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First Sino-Japanese War

Index First Sino-Japanese War

The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon. [1]

288 relations: Anglo-Japanese Alliance, Annam (French protectorate), Armed merchantman, Artillery, Artillery battery, Asan, Asan Bay, Auxiliary ship, Ōshima Yoshimasa, Ōtori Keisuke, Ōyama Iwao, Barbette, Battalion, Battle of Pungdo, Battle of the Yalu River (1894), Battle of Weihaiwei, Battleship, Beam (nautical), Beijing, Beiyang Army, Beiyang Fleet, Bonin Islands, Bow and arrow, Brigade, Broadside, Cavalry, Cheoljong of Joseon, Child marriage, China–Japan relations, Chinese calendar, Chinese corvette Kwan Chia, Chinese cruiser Chaoyong, Chinese cruiser Jingyuan (1887), Chinese cruiser Jingyuen (1886), Chinese cruiser Jiyuan, Chinese cruiser Laiyuan, Chinese cruiser Yangwei, Chinese cruiser Zhiyuan, Chinese gunboat Tsao-kiang, Chinese ironclad Dingyuan, Chinese ironclad Zhenyuan, Choe Ik-hyeon, Combined Fleet, Company (military unit), Conscription, Convention of Kanagawa, Convention of Tientsin, Corvette, Coup d'état, Cruiser, ..., Dalian Bay, Dandong, Ding Ruchang, Diplomacy, Division (military), Dong Fuxiang, Donghak Peasant Revolution, Dungan Revolt (1895–96), East Asia, Echelon formation, Edo period, Eight Banners, Eight-Nation Alliance, Emperor Meiji, Empire of Japan, Empress Dowager Cixi, Empress Myeongseong, Enlightenment Party, Fengcheng, Liaoning, Feudalism, Field army, First Army (Japan), Flagship, Free area of the Republic of China, French Army, French military mission to Japan (1872–80), French military mission to Japan (1884–89), Fukuzawa Yukichi, Gabo Reform, Gaizhou, Ganghwa Island incident, Gendarmerie, Geography of Taiwan, German General Staff, Gojong of Korea, Government of Meiji Japan, Green Standard Army, Gregorian calendar, Guangxu Emperor, Guangzhouwan, Gunboat, Gyeongbokgung, Haicheng, Liaoning, Halberd, Hamgyong Province, Han Chinese, Han River (Korea), Hanabusa Yoshitada, Hangul, Hanja, Heungseon Daewongun, Hiroshima, History of China, History of Japan, History of Korea, History of Taiwan, HMS Flying Fish (1873), HMS Porpoise (1886), Hokkaido, Hong Jong-u, Huai Army, Hui people, Imperial Chinese Army, Imperial General Headquarters, Imperial Guard (Japan), Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Navy, Incheon, International law, Ironclad warship, Itō Hirobumi, Itō Sukeyuki, Jakob Meckel, Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, Japan–Korea Treaty of 1882, Japan–Korea Treaty of 1885, Japanese cruiser Akitsushima, Japanese cruiser Izumi, Japanese cruiser Naniwa, Japanese cruiser Yoshino, Japanese gunboat Heien, Japanese yen, Jeune École, Jiaozhou City, Jinzhou, Joseon, Kabayama Sukenori, Kang Youwei, Katsura Tarō, Kilogram, Kim Hong-jip, Kim Ok-gyun, Korean Empire, Korean Peninsula, Krupp, Kumamoto, Kure, Hiroshima, Lüshunkou District, Li Hongzhang, Liaodong Peninsula, List of islands of Taiwan, List of tributaries of China, Liu Buchan, Liu Kunyi, Liu Yongfu, Ma Anliang, Ma Haiyan, Ma Jianzhong, Magazine (firearms), Magong, Manchu people, Manchuria, Mariner's Mirror, Mark Peattie, Matsukata Masayoshi, Meiji period, Meiji Restoration, Merchant navy, Merchant vessel, Middle Ages, Military communications, Military district, Military engineering, Military history of China before 1911, Military history of Japan, Military police, Military strategy, Military tactics, Mobilization, Mongols, Mountain gun, Murata rifle, Musket, Mutsu Munemitsu, Muzzle velocity, Nagasaki, Nagasaki incident, Nagoya, Narcotic, New Territories, Nippon Yusen, Nozu Michitsura, Ocean liner, Okinawa Prefecture, Opium, Opium Wars, Osaka, Pak Yung-hio, Paul Georg von Möllendorff, Penghu, Pescadores Campaign (1895), Pike (weapon), Plenipotentiary, Pontoon bridge, Port Arthur massacre (China), Protected cruiser, Pyŏlgigun, Pyongyang, Qing dynasty, Qingdao, Questia Online Library, Quick-firing gun, Regiment, Republic of Formosa, Resident (title), Rifle, Royal Navy, Russo-Japanese War, Ryukyu Islands, Sakoku, Salvo, Sasebo, Nagasaki, Second Army (Japan), Self-Strengthening Movement, Sendai, Senkaku Islands, Senkaku Islands dispute, Seoul, Sexagenary cycle, Shandong, Shandong Peninsula, Shanghai, Shanghai International Settlement, Shōgun, Shenyang, Sino-French War, Soh Jaipil, Song Qing (Qing dynasty), Soybean, Spear, Square division, Suing for peace, Summer Palace, Sun Yat-sen, Sword, Taedong River, Tael, Tainan, Taiping Rebellion, Taiwan, Taku Forts, Taylor & Francis, Tōgō Heihachirō, Ten thousand years, Tokugawa shogunate, Tokyo, Torpedo boat, Treaty of Shimonoseki, Tributary state, Triple Intervention, Troopship, Uiju County, United States–Korea Treaty of 1882, Viceroy of Zhili, Weihai, Weihaiwei under British rule, Weng Tonghe, Western world, Xenophobia, Xinhai Revolution, Xiuyan Manchu Autonomous County, Yalu River, Yamagata Aritomo, Yangban, Yangtze, Ye Zhichao, Yellow Sea, Yeoheung Min clan, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Yuan Shikai, Zhili, Zuo Baogui, 1st Division (Imperial Japanese Army), 2nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army), 3rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army), 4th Division (Imperial Japanese Army), 5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army), 6th Division (Imperial Japanese Army). Expand index (238 more) »

Anglo-Japanese Alliance

The first was signed in London at Lansdowne House, on 30 January 1902, by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London).

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Annam (French protectorate)

Annam (An Nam or Trung Kỳ, alternate spelling: Anam) was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam.

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Armed merchantman

An armed merchantman is a merchant ship equipped with guns, usually for defensive purposes, either by design or after the fact.

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Artillery

Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

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Artillery battery

In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.

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Asan

Asan is a city in South Chungcheong Province, South Korea.

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Asan Bay

Asan Bay is a South Korean bay in the Yellow Sea.

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Auxiliary ship

An auxiliary ship is a naval ship designed to operate in any number of roles supporting combatant ships and other naval operations.

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Ōshima Yoshimasa

Viscount was a general in the early Imperial Japanese Army during the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War.

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Ōtori Keisuke

was a Japanese military leader and diplomat.

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Ōyama Iwao

was a Japanese field marshal, and one of the founders of the Imperial Japanese Army.

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Barbette

Barbettes are several types of gun emplacement in terrestrial fortifications or on naval ships.

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Battalion

A battalion is a military unit.

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Battle of Pungdo

The Battle of Pungdo or Feng-tao (Japanese) was the first naval battle of the First Sino-Japanese War.

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Battle of the Yalu River (1894)

The Battle of the Yalu River (Japanese) was the largest naval engagement of the First Sino-Japanese War, and took place on 17 September 1894, the day after the Japanese victory at the land Battle of Pyongyang.

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Battle of Weihaiwei

The Battle of Weihaiwei (Japanese: was a battle of the First Sino-Japanese War. It took place between 20 January and 12 February 1895 in Weihai, Shandong Province, China between the forces of the Japan and Qing China. In early January 1895, the Japanese landed forces in eastern Shandong positioning forces behind the Chinese naval base at Weihaiwei. Through a well coordinated offensive of both naval and land forces, the Japanese destroyed the forts and sank much of the Chinese fleet. With the Shandong and Liaoning peninsulas under Japanese control, the option for a pincer attack against the Chinese capital, Beijing, was now a possibility. This strategic threat forced the Chinese to sue for peace and led to the war ended in April 1895.

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Battleship

A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.

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Beam (nautical)

The beam of a ship is its width at the widest point as measured at the ship's nominal waterline.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Beiyang Army

The Beiyang Army (Pei-yang Army) was a powerful, Western-style Imperial Chinese Army established by the Qing Dynasty government in the late 19th century.

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Beiyang Fleet

The Beiyang Fleet (Pei-yang Fleet;, alternatively Northern Seas Fleet) was one of the four modernised Chinese navies in the late Qing Dynasty.

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Bonin Islands

The Bonin Islands, also known as the, are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some directly south of Tokyo, Japan.

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Bow and arrow

The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).

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Brigade

A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.

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Broadside

A broadside is the side of a ship, the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their coordinated fire in naval warfare.

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Cavalry

Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.

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Cheoljong of Joseon

Cheoljong of Joseon (25 July 1831 – 16 January 1864) was the 25th king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty.

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Child marriage

Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.

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China–Japan relations

China–Japan relations or Sino-Nippon relations (日中関係; にっちゅうかんけい) refer to the international relations between the People's Republic of China and the State of Japan.

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Chinese calendar

The traditional Chinese calendar (official Chinese name: Rural Calendar, alternately Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar, or Lunar Calendar) is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena.

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Chinese corvette Kwan Chia

Kwan Chia was a 1296-ton corvette in service with the Imperial Chinese Beiyang Fleet.

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Chinese cruiser Chaoyong

Chaoyong was a cruiser built for the Imperial Chinese Navy.

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Chinese cruiser Jingyuan (1887)

Jingyuan was an armored cruiser in the late Qing Dynasty Beiyang Fleet.

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Chinese cruiser Jingyuen (1886)

Jingyuen was a cruiser built for the Imperial Chinese Navy.

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Chinese cruiser Jiyuan

Jiyuan, was a protected cruiser of the Imperial Chinese Navy, assigned to the Beiyang Fleet.

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Chinese cruiser Laiyuan

Laiyuan, also known as Lai Yuen, was an armored cruiser in the late Qing Dynasty Beiyang Fleet.

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Chinese cruiser Yangwei

Yangwei was a cruiser built for the Imperial Chinese Navy.

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Chinese cruiser Zhiyuan

Zhiyuan was a cruiser built for the Imperial Chinese Navy.

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Chinese gunboat Tsao-kiang

Tsao Kiang was a 640-ton wooden (according to other sources: 600-ton composite-hulled) gunboat, launched in 1869 by Jiangnan Shipyard, Shanghai, for the Nanyang Fleet.

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Chinese ironclad Dingyuan

Dingyuan was an ironclad battleship and the flagship of the Chinese Beiyang Fleet.

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Chinese ironclad Zhenyuan

Zhenyuan (Wade-Giles: Chen Yuen) was a German-built Chinese Beiyang Fleet turret ship of the 19th century.

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Choe Ik-hyeon

Choi Ik-hyeon (Hangul:최익현, Hanja:崔益鉉, Pen name: Myonahm 1833-1906, also transliterated as Choi Ik-hyun) was a Korean Joseon Dynasty scholar, politician, philosopher, and general of the Korean Righteous Army guerrilla forces.

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Combined Fleet

was the main ocean-going component of the Imperial Japanese Navy.

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Company (military unit)

A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.

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Conscription

Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Convention of Kanagawa

On March 31, 1854, the or was the first treaty between the United States and the Tokugawa shogunate.

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Convention of Tientsin

The, also known as the Tianjin Convention, was an agreement signed between the Meiji period Empire of Japan and Qing Dynasty Empire of China in Tientsin, China on 18 April 1885.

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Corvette

A corvette is a small warship.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Cruiser

A cruiser is a type of warship.

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Dalian Bay

Dalian Bay, known historically as Talianwan and Talien-hwan, is a bay on the southeast side of the Liaodong Peninsula of Northeast China, open to Korea Bay in the east.

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Dandong

Dandong, formerly known as Andong, is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.

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Ding Ruchang

Admiral Ding Ruchang (18 November 1836 – 12 February 1895) was a career military officer in the late Qing dynasty military of China.

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Diplomacy

Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.

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Division (military)

A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.

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Dong Fuxiang

Dong Fuxiang (1839–1908), courtesy name Xingwu (星五), was a Chinese military general who lived in the late Qing dynasty.

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Donghak Peasant Revolution

The is a joke: only redlinks ! The Donghak Peasant Revolution, also known as the Donghak Peasant Movement, Donghak Rebellion, Peasant Revolt of 1894, Gabo Peasant Revolution, and a variety of other names, was an armed rebellion in Korea led by aggravated peasants and followers of the Donghak religion, a panentheistic snobism (in any case: not in the lead) religion viewed by many rebels as a political ideology.

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Dungan Revolt (1895–96)

The Dungan Revolt (189596) was a rebellion of various Chinese Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu against the Qing dynasty, that originated because of a violent dispute between two Sufi orders of the same sect.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Echelon formation

An echelon formation is a (usually military) formation in which its units are arranged diagonally.

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Edo period

The or is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.

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Eight Banners

The Eight Banners (in Manchu: jakūn gūsa) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed.

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Eight-Nation Alliance

The Eight-Nation Alliance was an international military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion in China.

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Emperor Meiji

, or, was the 122nd Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death on July 29, 1912.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Empress Dowager Cixi

Empress Dowager Cixi1 (Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908.

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Empress Myeongseong

Empress Myeongseong or Empress Myung-Sung (19 October 1851 – 8 October 1895), known informally as Queen Min, was the first official wife of Gojong, the twenty-sixth king of Joseon and the first emperor of the Korean Empire.

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Enlightenment Party

The Enlightenment Party of the Joseon (hangul: 개화당, hanja: 開化黨, romanization: Gaehwadang) was a Korean progressive party founded after the Imo Incident.

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Fengcheng, Liaoning

Fengcheng is a city in the southeast of Liaoning Province in Northeast China.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Field army

A field army (or numbered army or simply army) is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group.

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First Army (Japan)

The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army.

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Flagship

A flagship is a vessel used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships, characteristically a flag officer entitled by custom to fly a distinguishing flag.

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Free area of the Republic of China

The Free area of the Republic of China is a term used by the government of the Republic of China (ROC) to refer to the territories under its actual control.

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French Army

The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.

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French military mission to Japan (1872–80)

The 1872–1880 French Military Mission to Japan was the second French military mission to that country.

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French military mission to Japan (1884–89)

The 1884 French Military Mission to Japan was the third French military mission to that country and consisted of five men.

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Fukuzawa Yukichi

was a Japanese author, writer, teacher, translator, entrepreneur and journalist who founded Keio University, Jiji-Shinpō (a newspaper) and the Institute for Study of Infectious Diseases.

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Gabo Reform

The Gabo Reform, also known as the Kabo Reform, describes a series of sweeping reforms suggested to the government of Korea beginning in 1894 and ending in 1896 during the reign of Gojong of Korea in response to the Donghak Peasant Revolution.

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Gaizhou

Gaizhou, formerly Gaixian, Gaiping, and Kaiping, is a county-level city in Liaoning province, China.

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Ganghwa Island incident

The Ganghwa Island incident or the Japanese Battle of Ganghwa (운요호 사건 Unyo-ho sageon meaning "Un'yō incident"; 事件 Kōkatō jiken), was a purposely armed clash between the Joseon Dynasty of Korea and Japan which occurred in the vicinity of Ganghwa Island on September 20, 1875.

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Gendarmerie

Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.

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Geography of Taiwan

Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.

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German General Staff

The German General Staff, originally the Prussian General Staff and officially Great General Staff (Großer Generalstab), was a full-time body at the head of the Prussian Army and later, the German Army, responsible for the continuous study of all aspects of war, and for drawing up and reviewing plans for mobilization or campaign.

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Gojong of Korea

Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu (8 September 1852 – 21 January 1919), was the twenty-sixth king of the Joseon dynasty and the first Emperor of Korea.

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Government of Meiji Japan

The was the government that was formed by politicians of the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain in the 1860s.

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Green Standard Army

The Green Standard Army (Manchu: niowanggiyan turun i kūwaran) was the name of a category of military units under the control of Qing dynasty China.

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Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.

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Guangxu Emperor

The Guangxu Emperor (14 August 187114 November 1908), personal name Zaitian (Manchu: dzai-tiyan), was the eleventh emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China.

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Guangzhouwan

Guangzhouwan (officially Kouang-Tchéou-Wan; also spelled Kwangchow Wan, Kwangchow-wan, Kwang-Chou-Wan or Quang-Tchéou-Wan) was a small enclave on the southern coast of China ceded by Qing China to France as a leased territory and administered as an outlier of French Indochina.

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Gunboat

A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.

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Gyeongbokgung

Gyeongbokgung, also known as Gyeongbokgung Palace or Gyeongbok Palace, was the main royal palace of the Joseon dynasty.

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Haicheng, Liaoning

Haicheng is a county-level city of central Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.

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Halberd

A halberd (also called halbard, halbert or Swiss voulge) is a two-handed pole weapon that came to prominent use during the 14th and 15th centuries.

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Hamgyong Province

Hamgyong Province was one of the Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Han River (Korea)

The Han River or Hangang is a major river in South Korea and the fourth longest river on the Korean peninsula after the Amnok (Yalu), Tuman (Tumen), and Nakdong rivers.

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Hanabusa Yoshitada

was a Japanese politician, diplomat and peer.

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Hangul

The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.

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Hanja

Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters.

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Heungseon Daewongun

Heungseon Daewongun (흥선대원군, 興宣大院君, 21 December 1820 – 22 February 1898), also known as the Daewongun (대원군, 大院君), Guktaegong (국태공, 國太公, "The Great Archduke") or formally Heungseon Heonui Daewonwang (흥선헌의대원왕, 興宣獻懿大院王) and also known to contemporary western diplomats as Prince Gung, was the title of Yi Ha-eung, regent of Joseon during the minority of Emperor Gojong in the 1860s and until his death a key political figure of late Joseon Korea.

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Hiroshima

is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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History of Japan

The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times.

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History of Korea

The Lower Paleolithic era in the Korean Peninsula began roughly half a million years ago.

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History of Taiwan

The history of Taiwan dates back tens of thousands of years to the earliest known evidence of human habitation on the island.

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HMS Flying Fish (1873)

HMS Flying Fish was a ''Fantome''-class sloop of the Royal Navy, built at Chatham Dockyard and launched on 27 November 1873.

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HMS Porpoise (1886)

HMS Porpoise was an torpedo cruiser of the Royal Navy, built by J. & G. Thompson at Glasgow and launched on 7 May 1886.

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Hokkaido

(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.

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Hong Jong-u

Hong Jong-u (홍종우, 洪鍾宇, 1850 – 1913) was a Korean assassin, reformer, activist and statesman during the Korean Empire.

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Huai Army

The Huai Army, named for the Huai River, was a Qing dynasty military force raised to contain the Taiping Rebellion in 1862.

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Hui people

The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.

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Imperial Chinese Army

The Imperial Chinese Army was the ground force of the military of Imperial China.

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Imperial General Headquarters

The was part of the Supreme War Council and was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime.

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Imperial Guard (Japan)

The Japanese is an organization which is dedicated to protection of the Emperor of Japan and his family, palaces and other imperial properties.

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Imperial Japanese Army

The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.

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Imperial Japanese Navy

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.

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Incheon

Incheon (formerly romanized as Inchŏn; literally "kind river"), officially the Incheon Metropolitan City (인천광역시), is a city located in northwestern South Korea, bordering Seoul and Gyeonggi to the east.

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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Ironclad warship

An ironclad is a steam-propelled warship protected by iron or steel armor plates used in the early part of the second half of the 19th century.

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Itō Hirobumi

Prince was a Japanese statesman and genrō.

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Itō Sukeyuki

Marshal-Admiral Count (20 May 1843 – 16 January 1914) was a Japanese career officer and admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy in Meiji-period Japan.

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Jakob Meckel

Klemens Wilhelm Jacob Meckel (28 March 1842 – 5 July 1905) was a general in the Prussian army and foreign advisor to the government of Meiji period Japan.

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Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876

The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, also known as the Japan-Korea Treaty of Amity in Japanese or Treaty of Ganghwa Island in Korean, was made between representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Kingdom of Joseon in 1876.

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Japan–Korea Treaty of 1882

The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1882, also known as the Treaty of Chemulpo or the Chemulpo Convention, was negotiated between Japan and Korea following the Imo Incident in July 1882.

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Japan–Korea Treaty of 1885

The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1885, also known as the with Hanseong being a historical name for Seoul, was negotiated between Japan and Korea following an unsuccessful coup d'état in the Korean capital in December 1884.

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Japanese cruiser Akitsushima

was a protected cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN), designed and built by the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in Japan.

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Japanese cruiser Izumi

was a protected cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed and built by the Newcastle upon Tyne-based Armstrong Whitworth shipyards at Elswick in the United Kingdom for the Chilean Navy.

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Japanese cruiser Naniwa

was the lead ship of the protected cruisers, built in the Newcastle upon Tyne-based Armstrong Whitworth Elswick shipyard in the United Kingdom.

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Japanese cruiser Yoshino

was a protected cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy.

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Japanese gunboat Heien

Heien, originally known as Pingyuan (平遠), built by the Mawei Navy Yard near Foochow (Fuzhou), was an ironclad coastal battleship serving with the Imperial Chinese Beiyang Fleet and later the Imperial Japanese Navy.

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Japanese yen

The is the official currency of Japan.

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Jeune École

The Jeune École ("Young School") was a strategic naval concept developed during the 19th century.

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Jiaozhou City

Jiaozhou, formerly Jiaoxian or Jiao County, is a county-level city of Qingdao sub-provincial city, Shandong Province, China.

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Jinzhou

Jinzhou is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.

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Joseon

The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.

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Kabayama Sukenori

Count was a Japanese samurai military leader and statesman.

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Kang Youwei

Kang Youwei (Cantonese: Hōng Yáuh-wàih; 19March 185831March 1927) was a Chinese scholar, noted calligrapher and prominent political thinker and reformer of the late Qing dynasty.

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Katsura Tarō

Prince was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, politician and the longest serving Prime Minister of Japan, having served three terms.

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Kilogram

The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

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Kim Hong-jip

Kim Hong-jip (1842–1896) was a Korean politician best known for his role as prime minister during the Gabo Reform period from 1895-1896.

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Kim Ok-gyun

Kim Ok-gyun (김옥균; 金玉均; February 23, 1851 – March 28, 1894) was a reformist (Gaehwapa, 개화파) activist during the late Joseon Dynasty of Korea.

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Korean Empire

The Great Korean Empire was proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty, under pressure after the Donghak Peasant Revolution of 1894 to 1895 and the Gabo Reforms that swept the country from 1894 to 1896.

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Korean Peninsula

The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.

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Krupp

The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.

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Kumamoto

is the capital city of Kumamoto Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, Japan.

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Kure, Hiroshima

is a port and major shipbuilding city situated on the Seto Inland Sea in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

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Lüshunkou District

Lüshunkou District (also Lyushunkou District) is a district of Dalian, in Liaoning province, China.

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Li Hongzhang

Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi (also romanised as Li Hung-chang) (15 February 1823 – 7 November 1901),, was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty.

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Liaodong Peninsula

The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.

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List of islands of Taiwan

This is a list of islands of Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), classified into various island groups.

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List of tributaries of China

This list of tributary states of China encompasses suzerain kingdoms from China in Europe, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia.

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Liu Buchan

Liu Buchan (1852–1895) was a naval officer of the Beiyang Fleet, the most prominent of China's naval units in the late Qing Dynasty.

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Liu Kunyi

Liu Kunyi (January21, 1830October6, 1902) was a Chinese official during the late Qing dynasty (1644–1911) and a native of Xinning County, Hunan.

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Liu Yongfu

Liu Yongfu (1837–1917) was a Chinese soldier of fortune and commander of the celebrated Black Flag Army.

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Ma Anliang

Ma Anliang (French romanization: Ma-ngan-leang, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ءًا ﻟِﯿْﺎ); 1855 – November 24, 1918) was a Hui born in Hezhou, Gansu, China. He became a general in the Qing dynasty army, and of the Republic of China. His father was Ma Zhan'ao, and his younger brothers were Ma Guoliang and Ma Suiliang (Ma Sui-liang) 馬遂良. Ma was educated in Chinese and Islamic education. His Muslim name was Abdul Majid 阿卜都里默直底.

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Ma Haiyan

Ma Haiyan (1837–1900) was a Chinese Muslim General of the Qing Dynasty.

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Ma Jianzhong

Ma Jianzhong(1845–1900), courtesy name Meishu, also known as Ma Kié-Tchong in French, was a Chinese official and scholar in the late Qing Dynasty.

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Magazine (firearms)

A magazine is an ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating firearm.

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Magong

Magong, formerly romanized as Makung, is a county-controlled city and seat of Penghu, Taiwan.

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Manchu people

The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

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Manchuria

Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Mariner's Mirror

The Mariner's Mirror is the quarterly academic journal of the Society for Nautical Research in the United Kingdom.

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Mark Peattie

Mark R. Peattie (Nice, France, May 3, 1930 – San Rafael, California, January 22, 2014) was an American academic and Japanologist.

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Matsukata Masayoshi

Prince was a Japanese politician and the 4th (May 6, 1891 – August 8, 1892) and 6th (September 18, 1896 – January 12, 1898) Prime Minister of Japan.

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Meiji period

The, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.

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Meiji Restoration

The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

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Merchant navy

A merchant navy or merchant marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country.

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Merchant vessel

A merchant vessel, trading vessel or merchantman is a boat or ship that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Military communications

Military communications or military signals involve all aspects of communications, or conveyance of information, by armed forces.

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Military district

Military districts (also called military regions) are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army) which are responsible for a certain area of territory.

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Military engineering

Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications.

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Military history of China before 1911

The recorded military history of China extends from about 2200 BC to the present day.

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Military history of Japan

The military history of Japan is characterized by a period of clan warfare that lasted until the 12th century AD.

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Military police

Military police (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state.

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Military strategy

Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals.

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Military tactics

Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.

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Mobilization

Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.

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Mongols

The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Mountain gun

Mountain guns are artillery pieces designed for use in mountain warfare and areas where usual wheeled transport is not possible.

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Murata rifle

The was the first indigenously produced Japanese service rifle adopted in 1880 as the Meiji Type 13 Murata single-shot rifle.

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Musket

A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.

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Mutsu Munemitsu

Count was a Japanese statesman and diplomat in Meiji period Japan.

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Muzzle velocity

Muzzle velocity is the speed of a projectile at the moment it leaves the muzzle of a gun.

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Nagasaki

() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.

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Nagasaki incident

The, also known as the Nagasaki―Qing Navy Incident (長崎清国水兵事件), was a riot involving Chinese Beiyang Fleet sailors in Nagasaki.

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Nagoya

is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan.

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Narcotic

The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.

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New Territories

The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula.

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Nippon Yusen

is one of the oldest and largest shipping companies in the world.

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Nozu Michitsura

Field Marshal The Marquis was a Japanese field marshal and leading figure in the early Imperial Japanese Army.

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Ocean liner

An ocean liner is a passenger ship primarily used as a form of transportation across seas or oceans.

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Okinawa Prefecture

is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.

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Opium

Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).

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Opium Wars

The Opium Wars were two wars in the mid-19th century involving Anglo-Chinese disputes over British trade in China (prominently the eponymous opium trade) and China's sovereignty.

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Osaka

() is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan.

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Pak Yung-hio

Pak Yung-hio (1861 – 21 September 1939) was a Korean politician of the Joseon Dynasty period, enlightenment activist, diplomat and pro-Japanese collaborator.

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Paul Georg von Möllendorff

Paul Georg von Möllendorff (17 February 1847 in Zehdenick, Prussia – 20 April 1901 in Ningbo, China) was a German linguist and diplomat.

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Penghu

The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait.

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Pescadores Campaign (1895)

The Pescadores Campaign (23–26 March 1895) was the last military operation of the First Sino-Japanese War and an essential preliminary to the Japanese conquest of Taiwan.

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Pike (weapon)

A pike is a pole weapon, a very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry.

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Plenipotentiary

The word plenipotentiary (from the Latin plenus "full" and potens "powerful") has two meanings.

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Pontoon bridge

A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.

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Port Arthur massacre (China)

The Port Arthur massacre occurred during the First Sino-Japanese War from 21 November 1894 for two or three days, when advanced elements of the First Division of the Japanese Second Army under command of General Yamaji Motoharu (1841–1897) killed somewhere between 1,000 and 20,000 Chinese servicemen and civiliansp.330 Villiers, Frederic.

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Protected cruiser

The protected cruiser is a type of naval cruiser of the late 19th century, so known because its armoured deck offered protection for vital machine spaces from fragments caused by exploding shells above.

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Pyŏlgigun

The Pyŏlgigun or Byeolgigun (Korean: 별기군, "Special Skills Force" or "Special Army") was the first modernised military force of Korea.

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Pyongyang

Pyongyang, or P'yŏngyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qingdao

Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.

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Questia Online Library

Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.

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Quick-firing gun

A quick-firing gun (in U.S. parlance, 'rapid-firing') is an artillery piece, typically a gun or howitzer, which has several characteristics which taken together mean the weapon can fire at a fast rate.

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Regiment

A regiment is a military unit.

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Republic of Formosa

The Republic of Formosa (literally Taiwan Democratic State) was a short-lived republic that existed on the island of Taiwan in 1895 between the formal cession of Taiwan by the Qing Dynasty of China to the Empire of Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki and it being taken over by Japanese troops.

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Resident (title)

A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country.

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Rifle

A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Russo-Japanese War

The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.

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Ryukyu Islands

The, also known as the or the, are a chain of islands annexed by Japan that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.

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Sakoku

was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, nearly all foreigners were barred from entering Japan, and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years.

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Salvo

A salvo is the simultaneous discharge of artillery or firearms including the firing of guns either to hit a target or to perform a salute.

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Sasebo, Nagasaki

is a core city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.

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Second Army (Japan)

The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army.

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Self-Strengthening Movement

The Self-Strengthening Movement, c. 1861 – 1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers.

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Sendai

is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, the largest city in the Tōhoku region, and the second largest city north of Tokyo.

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Senkaku Islands

The are a group of uninhabited islands controlled by Japan in the East China Sea.

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Senkaku Islands dispute

The Senkaku Islands dispute, or Diaoyu Islands dispute, concerns a territorial dispute over a group of uninhabited islands known as the Senkaku Islands in Japan, the Diaoyu Islands in the People's Republic of China (PRC), and Tiaoyutai Islands in the Republic of China (ROC or Taiwan).

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Seoul

Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.

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Sexagenary cycle

The sexagenary cycle, also known as the Stems-and-Branches or ganzhi, is a cycle of sixty terms used for reckoning time in China and the East Asian cultural sphere.

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Shandong

Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.

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Shandong Peninsula

The Shandong Peninsula is a peninsula in Shandong province in eastern China, between the Bohai Sea to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south.

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Shanghai

Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.

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Shanghai International Settlement

The Shanghai International Settlement originated from the 1863 merger of the British and American enclaves in Shanghai, parts of the Qing Empire held extraterritorially under the terms of a series of Unequal Treaties.

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Shōgun

The was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions).

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Shenyang

Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.

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Sino-French War

The Sino-French War (Guerre franco-chinoise, សង្គ្រាមបារាំង-ចិន, Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 through April 1885, to decide whether France would supplant China's control of Tonkin (northern Vietnam).

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Soh Jaipil

Philip Jaisohn (January 7, 1864 – January 5, 1951) was the anglicized name used by Soh Jaipil (서재필;徐載弼), a noted champion for Korea's independence, journalist, the first Korean to become a naturalized citizen of the United States, and the founder of the first Korean newspaper in Hangul, the Independent News.

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Song Qing (Qing dynasty)

Song Qing (1820–1902), courtesy name Zhusan, was a Chinese general who served the Imperial government during the First Sino-Japanese War and in the Boxer Rebellion.

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Soybean

The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.

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Spear

A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.

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Square division

A square division is a designation given to the way military divisions are organized.

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Suing for peace

Suing for peace is an act by a warring nation to initiate a peace process.

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Summer Palace

The Summer Palace, is a vast ensemble of lakes, gardens and palaces in Beijing.

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Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.

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Sword

A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.

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Taedong River

The Taedong River (Chosŏn'gŭl: 대동강) is a large river in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

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Tael

Tael (at the OED Online.) or tahil can refer to any one of several weight measures of the Far East.

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Tainan

Tainan (Hokkien POJ: Tâi-lâm), officially Tainan City, is a special municipality of Taiwan, facing the Formosan Strait or Taiwan Strait in the west and south.

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Taiping Rebellion

The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.

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Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taku Forts

The Taku Forts or Dagu Forts, also called the Peiho Forts are forts located by the Hai River (Peiho River) estuary in the Binhai New Area, Tianjin, in northeastern China.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Tōgō Heihachirō

Marshal-Admiral The Marquis Tōgō Heihachirō, OM, GCVO (東郷 平八郎; 27 January 184830 May 1934), was a gensui or admiral of the fleet in the Imperial Japanese Navy and one of Japan's greatest naval heroes.

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Ten thousand years

In various East Asian languages, the phrase "ten thousand years" is used to wish long life, and is typically translated as "Live long!" in English.

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Tokugawa shogunate

The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.

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Tokyo

, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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Torpedo boat

A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to carry torpedoes into battle.

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Treaty of Shimonoseki

The was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel, Shimonoseki, Japan on 17 April 1895, between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.

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Tributary state

A tributary state is a term for a pre-modern state in a particular type of subordinate relationship to a more powerful state which involved the sending of a regular token of submission, or tribute, to the superior power.

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Triple Intervention

The was a diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France on 23 April 1895 over the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed between Japan and Qing Dynasty China that ended the First Sino-Japanese War.

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Troopship

A troopship (also troop ship or troop transport or trooper) is a ship used to carry soldiers, either in peacetime or wartime.

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Uiju County

Ŭiju County is a kun, or county, in North Pyongan Province, North Korea.

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United States–Korea Treaty of 1882

A Treaty of Peace, Amity, Commerce and Navigation (Korean: 조·미수호통상조약, Hanja: 朝美修好通商條約), also known as the Shufeldt Treaty, was negotiated between representatives of the United States and Joseon Korea in 1882.

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Viceroy of Zhili

The Viceroy of Zhili, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Zhili and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty.

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Weihai

Weihai, formerly called Weihaiwei (Weihai Guard), is a city in eastern Shandong province, China.

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Weihaiwei under British rule

Weihaiwei in the north-east of China, was a leased territory of the United Kingdom from 1898 until 1930.

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Weng Tonghe

Weng Tonghe (1830–1904), courtesy name Shuping (叔平), was a Chinese Confucian scholar and imperial tutor who lived in the Qing dynasty.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Xenophobia

Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.

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Xinhai Revolution

The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).

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Xiuyan Manchu Autonomous County

Xiuyan Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: siuyan manju beye dasangga siyan) is a county in the southeast of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, and is also one of the 11 Manchu autonomous counties and one of 117 autonomous counties nationally.

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Yalu River

The Yalu River, also called the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China.

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Yamagata Aritomo

Prince, also known as Yamagata Kyōsuke, was a Japanese field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan.

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Yangban

The Yangban (양반, 兩班), were part of the traditional ruling class or gentry of dynastic Korea during the Joseon Dynasty.

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Yangtze

The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

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Ye Zhichao

Ye Zhichao (died 1901) was a Chinese general of the Qing Dynasty who fought in the First Sino-Japanese War, being the commander of Qing forces stationed in Korea.

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Yellow Sea

The Yellow Sea or West Sea is located between China and Korea.

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Yeoheung Min clan

Yeoheung Min clan is a Korean clan that traces its origin (Bon-gwan) to Yeoju, Gyeonggi Province.

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Yokosuka, Kanagawa

is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

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Yuan Shikai

Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.

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Zhili

Zhili, formerly romanized as Chihli, was a northern province of China from the 14th-century Ming Dynasty until the province was dissolved in 1928 during the Warlord Era.

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Zuo Baogui

Zuo Baogui (左寶貴; 1837, Shandong province – 1894, Pyongyang) was a Hui Muslim general of the Qing Dynasty who fought in the First Sino-Japanese War.

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1st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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2nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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3rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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4th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army.

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6th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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Redirects here:

1894 Sino-Japanese War, Ching-Japan War, FSJW, First Chinese-Japanese war, First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), First Sino-Japanese war, First Sino‐Japanese War, First Sino–Japanese War, First sino-japanese war, Japan-Qing War, Japan–Qing War, Jiawu China - Japan War, Jiawu China – Japan War, Jiawu China-Japan War, Jiawu China–Japan War, Jiawu War, Nisshin Sensō, Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), Sino-Japanese War (1894-5), Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), Sino-Japanese War I, Sino–Japanese War (1894–5), War of Jiawu, Zhōngrì Jiǎwǔ Zhànzhēng, 中日甲午战争, 中日甲午戰爭, 日清戦争.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Sino-Japanese_War

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