182 relations: Achillius of Larissa, Acolyte, Africa (Roman province), Alexander of Constantinople, Alexandria, Ancient church councils (pre-ecumenical), Ancient Libya, Antilegomena, Apostles, Apostles' Creed, Arbogast (general), Arian controversy, Arianism, Arius, Assyrian Church of the East, Asyut, Athanasius of Alexandria, İznik, Baptism, Basil of Caesarea, Bithynia, Book burning, Book of Judith, Caecilianus, Caesarea Maritima, Calendar of saints (Armenian Apostolic Church), Calendar of saints (Lutheran), Canon law, Castration, Catechumen, Catholic Church, Christendom, Christian laying on of hands, Christology, Chronicon Paschale, Church of Alexandria, Computus, Confessor, Consensus decision-making, Constantine the Great, Constantius II, Consubstantiality, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Council of Constantinople (360), Creed, Creed of Jerusalem, Crucifixion, Danube, Deacon, Development of the Christian biblical canon, ..., Diocese, Diocese of Egypt, Dionysius Exiguus, Doctrine, Domnus of Stridon, Easter, Easter controversy, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastertide, Ecumenical council, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Edict of Milan, Edict of Thessalonica, Episcopal see, Eucharist, Eusebius, Eusebius of Nicomedia, Eustathius of Antioch, Excommunication, Exile, Fifty Bibles of Constantine, First Council of Constantinople, First seven ecumenical councils, First Synod of Tyre, Gaul, Gnosticism, God the Son, Godhead in Christianity, Goths, Greek East and Latin West, Gregory the Illuminator, Hans Lietzmann, Hathor (month), Hebrew calendar, Heresy in Christianity, Hermit, Hilary of Poitiers, Hispania, History of Christianity, Homoousion, Hosius of Corduba, Hypatius of Gangra, Hypostasis (philosophy and religion), Ignatius of Antioch, Illyria, Iran, Jacob of Nisibis, Jerome, Jerusalem in Christianity, Jesus, John Anthony McGuckin, Julian (emperor), Justin Martyr, Karl Josef von Hefele, Koine Greek, Lapsi (Christianity), Latin, Legislature, Lent, Leontius of Caesarea, Licinius, Looting, Macarius of Jerusalem, Marcellus of Ancyra, Marcus of Calabria, Maris (bishop), Meletius of Lycopolis, Metropolitan bishop, Muratorian fragment, Nicaea, Nicasius of Die, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Nicene Creed, Nisan, Novatianism, Ordination, Oriental Orthodoxy, Origen, Orthodoxy, Ousia, Palestine (region), Papal legate, Paphnutius of Thebes, Passover, Patriarch, Paul of Neocaesarea, Paul of Samosata, Pentecost, Philip Hughes (historian), Philip Schaff, Pitsunda, Polycarp, Pope Alexander I of Alexandria, Pope Damasus I, Pope Sixtus I, Presbyter, Priest, Promulgation (canon law), Reform of the date of Easter, Resurrection, Roman Britain, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman Italy, Roman Senate, Roman temple, Saint Nicholas, Saint Spyridon, Saint Thomas Christians, Santa Claus, Secundus of Ptolemais, Shepherd, Socrates of Constantinople, Sol Invictus, St. Aristaces I, State religion, Subordinationism, Syneisaktism, Synod, Synodicon Vetus, Synods of Antioch, Tertullian, Theognis of Nicaea, Theophilus (bishop of the Goths), Thessaly, Thrace, Timothy Barnes, Tyrannius Rufinus, Usury, Valens, Voltaire, Wisconsin Lutheran College. Expand index (132 more) » « Shrink index
Saint Achillius of Larissa, also known as Achilles, Ailus, Achillas, or Achilius (Άγιος Αχίλλειος) (died 330 AD), was one of the 318 persons present at the First Council of Nicaea.
An acolyte is an assistant or follower assisting the celebrant in a religious service or procession.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
Alexander of Constantinople (Ἀλέξανδρος; c. 237/240 – c. 340) was bishop of Byzantium and the first Archbishop of Constantinople (the city was renamed during his episcopacy).
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Church councils are formal meetings of bishops and representatives of several churches who are brought together to regulate points of doctrine or discipline.
The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the modern Maghreb.
Antilegomena, a direct transliteration of the Greek ἀντιλεγόμενα, refers to written texts whose authenticity or value is disputed.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
The Apostles' Creed (Latin: Symbolum Apostolorum or Symbolum Apostolicum), sometimes entitled Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief—a creed or "symbol".
Flavius Arbogastes (died September 8, 394), or Arbogast, was a Frankish general in the Roman Empire.
The Arian controversy was a series of Christian theological disputes that arose between Arius and Athanasius of Alexandria, two Christian theologians from Alexandria, Egypt.
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
Arius (Ἄρειος, 250 or 256–336) was a Christian presbyter and ascetic of Berber origin, and priest in Baucalis in Alexandria, Egypt.
The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.
AsyutMore often spelled Assiout or Assiut.
Athanasius of Alexandria (Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας; ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲓⲕⲟⲥ or Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲁ̅; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the 20th bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I).
İznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa, Turkey.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.
Book burning is the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials, usually carried out in a public context.
The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded from Jewish texts and assigned by Protestants to the Apocrypha.
Caecilianus, or Caecilian, was archdeacon and then bishop of Carthage in 311 AD.
Caesarea Maritima (Greek: Παράλιος Καισάρεια Parálios Kaisáreia), also known as Caesarea Palestinae, is an Israeli National Park in the Sharon plain, including the ancient remains of the coastal city of Caesarea.
This is a calendar of saints list for the Armenian Apostolic Church.
The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which specifies the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by some Lutheran Churches in the United States.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
In ecclesiology, a catechumen (via Latin catechumenus from Greek κατηχούμενος katēkhoumenos, "one being instructed", from κατά kata, "down" and ἦχος ēkhos, "sound") is a person receiving instruction from a catechist in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Christendom has several meanings.
In Christianity, the laying on of hands (Greek: cheirotonia – χειροτονία, literally, "laying-on of hands") is both a symbolic and formal method of invoking the Holy Spirit primarily during baptisms and confirmations, healing services, blessings, and ordination of priests, ministers, elders, deacons, and other church officers, along with a variety of other church sacraments and holy ceremonies.
Christology (from Greek Χριστός Khristós and -λογία, -logia) is the field of study within Christian theology which is primarily concerned with the ontology and person of Jesus as recorded in the canonical Gospels and the epistles of the New Testament.
Chronicon Paschale (the Paschal Chronicle), also called Chronicum Alexandrinum, Constantinopolitanum or Fasti Siculi, is the conventional name of a 7th-century Greek Christian chronicle of the world.
The Church of Alexandria in Egypt is the Christian Church headed by the Patriarch of Alexandria.
Computus (Latin for "computation") is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter.
Confessor is a title used within Christianity in several ways.
Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; Κωνστάντιος; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results. In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming Julian as his successor.
Consubstantial (Latin: consubstantialis) is an adjective used in Latin Christian christology, coined by Tertullian in Against Hermogenes 44, used to translate the Greek term homoousios.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
In 359, the Roman Emperor Constantius II requested a church council, at Constantinople, of both the eastern and western bishops, to resolve the split at the Council of Seleucia.
A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.
The Creed of Jerusalem is a baptismal formula used by early Christians to confess their faith.
Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
The Christian biblical canons are the books Christians regard as divinely inspired and which constitute a Christian Bible.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The Diocese of Egypt (Dioecesis Aegypti, Διοίκησις Αἰγύπτου) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire (from 395 the Eastern Roman Empire), incorporating the provinces of Egypt and Cyrenaica.
Dionysius Exiguus (Latin for "Dionysius the Humble"; –) was a 6th-century monk born in Scythia Minor (probably modern Dobruja, in Romania and Bulgaria).
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
Domnus of Stridon was a fourth century Roman Bishop from the province of the Danube.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
The controversy over the correct date for Easter began in Early Christianity as early as the 2nd Century A.D. Discussion and disagreement over the best method of computing the date of Easter Sunday has been ongoing and unresolved for centuries.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eastertide (also called the Easter Season as well as Easter Time) or Paschaltide (also called the Paschal Season as well as Paschal Time) is a festal season in the liturgical year of Christianity that focuses on celebrating the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.
An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The Edict of Milan (Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.
The Edict of Thessalonica (also known as Cunctos populos), issued on 27 February AD 380 by three reigning Roman Emperors, made Nicene Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire.
The seat or cathedra of the Bishop of Rome in the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341) was the man who baptised Constantine the Great.
Eustathius of Antioch, sometimes surnamed the Great, was a Christian bishop and archbishop of Antioch in the 4th century.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
The Fifty Bibles of Constantine were Bibles in the Greek language commissioned in 331 by Constantine I and prepared by Eusebius of Caesarea.
The First Council of Constantinople (Πρώτη σύνοδος της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως commonly known as Β΄ Οικουμενική, "Second Ecumenical"; Concilium Constantinopolitanum Primum or Concilium Constantinopolitanum A) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, except for the Western Church,Richard Kieckhefer (1989).
In the history of Christianity, the first seven ecumenical councils, include the following: the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, the Third Council of Constantinople from 680–681 and finally, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.
The First Synod of Tyre or the Council of Tyre (335 AD) was a gathering of bishops called together by Emperor Constantine I for the primary purpose of evaluating charges brought against Athanasius, the Patriarch of Alexandria.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
God the Son (Θεός ὁ υἱός) is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theology.
Godhead (or godhood), is the divinity or substance (ousia) of the Christian God, the substantial impersonal being of God, as opposed to the individual persons or hypostases of the Trinity; in other words, the Godhead refers to the "what" of God, and God refers to the "who" of God.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
Greek East and Latin West are terms used to distinguish between the two parts of the Greco-Roman world, specifically the eastern regions where Greek was the lingua franca (Anatolia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East) and the western parts where Latin filled this role (Central and Western Europe).
Saint Gregory the Illuminator (classical reformed: Գրիգոր Լուսավորիչ; Grigor Lusavorich) (&ndash) is the patron saint and first official head of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Hans Lietzmann (2 March 1875 – 25 June 1942) was a German Protestant theologian and church historian who was a native of Düsseldorf.
Hathor (Ϩⲁⲑⲱⲣ, Hathōr), also known as Athyr (Ἀθύρ, Athýr) and Hatur.
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.
When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faithJ.D Douglas (ed).
A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons.
Hilary (Hilarius) of Poitiers (c. 310c. 367) was Bishop of Poitiers and is a Doctor of the Church.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.
Homoousion (from, homós, "same" and, ousía, "being") is a Christian theological doctrine pertaining to the Trinitarian understanding of God.
Hosius of Corduba (c. 256 – 359), also known as Osius or Ossius, was a bishop of Corduba (now Córdoba, Spain) and an important and prominent advocate for Homoousion Christianity in the Arian controversy that divided the early Christianity.
Saint Hypatius the Wonderworker, Hypatius of Gangra (Ὑπάτιος Γαγγρῶν) – Hieromartyr; titular Bishop of Gangra, Asia Minor; present at the First Ecumenical Council where he supported Saint Athanasius the Great against the Arian heresy.
Hypostasis (Greek: ὑπόστασις) is the underlying state or underlying substance and is the fundamental reality that supports all else.
Ignatius of Antioch (Greek: Ἰγνάτιος Ἀντιοχείας, Ignátios Antiokheías; c. 35 – c. 107), also known as Ignatius Theophorus (Ιγνάτιος ὁ Θεοφόρος, Ignátios ho Theophóros, lit. "the God-bearing") or Ignatius Nurono (lit. "The fire-bearer"), was an early Christian writer and bishop of Antioch.
In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Jacob of Nisibis (ܝܥܩܘܒ ܢܨܝܒܢܝܐ,; died 338 or 350), was a Syriac bishop still venerated as a saint.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
For Christians, Jerusalem's role in first-century Christianity, during the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age, as recorded in the New Testament, gives it great importance, in addition to its role in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
John Anthony McGuckin (born 1952) is a theologian, church historian, Orthodox Christian priest and poet.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
Justin Martyr (Latin: Iustinus Martyr) was an early Christian apologist, and is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century.
Karl Josef von Hefele (March 15, 1809 – June 6, 1893) was a Roman Catholic bishop and theologian of Germany.
Lapsi were apostates in the early Christian Church, who renounced their faith under persecution by Roman authorities.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.
Leontius of Caesarea (died 337) was a bishop of Caesarea Mazaca, in Cappadocia.
Licinius I (Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus;In Classical Latin, Licinius' name would be inscribed as GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS. c. 263 – 325) was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
Saint Macarius of Jerusalem (Μακάριος Α' Ἱεροσολύμων Makarios I Hierosolymōn); was Bishop of Jerusalem from 312 to shortly before 335, according to Sozomen.
Marcellus of Ancyra (died c. 374 C.E.) was a Bishop of Ancyra and one of the bishops present at the Council of Ancyra and the First Council of Nicaea.
Marcus of Calabria was a fourth-century Roman bishop and delegate to the Nicaean Creed.
Maris was a bishop of Chalcedon in the 4th century and a prominent backer of Arianism.
Meletius (died after 325) was bishop of Lycopolis in Egypt.
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.
The Muratorian fragment is a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of most of the books of the New Testament.
Nicaea or Nicea (Νίκαια, Níkaia; İznik) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed (which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261.
Nicasius of Die (4th century) was a 4th-century bishop from Gaul, present-day France.
A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, usually known as the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers (NPNF), is a set of books containing translations of early Christian writings into English.
The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.
Nisan (or Nissan; נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year.
Novatianism was an Early Christian sect devoted to Novatian.
Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Ousia (οὐσία) is analogous to the English concepts of being and ontic used in contemporary philosophy.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
Paphnutius of Thebes, also known as Paphnutius the Confessor, was a disciple of Saint Anthony the Great and a bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the early fourth century.
Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).
Paul of Neocæsarea, also known as Saint Paul, Bishop of Neocæsarea, was an early Christian bishop best known for demonstrating the scars of his religious persecution under the emperor Licinius at the First Council of Nicaea in AD 325.
Paul of Samosata (Παῦλος ὁ Σαμοσατεύς, lived from 200 to 275 AD) was Bishop of Antioch from 260 to 268.
The Christian feast day of Pentecost is seven weeks after Easter Sunday: that is to say, the fiftieth day after Easter inclusive of Easter Sunday.
Philip Hughes (1895 – 1967) was a Roman Catholic priest and Catholic ecclesiastical historian.
Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819 – October 20, 1893) was a Swiss-born, German-educated Protestant theologian and ecclesiastical historian who spent most of his adult life living and teaching in the United States.
Pitsunda or Bichvinta (ბიჭვინთა; Пиҵунда; Пицунда) is a resort town in the Gagra district of Abkhazia.
Polycarp (Πολύκαρπος, Polýkarpos; Polycarpus; AD 69 155) was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna.
St Alexander I of Alexandria, 19th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.
Pope Damasus I (c. 305 – 11 December 384) was Pope of the Catholic Church, from October 366 to his death in 384.
Pope Sixtus I (42 – 124, 125, 126 or 128), a Roman of Greek descent, was the Bishop of Rome from c. 115 to his death c. 124.
In the New Testament, a presbyter (Greek πρεσβύτερος: "elder") is a leader of a local Christian congregation.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Promulgation in the canon law of the Catholic Church is the publication of a law by which it is made known publicly, and is required by canon law for the law to obtain legal effect.
A reform of the date of Easter has been proposed several times because the current system for determining the date of Easter is seen as presenting two significant problems.
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
"Italia" was the name of the Italian Peninsula during the Roman era.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Ancient Roman temples were among the most important buildings in Roman culture, and some of the richest buildings in Roman architecture, though only a few survive in any sort of complete state.
Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.
Saint Spyridon, Bishop of Trimythous also sometimes written Saint Spiridon (Greek: Ἅγιος Σπυρίδων; c. 270 – 348) is a saint honoured in both the Eastern and Western Christian traditions.
The Saint Thomas Christians, also called Syrian Christians of India, Nasrani or Malankara Nasrani or Nasrani Mappila, Nasraya and in more ancient times Essani (Essene) are an ethnoreligious community of Malayali Syriac Christians from Kerala, India, who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).
Secundus of Ptolemais was a 4th-century bishop of Ptolemais, excommunicated after the First Council of Nicaea for his nontrinitarianism.
A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep.
Socrates of Constantinople (Σωκράτης ὁ Σχολαστικός, b. c. 380; d. after 439), also known as Socrates Scholasticus, was a 5th-century Christian church historian, a contemporary of Sozomen and Theodoret.
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") is the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers.
Saint Aristaces also known as Aristakes (Սբ.) was assigned by St. Gregory I the Enlightener as the next Armenian Catholicos in line of Armenia's Holy Apostolic Church, to stabilize and continue strengthening Christianity not only in Armenia, but also in the Caucasus Albania and Anatolia.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Subordinationism is a belief within early Christianity that asserts that the Son and the Holy Spirit are subordinate to God the Father in nature and being.
Syneisaktism is the practice of "spiritual marriage", which is where a man and a woman who have both taken vows of chastity live together in a chaste and non-legalized partnership.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
The Synodicon Vetus or Libellus Synodicus is an anonymous, pseudo-historical book of early Christianity, largely based on earlier Greek sources.
Beginning with three synods convened between 264 and 269 in the matter of Paul of Samosata, more than thirty councils were held in Antioch in ancient times.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
Theognis of Nicaea (Θέογνις) was a 4th-century Bishop of Nicaea, excommunicated after the First Council of Nicaea for not denouncing Arius and his nontrinitarianism strongly enough.
Theophilus was a Gothic bishop who attended the First Council of Nicaea in 325 CE and was among those who signed the Nicene Creed.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
Timothy David Barnes, (born 1942) is a British classicist.
Tyrannius Rufinus, also called Rufinus of Aquileia (Rufinus Aquileiensis; 344/345–411), was a monk, historian, and theologian.
Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.
Valens (Flavius Julius Valens Augustus; Οὐάλης; 328 – 9 August 378) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Wisconsin Lutheran College (WLC) is a liberal arts college affiliated with the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod.
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