239 relations: Absolute monarchy, Adriatic Sea, Ancien Régime, Ancona, Anglo-Russian War (1807–1812), Apocrypha, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Augustus, Austrian Empire, Baden, Baltic Sea, Basque language, Batavian Republic, Battle of Aspern-Essling, Battle of Austerlitz, Battle of Bailén, Battle of Bautzen, Battle of Borodino, Battle of Eylau, Battle of Friedland, Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, Battle of Lützen (1813), Battle of Leipzig, Battle of Marengo, Battle of Smolensk (1812), Battle of Trafalgar, Battle of Ulm, Battle of Wagram, Battle of Waterloo, Bavaria, Bayonne, Berezina River, Białystok, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Bourbon Restoration, Bourgeoisie, Breton language, British Empire, Calvinism, Campaign in north-east France (1814), Caroline Bonaparte, Carthago delenda est, Catalan language, Catholic Church, Chant du départ, Charlemagne, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles XIV John of Sweden, Cisalpine Republic, Coalition, ..., Concordat of 1801, Confederation of the Rhine, Congress of Vienna, Conscription, Constitution of the Year III, Constitution of the Year VIII, Constitution of the Year X, Constitution of the Year XII, Continental Europe, Continental System, Convention of Cintra, Copenhagen, Coronation of Napoleon I, Corps législatif, Cottbus, Council of Five Hundred, Coup of 18 Brumaire, Croatian language, Cuxhaven, Dmitry Senyavin, Dos de Mayo Uprising, Duchy of Milan, Duchy of Oldenburg, Duchy of Warsaw, Dutch language, Egypt, Elba, Elbe, Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, Emperor, Emperor of the French, Empress Joséphine, Federation, Feudalism, Finnish War, France, Francisco Javier Castaños, 1st Duke of Bailén, Franco-Provençal language, Franks, Frederick the Great, Frederick William III of Prussia, Freedom of the press, French colonial empire, French Consulate, French Directory, French First Republic, French franc, French invasion of Russia, French language, French Parliament, French Republican Calendar, French Revolution, French Revolutionary Wars, Fyodor Ushakov, Genoa, Gerhard von Scharnhorst, German language, Germany, Golden Cavalry of St George, Grand Duchy of Baden, Grand Duchy of Berg, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Grande Armée, Hanover, Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein, History of France, History of Portugal (1777–1834), Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, House of Bonaparte, House of Bourbon, House of Habsburg, Hundred Days, Iberian Peninsula, Illyrian Provinces, Imperial House of France (First French Empire), International Studies Quarterly, Ionian Islands, Iron Crown of Lombardy, Italian language, Italian Republic (Napoleonic), Jacobin, Jérôme Bonaparte, Jean Lannes, Jean Victor Marie Moreau, Jean-Andoche Junot, Jean-de-Dieu Soult, Joachim Murat, Joseph Bonaparte, Joseph Fouché, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Judaism, Julius Caesar, Karl August von Hardenberg, Kingdom of Holland, Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic), Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Spain under Joseph Bonaparte, Kingdom of Westphalia, Klemens von Metternich, Kotor, Latin, Lazare Carnot, List of kings of the Lombards, List of Napoleonic battles, List of national legal systems, Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne, Louis Bonaparte, Louis XVIII of France, Lucien Bonaparte, Lutheranism, Manorialism, March (territorial entity), Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, Military career of Napoleon Bonaparte, Moldavia, Naples, Napoleon, Napoleon II, Napoleon Tiara, Napoleonic Code, Napoleonic Wars, Nobility, Nobility of the First French Empire, North Sea, Notre-Dame de Paris, Occitan language, Organic Articles, Ottoman Empire, Paris under Napoleon, Parma, Peace of Pressburg (1805), Peninsular War, Picard language, Piedmont, Pierre Dupont de l'Étang, Polish language, Political radicalism, Pope, Pope Gregory VII, Pope Pius VII, Prussia, Referendum, Representative democracy, Rhine, Robert Roswell Palmer, Roger Ducos, Roman Empire, Romansh language, Royal Navy, Russia, Russian Empire, Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812), Saint Helena, Satellite state, Savona, Saxony, Sénat conservateur, Scheldt, Sextius Alexandre François de Miollis, Sister republic, Six Days' Campaign, Slovene language, Southern Germany, Spanish language, State school, Stéphanie de Beauharnais, Treaties of Tilsit, Treaty of Amiens, Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814), Treaty of Paris (1763), Treaty of Schönbrunn, Tribunat, Turkey, Vassal state, Veillons au salut de l'Empire, Veneto, Vienna, Voltaire, Wallachia, War of the Fourth Coalition, War of the Sixth Coalition, War of the Third Coalition, Württemberg, William Pitt the Younger, 130 departments of the First French Empire, 19th century. Expand index (189 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.
During the Napoleonic Wars, the Anglo-Russian War (2 September 1807– 18 July 1812) was the phase of hostilities between the United Kingdom and Russia after the latter signed the Treaty of Tilsit that ended its war with France.
Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Baden is a historical German territory.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.
In the Battle of Aspern-Essling (21–22 May 1809), Napoleon attempted a forced crossing of the Danube near Vienna, but the French and their allies were driven back by the Austrians under Archduke Charles.
The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Bailén was fought in 1808 by the Spanish Army of Andalusia, led by Generals Francisco Castaños and Theodor von Reding, and the Imperial French Army's II corps d'observation de la Gironde under General Pierre Dupont de l'Étang.
In the Battle of Bautzen (20–21 May 1813) a combined Russian–Prussian army was pushed back by Napoleon I of France but escaped destruction, some sources claiming that Michel Ney failed to block their retreat.
The Battle of Borodino (la Moskova) was a battle fought on 7 September 1812 in the Napoleonic Wars during the French invasion of Russia.
The Battle of Eylau or Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, 7 and 8 February 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive battle between Napoleon's Grande Armée and the Imperial Russian Army under the command of Levin August, Count von Bennigsen near the town of Preussisch Eylau in East Prussia.
The Battle of Friedland (June 14, 1807) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars between the armies of the French Empire commanded by Napoleon I and the armies of the Russian Empire led by Count von Bennigsen.
The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the River Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia.
In the Battle of Lützen (German: Schlacht von Großgörschen, May 2, 1813), Napoleon I of France halted the advances of the Sixth Coalition after the French invasion of Russia and the massive French losses in the campaign.
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.
The Battle of Marengo was fought on 14 June 1800 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte and Austrian forces near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, Italy.
The Battle of Smolensk was the first major battle of the French invasion of Russia.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815).
The Battle of Ulm on 16–19 October 1805 was a series of skirmishes, at the end of the Ulm Campaign, which allowed Napoleon I to trap an entire Austrian army under the command of Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich with minimal losses and to force its surrender near Ulm in the Electorate of Bavaria.
The Battle of Wagram (5–6 July 1809) was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bayonne (Gascon: Baiona; Baiona; Bayona) is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
The Berezina or Biarezina (Бярэ́зіна) is a river in Belarus and a tributary of the Dnieper River.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne (Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Boulonne-su-Mér, Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France.
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The 1814 campaign in north-east France was Napoleon's final campaign of the War of the Sixth Coalition.
Maria Annunziata Carolina Murat (French: Marie Annonciade Caroline Murat; née Bonaparte; 25 March 1782 – 18 May 1839), better known as Caroline Bonaparte, was the seventh surviving child and third surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino, and a younger sister of Napoleon I of France.
"Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam", or "Ceterum autem censeo Carthaginem esse delendam" (English: "Furthermore, (moreover) I consider that Carthage must be destroyed"), often abbreviated to "Ceterum censeo", "Carthago delenda est", or "Delenda est Carthago" (English: "Carthage must be destroyed"), is a Latin oratorical phrase.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The "Chant du Départ" (French for "Song of the Departure") is a revolutionary and war song written by Étienne Nicolas Méhul (music) and Marie-Joseph Chénier (words) in 1794.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat.
Charles XIV and III John or Carl John, (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl Johan; 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death, and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818.
The Cisalpine Republic (Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic of France in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802.
The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more persons, faction, states, political parties, militaries etc.
The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801 in Paris.
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Constitution of the Year III is the constitution that founded the Directory.
The Constitution of the Year VIII (Constitution de l'an VIII or Constitution du 22 frimaire an VIII) was a national constitution of France, adopted on December 24, 1799 (during the Year VIII of the French Revolutionary Calendar), which established the form of government known as the Consulate.
The Constitution of the Year X was a national constitution of France adopted during the Year X (10) of the French Revolutionary Calendar (1802 in the Gregorian calendar).
The Constitution of the Year XII was a national constitution of France adopted during the Year XII of the French Revolutionary Calendar (1804 in the Gregorian calendar).
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
The Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Convention of Cintra was an agreement signed on 30 August 1808, during the Peninsular War.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
The coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French took place on Sunday December 2, 1804 (11 Frimaire, Year XIII according to the French Republican Calendar) at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
The Corps législatif was a part of the French legislature during the French Revolution and beyond.
Cottbus is a university city and the second-largest city in Brandenburg, Germany.
The Council of Five Hundred (Conseil des Cinq-Cents), or simply the Five Hundred, was the lower house of the legislature of France under the Constitution of the Year III.
The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France and in the view of most historians ended the French Revolution.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Cuxhaven is an independent town and seat of the Cuxhaven district, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Dmitry Nikolayevich Senyavin or Seniavin (&ndash) was a Russian admiral who ranks among the greatest seamen of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Dos de Mayo of 1808, was a rebellion by the people of Madrid against the occupation of the city by French troops, provoking the repression by the French Imperial forces and triggering the Peninsular War.
The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy.
The Duchy of Oldenburg (Herzogtum Oldenburg) — named after its capital, the town of Oldenburg — was a state in the north-west of present-day Germany.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (3 May 1748 – 20 June 1836), most commonly known as the Abbé Sieyès, was a French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman and political writer.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
Emperor of the French (French: Empereur des Français) was the title used by the House of Bonaparte starting when Napoleon Bonaparte was given the title of Emperor on 18 May 1804 by the French Senate and was crowned emperor of the French on 2 December 1804 at the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, in Paris, with the Crown of Napoleon.
Joséphine de Beauharnais (born Marie-Josèphe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French as Joséphine.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Finnish War (Finska kriget, Финляндская война, Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from February 1808 to September 1809.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francisco Javier Castaños Aragorri Urioste y Olavide, 1st Duke of Bailén (es: Francisco Javier Castaños Aragorri Urioste y Olavide, primer Duque de Bailén.; 22 April 1758 – 24 September 1852), was a Spanish general during the Peninsular War.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Frederick William III (Friedrich Wilhelm III) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The Consulate (French: Le Consulat) was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in May 1804.
The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Parliament (Parlement français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale).
The French Republican Calendar (calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary Calendar (calendrier révolutionnaire français), was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov (p; &ndash) was the most illustrious Russian naval commander and admiral of the 18th century.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Gerhard Johann David Waitz von Scharnhorst (12 November 1755 – 28 June 1813), was a Hanoverian-born general in Prussian service from 1801.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Golden Cavalry of St George was the colloquial name of subsidies paid out by the British government to other European states in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Grand Duchy of Baden (Großherzogtum Baden) was a state in the southwest German Empire on the east bank of the Rhine.
The Grand Duchy of Berg (Großherzogtum Berg) was established by Napoleon Bonaparte after his victory at the 1805 Battle of Austerlitz on territories between the French Empire at the Rhine river and the German Kingdom of Westphalia.
The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) was a state in western Germany that existed from the German mediatization to the end of the German Empire.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Heinrich Friedrich Karl Reichsfreiherr vom und zum Stein (25 October 1757 – 29 June 1831), commonly known as Baron vom Stein, was a Prussian statesman who introduced the Prussian reforms that paved the way for the unification of Germany.
The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age.
The history of the kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, from the First Treaty of San Ildefonso and the beginning of the reign of Queen Maria I in 1777, to the end of the Liberal Wars in 1834, spans a complex historical period in which several important political and military events led to the end of the absolutist regime and to the installation of a constitutional monarchy in the country.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) was an imperial and royal European dynasty founded in 1804 by Italian noble Carlo Buonaparte and his son Napoleon I, a French military leader of Italian heritage who had risen to notability out of the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his ''coup d'état'' of November 1799.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The Hundred Days (les Cent-Jours) marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 (a period of 110 days).
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Illyrian Provinces was an autonomous province of France during the First French Empire that existed under Napoleonic Rule from 1809 to 1814.
The Imperial House of France during the First French Empire consisted of the family members of Napoleon, including the House of Bonaparte, who held imperial titles as Emperor, Empress, Imperial Prince or French Prince, and who were in the order of succession to the French imperial throne in accordance with the French constitution of 1804.
International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.
The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek, Katharevousa: Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi; Isole Ionie) are a group of islands in Greece.
The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea; Corona Ferrea Langobardiae) is both a reliquary and one of the oldest royal insignias of Christendom.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana) was a short-lived (1802–1805) republic located in Northern Italy.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.
Jérôme-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Girolamo Buonaparte; 15 November 1784 – 24 June 1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon I and reigned as Jerome I (formally Hieronymus Napoleon in German), King of Westphalia, between 1807 and 1813.
Jean Lannes, 1st Duc de Montebello, 1st Prince de Siewierz (10 April 1769 – 31 May 1809), was a Marshal of the Empire.
Jean Victor Marie Moreau (14 February 1763 – 2 September 1813) was a French general who helped Napoleon Bonaparte to power, but later became a rival and was banished to the United States.
Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duke of Abrantès (24 September 1771 – 29 July 1813) was a French general during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Marshal General Jean-de-Dieu Soult, 1st Duke of Dalmatia, (29 March 1769 – 26 November 1851) was a French general and statesman, named Marshal of the Empire in 1804 and often called Marshal Soult.
Joachim-Napoléon Murat (born Joachim Murat; Gioacchino Napoleone Murat; Joachim-Napoleon Murat; 25 March 1767 – 13 October 1815) was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon.
Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe Buonaparte (7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808, as Giuseppe I), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I).
Joseph Fouché, 1st Duc d'Otrante, 1st Comte Fouché (21 May 1759 – 25 December 1820) was a French statesman and Minister of Police under First Consul Bonaparte, who later became Emperor Napoleon.
The Journal of Interdisciplinary History is a peer-reviewed academic journal published four times a year by the MIT Press.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Karl August Fürst von Hardenberg (31 May 1750 – 26 November 1822) was a Prussian statesman and Prime Minister of Prussia.
The Kingdom of Holland (Koninkrijk Holland, Royaume de Hollande) was set up by Napoléon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia; Royaume d'Italie) was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Napoleonic Spain was the part of Spain loyal to Joseph I during the Peninsular War (1808–1813) after the country was partially occupied by French forces.
The Kingdom of Westphalia was a kingdom in Germany, with a population of 2.6 million, that existed from 1807 to 1813.
Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who was one of the most important of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.
Kotor (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор,; Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Count Carnot (13 May 1753 – 2 August 1823) was a French mathematician, physicist and politician.
The Kings of the Lombards or reges Langobardorum (singular rex Langobardorum) were the monarchs of the Lombard people from the early 6th century until the Lombardic identity became lost in the 9th and 10th centuries.
This list includes all those battles which were fought throughout the Napoleonic era, April 1796 – 3 July 1815.
The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.
Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne (July 9, 1769 – February 7, 1834) was a French diplomat, born in Sens.
Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (born Luigi Buonaparte; 2 September 1778 – 25 July 1846) was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
Lucien Bonaparte, Prince Français, 1st Prince of Canino and Musignano (born Luciano Buonaparte; 21 May 1775 – 29 June 1840), the third surviving son of Carlo Bonaparte and his wife Letizia Ramolino, was a French statesman, who served as the final President of the Council of Five Hundred at the end of the French Revolution.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".
Marie Louise (Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia; Italian: Maria Luigia Leopoldina Francesca Teresa Giuseppa Lucia; 12 December 1791 – 17 December 1847) was an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 1814 until her death.
The military career of Napoleon Bonaparte spanned over 20 years.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte (20 March 181122 July 1832), Prince Imperial, King of Rome, known in the Austrian court as Franz from 1814 onward, Duke of Reichstadt from 1818, was the son of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
The Napoleon Tiara was a papal tiara given to Pope Pius VII in June 1805 a few months after he presided at the coronation of Napoleon I and Joséphine de Beauharnais.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
As Emperor of the French, Napoleon I created titles of nobility to institute a stable elite in the First French Empire, after the instability resulting from the French Revolution.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
The Organic Articles (French: "Les Articles Organiques") was a law administering public worship in France.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte moved into the Tuileries Palace on 19 February 1800 and immediately began to re-establish calm and order after the years of uncertainty and terror of the Revolution.
Parma (Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside.
The fourth Peace of Pressburg (also known as the Treaty of Pressburg; Preßburger Frieden; Traité de Presbourg) was signed on 26 December 1805 between Napoleon and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II as a consequence of the French victories over the Austrians at Ulm (25 September – 20 October) and Austerlitz (2 December).
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
Picard is a langues d'oïl dialect spoken in the northernmost part of France and southern Belgium.
Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.
Pierre-Antoine, comte Dupont de l'Étang (4 July 1765 – 9 March 1840) was a French general of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as well as a political figure of the Bourbon Restoration.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The term political radicalism (in political science known as radicalism) denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary or other means and changing value systems in fundamental ways.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Gregory VII (Gregorius VII; 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.
Pope Pius VII (14 August 1742 – 20 August 1823), born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 14 March 1800 to his death in 1823.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Robert Roswell Palmer (January 11, 1909 – June 11, 2002), commonly known as R. R.
Pierre Roger Ducos (25 July 174716 March 1816), better known as Roger Ducos, was a French political figure during the Revolution and First Empire, a member of the National Convention, and of the Directory.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire was one of the Russo-Turkish Wars.
Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
Savona (Ligurian: Sann-a is a seaport and comune in the west part of the northern Italian region of Liguria, capital of the Province of Savona, in the Riviera di Ponente on the Mediterranean Sea. Savona used to be one of the chief seats of the Italian iron industry, having iron-works and foundries, shipbuilding, railway workshops, engineering shops, and a brass foundry. One of the most celebrated former inhabitants of Savona was the navigator Christopher Columbus, who farmed land in the area while chronicling his journeys. 'Columbus's house', a cottage situated in the Savona hills, lay between vegetable crops and fruit trees. It is one of several residences in Liguria associated with Columbus.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
The Sénat conservateur ("Conservative Senate") was an advisory body established in France during the Consulate following the French Revolution.
The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.
Sextius Alexandre François de Miollis (Aix, September 18, 1759 – Aix, June 18, 1828) was a French military officer serving in the American Revolutionary War, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars.
A sister republic (république sœur) was a republic established by the French army that was catalyzed by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Six Days Campaign (10–15 February 1814) was a final series of victories by the forces of Napoleon I of France as the Sixth Coalition closed in on Paris.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Southern Germany as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
Stéphanie, Grand Duchess of Baden (Stéphanie Louise Adrienne de Beauharnais; August 28, 1789 – January 29, 1860) was the Grand Duchess consort of Baden by marriage to Karl, Grand Duke of Baden.
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland.
The Treaty of Amiens (French: la paix d'Amiens) temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Treaty of Fontainebleau was an agreement established in Fontainebleau, France, on 11 April 1814 between Napoleon I and representatives from the Austrian Empire, Russia and Prussia.
The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
The Treaty of Schönbrunn (Traité de Schönbrunn; Friede von Schönbrunn), sometimes known as the Peace of Schönbrunn or Treaty of Vienna, was signed between France and Austria at Schönbrunn Palace near Vienna on 14 October 1809.
The Tribunat was one of the four assemblies set up in France by the Constitution of Year VIII (the other three were the Council of State, the Corps législatif and the Sénat conservateur).
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
Veillons au salut de l'Empire (Let's ensure the salvation of the Empire) was the unofficial French national anthem under Napoleon.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
The Fourth Coalition fought against Napoleon's French Empire and was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807.
In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German states finally defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba.
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
This is a list of the 130 departments (départements), the conventional name for the administrative subdivisions of the First French Empire at the height of its territorial extent, circa 1811.
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.
Empire of the French, First Empire (France), First French empire, Formation of the Napoleonic Empire, French Empire (1804-1815), French Empire (1804–1815), French First Empire, Greater French Empire, Napoleon Empire, Napoleon's First Empire, Napoleonic Empire, Napoleonic France, Napoleonic empire, Napoleons Empire, Napoleon’s First Empire, Premier Empire, The First French Empire, The Formation of the Napoleonic Empire.