήτωρ) or ktitor (ქტიტორი; ctitor), meaning "founder", was a title given in the Middle Ages to the provider of funds for construction or reconstruction of an Orthodox church or monastery, for the addition of icons, frescos, and other works of art.
Kuber (also Kouber or Kuver) was a Bulgar leader who according to the Miracles of Saint Demetrius led in the 670s, a mixed Bulgar and Byzantine Christian population, whose ancestors had been transferred from the Eastern Roman Empire to the Syrmia region in Pannonia by the Avars 60 years earlier.
Kubrat (Κοβρāτος, Kούβρατος; Кубрат) was the "ruler of the Onoğundur–Bulgars", credited with establishing the confederation of Old Great Bulgaria in c. 635.
Kutmichevitsa (Кутмичевица) was an administrative region of the Bulgarian Empire as well as Byzantine Empire during much of the Middle Ages, corresponding roughly with the northwestern part of the region of Macedonia and the southern part of Albania, broadly taken to be the area included in the triangle Saloniki-Skopje-Vlora.
Kutrigurs were nomadic equestrians who flourished on the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the 6th century AD.
Kyustendil (Кюстендил) is a town in the far west of Bulgaria, the capital of the Kyustendil Province, a former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see.
Lake Ohrid (Liqeni i Ohrit, Liqeni i Pogradecit; Охридско Езеро) straddles the mountainous border between southwestern Macedonia and eastern Albania.
Prespa is the name of two freshwater lakes in southeast Europe, shared by Albania, Greece, and the Republic of Macedonia.
A lasso, from the Castilian word, Lazo.
Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
Leo the Deacon (born ca. 950) was a Byzantine historian and chronicler.
Leo V the Armenian (Λέων ὁ ἐξ Ἀρμενίας, Leōn ho ex Armenias; 775 – 24 December 820) was Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 813 to 820.
Leontius (Леонтий) was the first Patriarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Lipljan (Липљан) or Lipjan (Lipjani) is a town and municipality located in the Pristina District of Kosovo.
The monarchs of Bulgaria ruled the country during three periods of its history as an independent country: from the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 to the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria in 1018; from the Uprising of Asen and Peter that established the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1185 to the annexation of the rump Bulgarian principality into the Ottoman Empire in 1422; and from the re-establishment of an independent Bulgaria in 1878 to the abolition of monarchy in a manipulated referendum held on 15 September 1946.
Locusts are certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae that have a swarming phase.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
Madara (Мадара, pronounced) is a village in northeastern Bulgaria, part of Shumen municipality, Shumen Province.
The Madara Rider or Madara Horseman (Мадарски конник, Madarski konnik) is an early medieval large rock relief carved on the Madara Plateau east of Shumen in northeastern Bulgaria, near the village of Madara.
Mahdia (المهدية) is a Tunisian coastal city with 62,189 inhabitants, south of Monastir and southeast of Sousse.
Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.
Malamir (Маламир) was the ruler of Bulgaria 831–836.
The Maritsa, Meriç or Evros (Марица, Marica; Ἕβρος, Hébros; Έβρος, Évros; Hebrus; Romanized Thracian: Evgos or Ebros; Meriç) is, with a length of, the longest river that runs solely in the interior of the Balkans.
Mark Whittow (August 1957 – 23 December 2017) was a British historian, archaeologist, and academic, specialising in the Byzantine Empire.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
The medieval Bulgarian army was the primary military body of the First and the Second Bulgarian Empires. During the first decades after the foundation of the country, the army consisted of a Bulgar cavalry and a Slavic infantry. The core of the Bulgarian army was the heavy cavalry, which consisted of 12,000–30,000 heavily armed riders. At its height in the 9th and 10th centuries, it was one of the most formidable military forces in Europe and was feared by its enemies. There are several documented cases of Byzantine commanders abandoning an invasion because of a reluctance to confront the Bulgarian army on its home territory. The army was intrinsically linked to the very existence of the Bulgarian state. Its success under Tsar Simeon I marked the creation of a wide-ranging empire, and its defeat in a prolonged war of attrition in the early 11th century meant the end of Bulgarian independence. When the Bulgarian state was reestablished in 1185, a series of capable emperors achieved a remarkable string of victories over the Byzantines and the Western Crusaders, but as the state and its army fragmented in the 13th and 14th centuries, it proved unable to halt the Ottoman advance, which resulted in the conquest of all of Bulgaria by 1422. It would not be until 1878, with the Liberation of Bulgaria, that a Bulgarian military would be restored.
Medieval Croatia included the following states and regions.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
The Menologion of Basil II (also called Menologium of Basil II, Menology of Basil II) is an illuminated manuscript designed as a church calendar or Eastern Orthodox Church service book (menologion) that was compiled c. 1000 AD, for the Byzantine Emperor Basil II (r. 976–1025).
Michael III (Μιχαήλ Γʹ, Mikhaēl III; January 19, 840 – September 23/24, 867) was Byzantine Emperor from 842 to 867.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mihail (Михаил) or Michael was the eldest son of Emperor Simeon I The Great.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
Mithra (𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça, New Persian: Mehr) is the Zoroastrian angelic divinity (yazata) of Covenant, Light, and Oath.
Moesia (Latin: Moesia; Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
The Monastery of Saint Naum (Манастир „Свети Наум“) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery in the Republic of Macedonia, named after the medieval Saint Naum who founded it.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
In international economic relations and international politics, "most favoured nation" (MFN) is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade.
Mostich (Мостич, Old Bulgarian: МОСТИЧЬ) was a high-ranking official in the 10th-century First Bulgarian Empire, during the rule of Simeon I and Peter I. He bore the title of Ichirgu-boil and was most likely the commander of the state capital Preslav's garrison.
The Basarabi-Murfatlar Cave Complex is a medieval Christian monastery located near the town of Murfatlar (known as Basarabi between 1924–1965 and 1975–2007), Constanța County, Northern Dobruja, Romania.
The nave is the central aisle of a basilica church, or the main body of a church (whether aisled or not) between its rear wall and the far end of its intersection with the transept at the chancel.
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
Nesebar (often transcribed as Nessebar and sometimes as Nesebur, Несебър, pronounced, Thracian: Melsambria, Μεσημβρία, Mesembria) is an ancient city and one of the major seaside resorts on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, located in Burgas Province.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Niš (Ниш) is the third-largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Nišava District.
Nikephoros I, or Nicephorus I (Νικηφόρος Α΄, Nikēphoros I; died July 26, 811), was Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska.
Nikephoros II Phokas (Latinized: Nicephorus II Phocas; Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς, Nikēphóros II Phōkãs; c. 912 – 11 December 969) was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969.
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans (Именник на българските ханове) is a short manuscript containing the names of some early Bulgar rulers, their clans, the year of their ascending to the throne according to the cyclic Bulgar calendar and the length of their rule, including the times of joint rule and civil war.
North Thrace or Northern Thrace (Северна Тракия, Severna Trakiya) (as opposed to Western Thrace and Eastern Thrace to the south) constitutes the northern and the largest part of the historical region of Thrace.
Novi Pazar (Нови пазар, "new marketplace") is a town in Shumen Province, northeastern Bulgaria, located in a hollow between the Shumen, Ludogorie and Provadiya plateaus, on the banks of the Kriva Reka ("twisting river").
A nymph (νύμφη, nýmphē) in Greek and Latin mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform.
Ohrid (Охрид) is a city in the Republic of Macedonia and the seat of Ohrid Municipality.
The Ohrid Literary School was one of the two major cultural centres of the First Bulgarian Empire, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School).
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Byzantine Greek: Παλαιά Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία, Palaiá Megálē Voulgaría), also often known by the Latin names Magna Bulgaria) and Patria Onoguria ("Onogur land"), was a 7th Century state formed by the Onogur Bulgars on the western Pontic Steppe (modern southern Ukraine and south-west Russia). Great Bulgaria was originally centred between the Dniester and lower Volga. The original capital was Phanagoriaon the Taman peninsula between the Black and Azov seas. In the mid-7th century, Great Bulgaria expanded west to include Avar territory and was centered in Poltava. During the late 7th century, however, an Avar-Slavic alliance in the west, and Khazars in the east, defeated the Bulgars and the Great Bulgaria disintegrated. Successor states included Volga Bulgaria and the First Bulgarian Empire.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Omurtag (or Omortag) (Омуртаг; original ΜορτάγωνTheophanes Continuatus, p.64 and George Kedrenos and Ομουρτάγ, Inscription No.64. Retrieved 10 April 2012.) was a Great Khan (Kanasubigi) of Bulgaria from 814 to 831.
The Onoğurs or Oğurs (Όνόγουροι, Οὒρωγοι; Onογurs, Ογurs; "ten tribes", "tribes"), were Turkic nomadic equestrians who flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region between 5th and 7th century, and spoke Oğhuric language.
An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Palace of Omurtag or Aul (Aulē) of Omurtag (Аул на Омуртаг, Aul na Omurtag) is an archaeological site in northeastern Bulgaria dating to Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages located near the village of Han Krum in Shumen Province.
Paleo-Balkan mythology includes the religious practices of the Dacians, Thracians, and Illyrians.
The palmette is a motif in decorative art which, in its most characteristic expression, resembles the fan-shaped leaves of a palm tree.
A panegyric is a formal public speech, or (in later use) written verse, delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally highly studied and undiscriminating eulogy, not expected to be critical.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.
The Patleina Monastery of Saint Pantaleon (Патлейнският манастир „Свети Пантелеймон“) is a ruined Bulgarian Orthodox monastery.
Paul Bairoch (24 July 1930 in Antwerp – 12 February 1999 in Geneva) was one of the great post-war economic historians who specialised in global economic history, urban history and historical demography.
Paul J. Fouracre is professor of medieval history at the University of Manchester.
Păcuiul lui Soare is an island on the Danube in southeastern Romania, known for its Bulgarian and Byzantine fortress, built in the 8th century and abandoned by the 15th century.
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.
Pelagonia (Greek: Πελαγονíα, Pelagonía; Macedonian: Пелагонија, Pelagonija) is a geographical region of Macedonia.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
Pentarchy (from the Greek Πενταρχία, pentarchía, from πέντε pénte, "five", and ἄρχειν archein, "to rule") is a model of Church organization historically championed in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Pereyaslavets (Переяславец; East Slavic form) or Prislav (Romanian form) or Preslavets (Преславец; Bulgarian form) was a trade city located at the mouth of the Danube.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
In Slavic mythology, Perun (Cyrillic: Перун) is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning.
Peter (Петър) (fl. 860s–870s) was a Bulgarian noble and relative of knyaz (khan) Boris I (r. 852–889) who was in charge of diplomatic missions during the Christianization of Bulgaria.
Peter I (Петър I) (died 30 January 970) was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 27 May 927 to 969.
Petra (Πέτρα) is a former municipality in Pieria regional unit, Greece.
In Greek mythology, Phaethon (Φαέθων, Phaéthōn), was the son of the Oceanid Clymene and the solar deity Helios.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
A pike is a pole weapon, a very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry.
Pliska (Пльсковъ, romanized: Plĭskovŭ) is the name of both the first capital of the First Bulgarian Empire and a small town situated 20 km Northeast of the provincial capital Shumen.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Adrian II (Adrianus PP., Adriano II; 79214 December 872) was Pope from 14 December 867 to his death in 872.
Pope Saint Nicholas I (Nicolaus I; c. 800 – 13 November 867), also called Saint Nicholas the Great, was Pope from 24 April 858 to his death in 867.
In pottery, a potter's wheel is a machine used in the shaping (known as throwing) of round ceramic ware.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Presian (Пресиян, Персиян, Пресиан) was the Khan of Bulgaria from 836–852.
Presian II (Пресиян II) (or also Prusian) was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria for a short time in 1018.
The Presian Inscription or Philippi Inscription is a medieval Greek text inscribed upon a stone in Philippi during the reign of the Bulgarian ruler Presian I (r. 836–852).
The Preslav Literary School (Преславска книжовна школа), also known as the Pliska Literary School, was the first literary school in the medieval Bulgarian Empire.
Prespa (Преспа) was a medieval town, situated in the homonymous area in south-western Macedonia.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The Principality of Serbia (Кнежевина Србија / Kneževina Srbija) or Serbian Principality (Cрпска кнежевина / Srpska kneževina), was an early medieval state of the Serbs, located in western regions of Southeastern Europe.
Prizren (Prizreni; Призрен) is a city and municipality located in the Prizren District of Kosovo.
Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
The Rhodopes (Родопи, Rodopi; Ροδόπη, Rodopi; Rodoplar) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece.
Rila (Рила) is a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria and the highest mountain range of Bulgaria and the Balkans, with its highest peak being Musala at 2,925 m. The massif is also the sixth highest mountain in Europe (when each mountain is represented by its highest peak only), coming after the Caucasus, the Alps, Sierra Nevada, the Pyrenees and Mount Etna, and the highest between the Alps and the Caucasus.
The Monastery of Saint Ivan of Rila, better known as the Rila Monastery (Рилски манастир, Rilski manastir) is the largest and most famous Eastern Orthodox monastery in Bulgaria.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman (Роман; 930s–997) was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 977 to 991, being in Byzantine captivity thereafter still claiming the title.
Romanos I Lekapenos or Lakapenos (Ρωμανός Α΄ Λακαπηνός, Rōmanos I Lakapēnos; c. 870 – June 15, 948), Latinized as Romanus I Lecapenus, was an Armenian who became a Byzantine naval commander and reigned as Byzantine Emperor from 920 until his deposition on December 16, 944.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rosamond Deborah McKitterick, (born 31 May 1949) is a British medieval historian, whose work focuses on the Frankish kingdoms in the 8th and 9th centuries, using palaeographical and manuscript studies to illuminate aspects of the political, cultural, intellectual, religious and social history of the early Middle Ages.
A rotunda (from Latin rotundus) is any building with a circular ground plan, and sometimes covered by a dome.
The Round Church (Кръгла църква, Kragla tsarkva), also known as the Golden Church (Златна църква, Zlatna tsarkva) or the Church of St John (църква "Свети Йоан", tsarkva "Sveti Yoan"), is a large partially preserved early medieval Eastern Orthodox church.
A rusalka (translit; rusałka) is a female spirit in Slavic mythology and folklore.
The French ruse de guerre, sometimes literally translated as ruse of war, is a non-uniform term; generally what is understood by "ruse of war" can be separated into two groups: the first classifies the phrase purely as an act of military deception against one's opponent; the second emphasizes acts against one's opponent by creative, clever, unorthodox means, sometimes involving force multipliers or superior knowledge.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
Sabin (Сабин) was the ruler of Bulgaria from 765 to 766.
The sabre (British English) or saber (American English) is a type of backsword with a curved blade associated with the light cavalry of the early modern and Napoleonic periods.
The Sack of Thessalonica in 904 by Saracen pirates was one of the worst disasters to befall the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century.
Saint Naum (Bulgarian and Macedonian: Свети Наум, Sveti Naum), also known as Naum of Ohrid or Naum of Preslav (c. 830 – December 23, 910) was a medieval Bulgarian writer, enlightener, one of the seven Apostles of the First Bulgarian Empire and missionary among the Slavs.
Saints Cyril and Methodius (826–869, 815–885; Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Old Church Slavonic) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries.
A salt mine is a mine from which halite, commonly known as rock salt, is extracted from evaporite formations.
Samodivas, Samovilas or Vilas are woodland fairies or nymphs found in South and West Slavic folklore.
Samuel (also Samuil, representing Bulgarian Самуил, pronounced, Old Church Slavonic) was the Tsar (Emperor) of the First Bulgarian Empire from 997 to 6 October 1014.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
Scale armour is an early form of armour consisting of many individual small armour scales (plates) of various shapes attached to each other and to a backing of cloth or leather in overlapping rows.
The Sclaveni (in Latin) or (in Greek) were early Slavic tribes that raided, invaded and settled the Balkans in the Early Middle Ages and eventually became known as the ethnogenesis of the South Slavs.
The scorpio or scorpion was a type of Roman artillery piece.
Scythia Minor or Lesser Scythia (Mikrá Skythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, roughly corresponding to today's Dobrogea, with a part in Romania, a part in Bulgaria.
The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.
The Second Bulgarian Empire (Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.
A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger group.
The medieval history of Serbia begins in the 6th century with the Slavic invasion of the Balkans, and lasts until the Ottoman occupation of 1540.
Servia (Greek: Σέρβια, Sérvia) is one of the main towns in the Kozani regional unit, West Macedonia, Greece.
Sevar (Севар) was a ruler of Bulgaria in the 8th century.
The Seven Slavic tribes or the Seven Slavic clans (Седемте славянски племена или Седемте рода, Sedem slavyanski plemena) were a union of tribes in the Danubian Plain, that was established around the middle of the 7th century and took part in the formation of the First Bulgarian Empire together with the Bulgars in 680-681.
The Severians or Severyans or Siverians (Северяне; Сiверяни; Севяране; Сeверяни) were a tribe or tribal union of early East Slavs occupying areas to the east of the middle Dnieper river, and Danube.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Shem (שֵׁם Šēm; Σήμ Sēm; Ge'ez: ሴም, Sēm; "renown; prosperity; name"; Arabic: سام Sām) was one of the sons of Noah in the Hebrew Bible as well as in Islamic literature.
Shumen (also spelled Shoumen, Šumen or Shumla Шумен) is the tenth largest city in Bulgaria and the administrative and economic capital of Shumen Province.
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674–678 was a major conflict of the Arab–Byzantine wars, and the first culmination of the Umayyad Caliphate's expansionist strategy towards the Byzantine Empire, led by Caliph Mu'awiya I. Mu'awiya, who had emerged in 661 as the ruler of the Muslim Arab empire following a civil war, renewed aggressive warfare against Byzantium after a lapse of some years and hoped to deliver a lethal blow by capturing the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.
The Second Arab siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople.
The Siege of Serdica (Обсадата на Сердика) took place in the spring of 809 at modern Sofia, Bulgaria.
A siege tower or breaching tower (or in the Middle Ages, a belfryCastle: Stephen Biesty'sSections. Dorling Kindersley Pub (T); 1st American edition (September 1994). Siege towers were invented in 300 BC.) is a specialized siege engine, constructed to protect assailants and ladders while approaching the defensive walls of a fortification.
Sigebert of Gembloux (Sigebertus Gemblacensis; 1030 – 5 October 1112) was a medieval author, known mainly as a pro-Imperial historian of a universal chronicle, opposed to the expansive papacy of Gregory VII and Pascal II.
Silistra (Силистра Dârstor) is a port city in northeastern Bulgaria.
Simeon (also Symeon) I the Great (Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,Lalkov, Rulers of Bulgaria, pp.
Sirmium was a city in the Roman province of Pannonia.
Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.
A slavic dragon is any dragon in Slavic mythology, including the Russian zmei (or zmey; змей), known in Ukraine as zmiy, and its counterparts in other Slavic cultures: the Bulgarian zmei (змей), the Polish italic, the Serbian and Croatian zmaj (змај, italic).
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
The Southern Bug, also called Southern Buh (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh; Южный Буг, Yuzhny Bug), and sometimes Boh River, is a navigable river located in Ukraine.
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
Ras (Arsa), known in modern Serbian historiography as Stari Ras (meaning Old Ras), is a medieval fortress located in the vicinity of former market-place of Staro Trgovište, some 11 km west of modern day city of Novi Pazar in Serbia.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Stephen I, also known as King Saint Stephen (Szent István király; Sanctus Stephanus; Štefan I. or Štefan Veľký; 975 – 15 August 1038 AD), was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001, and the first King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038.
Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman, CH, FBA (7 July 1903 – 1 November 2000), known as Steven Runciman, was an English historian best known for his three-volume A History of the Crusades (1951–54).
The Struma or Strymónas (Струма; Στρυμόνας; (Struma) Karasu, 'black water') is a river in Bulgaria and Greece.
Strumica (Струмица) is the largest city in English and Macedonian (PDF) in eastern Republic of Macedonia, near the Novo Selo-Petrich border crossing with Bulgaria.
The Suda or Souda (Soûda; Suidae Lexicon) is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas (Σούδας) or Souidas (Σουίδας).
Other than the many gods and goddesses of the Slavs, the ancient Slavs believed in and revered many supernatural beings that existed in nature.
Sviatoslav I Igorevich (Old East Slavic: С~тославъ / Свѧтославъ Игорєвичь, Sventoslavŭ / Svantoslavŭ Igorevičǐ; Old Norse: Sveinald Ingvarsson) (c. 942 – 26 March 972), also spelled Svyatoslav was a Grand prince of Kiev famous for his persistent campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe, Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire.
Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria refers to a conflict beginning in 967/968 and ending in 971, carried out in the eastern Balkans, and involving the Kievan Rus', Bulgaria, and the Byzantine Empire.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
Tarkhan (Old Turkic Tarqan; ᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ Darqan or Darkhan; ترخان;; طرخان; alternative spellings Tarkan, Tarkhaan, Tarqan, Tarchan, Turxan, Tarcan, Tárkány, Tarján, Torgyán or Turgan) is an ancient Central Asian title used by various Turkic peoples, Indo-Europeans (i.e. Iranian, Tokharian, Punjabi), and by the Hungarians and Mongols.
Telerig (Телериг) was the ruler of Bulgaria between 768–777.
Tengri (𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃; Тангра; Modern Turkish: Tanrı; Proto-Turkic *teŋri / *taŋrɨ; Mongolian script:, Tngri; Modern Mongolian: Тэнгэр, Tenger), is one of the names for the primary chief deity used by the early Turkic (Xiongnu, Hunnic, Bulgar) and Mongolic (Xianbei) peoples.
Tengrism, also known as Tengriism or Tengrianism, is a Central Asian religion characterized by shamanism, animism, totemism, poly- and monotheismMichael Fergus, Janar Jandosova,, Stacey International, 2003, p.91.
Khan Tervel (Тервел) also called Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the Khan of Bulgaria during the First Bulgarian Empire at the beginning of the 8th century.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Saint Theodore of Amasea (Θεόδωρος) is one of the two saints called Theodore, who are venerated as Warrior Saints and Great Martyrs in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Theophanes Continuatus (συνεχισταί Θεοφάνους) or Scriptores post Theophanem (Οἱ μετὰ Θεοφάνην, "those after Theophanes") is the Latin name commonly applied to a collection of historical writings preserved in the 11th-century Vat.
Saint Theophanes the Confessor (Θεοφάνης Ὁμολογητής; c. 758/760 – March 12, 817/818) was a member of the Byzantine aristocracy, who became a monk and chronicler.
Theophylact Lekapenos (or Lecapenus) (Θεοφύλακτος Λακαπηνός, Theophylaktos Lakapenos) (917 – 27 February 956) was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 2 February 933 to his death in 956.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Thracian Horseman (also "Thracian Rider" or "Thracian Heros") is the name given to a recurring motif of a horseman depicted in reliefs of the Hellenistic and Roman periods in the Balkans (Thrace, Macedonia, Moesia, roughly from the 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD).
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central Europe.
Tomislav (Tamisclaus) was the first King of Croatia.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
A universal history is a work aiming at the presentation of the history of humankind as a whole, coherent unit.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
The Uprising of Asen and Peter (Въстание на Асен и Петър) was a revolt of Bulgarians and Vlachs living in the theme of Paristrion of the Byzantine Empire, caused by a tax increase.
Utigurs were nomadic equestrians who flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the 6th century AD.
Varna (Варна, Varna) is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Vasil Nikolov Zlatarski (Васил Николов Златарски; 14 November 1866 – 15 December 1935) was a Bulgarian historian-medievalist, archaeologist, and epigraphist.
The modern Veliki Preslav or Great Preslav (Велики Преслав), former Preslav (until 1993), is a city and the seat of government of the Veliki Preslav Municipality (Great Preslav Municipality, new Bulgarian: obshtina), which in turn is part of Shumen Province.
Veliko Tarnovo (Велико Търново, "Great Tarnovo") is a city in north central Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province.
A veranda or verandah (from Bengali baranda) is a roofed, open-air gallery or porch.
Veselin Ivanov Beshevliev (Веселин Иванов Бешевлиев) (25 March 1900 &ndash) was a Bulgarian historian and philologist.
Vladimir-Rasate was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire from 889 to 893.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Toporov (Влади́мир Никола́евич Топоро́в; 5 July 1928 in Moscow5 December 2005 in Moscow) was a leading Russian philologist associated with the Tartu-Moscow semiotic school.
Vlorë is the third most populous city of the Republic of Albania.
Volga Bulgaria (Идел буе Болгар дәүләте, Атӑлҫи Пӑлхар), or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, in what is now European Russia.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
The Walls of Constantinople are a series of defensive stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great.
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.
The Western Turkic Khaganate or Onoq Khaganate was a Turkic khaganate formed as a result of the wars in the beginning of the 7th century (AD 593–603) after the split of the Göktürk Khaganate (founded in the 6th century in Mongolia by the Ashina clan) into the Western khaganate and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. At its height, the Western Turkic Khaganate included what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and parts of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Russia. The ruling elite or perhaps the whole confederation was called Onoq or "ten arrows", possibly from oğuz (literally "arrow"), a subdivision of the Turkic tribes. A connection to the earlier Onogurs, which also means 'ten tribes', is questionable. The khaganate's capitals were Navekat (the summer capital) and Suyab (the principal capital), both situated in the Chui River valley of Kyrgyzstan, to the east from Bishkek. Tong Yabgu's summer capital was near Tashkent and his winter capital Suyab. Turkic rule in Mongolia was restored as Second Turkic Khaganate in 682.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
A zadruga (Cyrillic: Задруга) refers to a type of rural community historically common among South Slavs.
Zagore (Загоре); also Zagorie, Zagora, Zagoria) was a vaguely defined medieval region in what is now Bulgaria. Its name is of Slavic origin and means "beyond the Balkan mountains". The region was first mentioned as Ζαγόρια in Greek (in an Old Bulgarian translation it was rendered as Загорїа) when it was ceded to the First Bulgarian Empire by the Byzantine Empire during the rule of Tervel of Bulgaria in the very beginning of the 8th century (Byzantine–Bulgarian Treaty of 716). From the context, Zagore can be defined as a region in northeastern Thrace. During the Second Bulgarian Empire, the region was also mentioned in Tsar Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria's post-1230 Dubrovnik Charter, which allowed Ragusan merchants to trade in the Bulgarian lands, among which "the whole Zagore" (пѡ всемѹ Загѡриѹ). 14th-century Venetian documents refer to Zagora as a synonym for Bulgaria (e.g. partes del Zagora, subditas Dobrotice in a document from 14 February 1384). Similarly, later Ragusan sources regularly evidence the active import of high-quality Zagoran wax (cera zagora, variously spelled zachori, zaura, zachorj, zacora) from Bulgaria, often bought in Sofia. Today, the name of the region lives on in the toponyms Stara Zagora ("Old Zagora", a major city in northeastern Thrace, the capital of Stara Zagora Province) and Nova Zagora ("New Zagora", a city in Sliven Province). Zagore Beach on Livingston Island of the South Shetland Islands in Antarctica was also named after the region by the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria.
Zeno the Isaurian (Flavius Zeno Augustus; Ζήνων; c. 425 – 9 April 491), originally named Tarasis Kodisa RousombladadiotesThe sources call him "Tarasicodissa Rousombladadiotes", and for this reason it was thought his name was Tarasicodissa. However, it has been demonstrated that this name actually means "Tarasis, son of Kodisa, Rusumblada", and that "Tarasis" was a common name in Isauria (R.M. Harrison, "The Emperor Zeno's Real Name", Byzantinische Zeitschrift 74 (1981) 27–28)., was Eastern Roman Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire following the deposition of Romulus Augustus and the death of Julius Nepos, but he contributed much to stabilising the eastern Empire. In ecclesiastical history, Zeno is associated with the Henotikon or "instrument of union", promulgated by him and signed by all the Eastern bishops, with the design of solving the monophysite controversy.
According to an anonymous Roman author of the 4th century CE, the producer of the Chronography of 354, Ziezi was a son of Shem and a grandson of Noah.
The 1300th Anniversary of the Bulgarian State was a yearlong celebration in 1981 when the People's Republic of Bulgaria celebrated the 1300th anniversary of establishing of the First Bulgarian State, the first Bulgarian state in modern history.
Bulgar Khanate, Bulgarian Empire (681-1018), Bulgarian Empire (681–1018), Bulgarian Empire (Khanate), Bulgarian Khanate, Danube Bulgar Khanate, Danube Bulgar khanate, Danube Bulgaria, Danube Bulgarian Khanate, Danubian Bulgaria, First Bulgar Empire, First Bulgarian Kingdom, First Bulgarian State, First Bulgarian Tsardom, History of First Bulgarian Empire, History of the First Bulgarian Empire.