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First Congo War

Index First Congo War

The First Congo War (1996–1997) was a foreign invasion of Zaire led by Rwanda that replaced President Mobutu Sésé Seko with the rebel leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila. [1]

93 relations: Agrarian society, Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo, Amnesty International, Anti-communism, Army for the Liberation of Rwanda, Banyamulenge, Banyarwanda, Belgian Congo, Boende, Burundi, Child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cold War, Colonisation of Africa, Colonization, Coltan, Congo: The Epic History of a People, David Van Reybrouck, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Democratization, Directorate-General for External Security, DRC Mapping Exercise Report, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ethnic hatred, Federal government of the United States, Foreign Affairs, Génocidaires, Gbadolite, Gendarmerie, Great Lakes refugee crisis, Gross domestic product, HarperCollins, Hunde language, Hutu, Informal sector, Infrastructure, Interahamwe, James Kabarebe, Jonas Savimbi, José Eduardo dos Santos, Katanga Province, Kigali, Kikwit, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, Luba people, Lubumbashi, Mai-Mai, Mbandaka, ..., Mbuji-Mayi, Mercenary, Militia, Mobutu Sese Seko, Morocco, Mulenge, Nande language, National Resistance Army, New generation of African leaders, Ngbandi people, Nomad, North Kivu, Nyanga language, One-party state, Pasteur Bizimungu, Patrice Lumumba, Paul Kagame, Pierre Buyoya, President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rabat, Robert Kajuga (Interahamwe), Rwanda, Rwandan Civil War, Rwandan Defence Forces, Rwandan genocide, Rwandan Patriotic Front, Second Congo War, Serbia, South Sudan, South Sudan People's Defense Forces, State Security Service (Belgium), Sudan, Tharcisse Renzaho, Tutsi, Uganda, Ugandan Bush War, UNITA, Walikale, White Legion (Zaire), Yoweri Museveni, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Expand index (43 more) »

Agrarian society

An agrarian society (or agricultural society) is any society whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland.

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Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo

The Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire (AFDL or ADFLC) was a coalition of Rwandan, Ugandan, Burundian, and selected Congolese dissidents, disgruntled minority groups, and nations that toppled Mobutu Sese Seko and brought Laurent-Désiré Kabila to power in the First Congo War.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Anti-communism

Anti-communism is opposition to communism.

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Army for the Liberation of Rwanda

The Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (Armée pour la Libération du Rwanda, ALiR) was a rebel group largely composed of members of the Interahamwe and Armed Forces of Rwanda that carried out the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.

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Banyamulenge

Banyamulenge, sometimes called "Tutsi Congolese", is a term historically referring to the ethnic Tutsi concentrated on the High Plateau of South Kivu, in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, close to the Burundi-Congo-Rwanda border.

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Banyarwanda

The Banyarwanda (Kinyarwanda: plural: Abanyarwanda, singular: Umunyarwanda; literally "those who come from Rwanda") are the cultural and linguistic group of people who inhabit mainly Rwanda.

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Belgian Congo

The Belgian Congo (Congo Belge,; Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

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Boende

Boende is a town and capital of Tshuapa Province, lying on the Tshuapa River, in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Burundi

Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.

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Child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

During the first and second civil conflicts which took place in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), all sides involved in the war actively recruited or conscripted child soldiers, known locally as Kadogos which is a Swahili term meaning "little ones".

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Colonisation of Africa

The history of external colonisation of Africa can be divided into two stages: Classical antiquity and European colonialism.

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Colonization

Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.

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Coltan

Coltan (short for columbite–tantalites and known industrially as tantalite) is a dull black metallic ore, from which the elements niobium and tantalum are extracted.

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Congo: The Epic History of a People

Congo: The Epic History of a People (original Dutch title: Congo. Een geschiedenis) is a 639 page non-fiction book by David Van Reybrouck, first published in 2010.

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David Van Reybrouck

David Grégoire Van Reybrouck (born 11 September 1971 in Bruges) is a Belgian cultural historian, archaeologist and author.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

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Democratization

Democratization (or democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic political regime.

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Directorate-General for External Security

The General Directorate for External Security (Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure, DGSE) is France's external intelligence agency.

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DRC Mapping Exercise Report

The DRC Mapping Exercise Report, or the Democratic Republic of the Congo 1993-2003 UN Mapping Report, was a report by the United Nations within the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the wake of the armed aggressions and war which took place between March 1993 and June 2003.

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Eritrea

Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Ethnic hatred

Ethnic hatred, inter-ethnic hatred, racial hatred, or ethnic tension refers to feelings and acts of prejudice and hostility towards an ethnic group in various degrees.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Foreign Affairs

Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.

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Génocidaires

Génocidaires ("those who commit genocide") are those guilty of the mass killings of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, in which close to a million Rwandans, primarily Tutsis, were murdered by their Hutu neighbors.

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Gbadolite

Gbadolite or Gbado-Lite (pronounced) is the capital of Nord-Ubangi Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Gendarmerie

Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.

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Great Lakes refugee crisis

The Great Lakes refugee crisis is the common name for the situation beginning with the exodus in April 1994 of over two million Rwandans to neighboring countries of the Great Lakes region of Africa in the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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HarperCollins

HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.

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Hunde language

Hunde (Kihunde; also Kobi, Rukobi) is a Great Lakes Bantu language spoken by the Hunde people in Nord-Kivu province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Hutu

The Hutu, also known as the Abahutu, are a Bantu ethnic group native to African Great Lakes region of Africa, primarily area now under Burundi and Rwanda.

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Informal sector

The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.

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Infrastructure

Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.

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Interahamwe

The Interahamwe is a Hutu paramilitary organization.

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James Kabarebe

General James Kabarebe (born 1959) is a Rwandan military officer who has served as the Rwandan Minister of Defence since April 2010.

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Jonas Savimbi

Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (3 August 1934 – 22 February 2002) was an Angolan political and military leader who founded and led the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).

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José Eduardo dos Santos

José Eduardo dos Santos (born 28 August 1942)W.

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Katanga Province

Katanga was one of the eleven provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1966 and 2015, when it was split into the Tanganyika, Haut-Lomami, Lualaba and Haut-Katanga provinces.

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Kigali

Kigali is the capital and largest city of Rwanda.

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Kikwit

Kikwit is the largest city and capital of Kwilu Province, lying on the Kwilu River in the southwestern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Kinshasa

Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville (Léopoldville or Dutch)) is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Kisangani

Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville or Stanleystad) is the capital of Tshopo province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Laurent-Désiré Kabila

Laurent-Désiré Kabila (November 27, 1939 – January 16, 2001), or simply Laurent Kabila (US), was a Congolese revolutionary and politician who served as the third President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 17, 1997, when he overthrew Mobutu Sese Seko, until his assassination by one of his bodyguards on January 16, 2001.

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Luba people

The Luba people or baLuba are an ethno-linguistic group indigenous to the south-central region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Lubumbashi

Lubumbashi (former names: (French) and (Dutch)) in the southeastern part of Democratic Republic of the Congo is the second-largest city in the country, the largest being the capital, Kinshasa.

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Mai-Mai

The term Mai-Mai or Mayi-Mayi refers to any kind of community-based militia group active in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), formed to defend their local territory against other armed groups.

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Mbandaka

Mbandaka, pronounced mba ˈnda ka and formerly known as Coquilhatville in French or Coquilhatstad in Flemish, is a city on the Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo lying near the confluence of the Congo and Ruki Rivers.

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Mbuji-Mayi

Mbuji-Mayi (formerly Bakwanga) serves as the capital city of Kasai-Oriental Province in the south-central Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Mercenary

A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.

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Militia

A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).

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Mobutu Sese Seko

Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu; 14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997) was the military dictator and President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which Mobutu renamed Zaire in 1971) from 1965 to 1997.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Mulenge

Mulenge is a city of the Kigoma group in Uvira Territory, South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Nande language

Nande, also known as (Oru)Ndandi and Yira, is a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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National Resistance Army

The National Resistance Army (NRA), the military wing of the National Resistance Movement (NRM), was a rebel army that waged a guerrilla war, commonly referred to as the Ugandan Bush War or Luwero War, against the government of Milton Obote, and later that of Tito Okello.

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New generation of African leaders

The term "new generation" or "new breed" of African leaders was a buzzword widely used in the mid-late 1990s to express optimism in a new generation of African leadership.

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Ngbandi people

The Ngbandi are an ethnic group from the region of the upper Ubangi River who inhabit the northern Democratic Republic of the Congo and southern Central African Republic.

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Nomad

A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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North Kivu

North Kivu (Nord-Kivu) is a province bordering Lake Kivu in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Nyanga language

The Nyanga language (native name Kinyanga) is a language spoken by the Nyanga people in Kivu province, north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.

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Pasteur Bizimungu

Pasteur Bizimungu (born 1950) was the third President of Rwanda, holding office from 19 July 1994 until 23 March 2000.

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Patrice Lumumba

Patrice Émery Lumumba (alternatively styled Patrice Hemery Lumumba; 2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was a Congolese politician and independence leader who served as the first Prime Minister of the independent Democratic Republic of the Congo (then Republic of the Congo) from June until September 1960.

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Paul Kagame

Paul Kagame (born 23 October 1957) is a Rwandan politician and former military leader.

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Pierre Buyoya

Major Pierre Buyoya (born 24 November 1949 in Rutovu, Bururi Province) is a Burundian politician who has ruled Burundi twice, from 1987 to 1993 and from 1996 to 2003.

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President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Président de la République démocratique du Congo, Rais wa Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo, Mokonzi wa Republíki ya Kongó Demokratíki), is the head of state of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

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Rabat

Rabat (الرِّبَاط,; ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ) is the capital city of Morocco and its third largest city with an urban population of approximately 580,000 (2014) and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million.

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Robert Kajuga (Interahamwe)

Jerry Robert Kajuga was the national president and leader of the MRND-affiliated Hutu Power extremist militia, the Interahamwe, which was largely responsible for perpetrating the Rwandan Genocide in 1994.

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Rwanda

Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.

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Rwandan Civil War

The Rwandan Civil War was a conflict in the African republic of Rwanda, between the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and the rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF).

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Rwandan Defence Forces

The Rwanda Defence Force (RDF, Kinyarwanda: Ingabo z'u Rwanda; French: Forces rwandaises de défense) is the national army of Rwanda.

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Rwandan genocide

The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government.

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Rwandan Patriotic Front

The Rwandan Patriotic Front (Front patriotique rwandais, FPR) is the ruling political party in Rwanda.

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Second Congo War

The Second Congo War (also known as the Great War of Africa or the Great African War, and sometimes referred to as the African World War) began in August 1998 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, little more than a year after the First Congo War, and involved some of the same issues.

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Serbia

Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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South Sudan

South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.

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South Sudan People's Defense Forces

The South Sudanese People's Defence Forces (SSPDF), formerly the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) until 2017, is the army of the Republic of South Sudan.

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State Security Service (Belgium)

The State Security Service (VSSE) (known in Dutch as Veiligheid van de Staat; French: Sûreté de l'État) is a Belgian intelligence and security agency.

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Sudan

The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Tharcisse Renzaho

Tharcisse Renzaho (born 1944) is a Rwandan soldier, former politician and war criminal.

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Tutsi

The Tutsi, or Abatutsi, are a social class or ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region.

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Uganda

Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

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Ugandan Bush War

The Ugandan Bush War, also known as the Luwero War, the Ugandan civil war or the Resistance War, was a civil war fought in Uganda between the Uganda National Liberation Army (UNLA) and the National Resistance Army (NRA) from 1981 to 1986.

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UNITA

The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) (Portuguese: União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) is the second-largest political party in Angola.

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Walikale

Walikale is a town in the North Kivu Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

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White Legion (Zaire)

The White Legion was a mercenary unit during the First Congo War (1996–97) employed on the side of Zaire President Mobutu Sese Seko.

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Yoweri Museveni

Yoweri Museveni (born 15 September 1944) is a Ugandan politician who has been the President of Uganda since 1986.

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Zaire

Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.

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Zambia

Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.

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Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Congo_War

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