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# First law of thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems. [1]

66 relations: Adiabatic process, Adiabatic wall, Brian Pippard, Caloric theory, Chemical potential, Clifford Truesdell, Conservation of energy, Conservation of mass, Constantin Carathéodory, Dirk ter Haar, Edward A. Guggenheim, Energy, Entropy production, Exact differential, Fundamental thermodynamic relation, Generalized forces, George H. Bryan, Germain Henri Hess, Heat, Heat capacity, Heat engine, Heat transfer, Herbert Callen, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hess's law, Ilya Prigogine, Inexact differential, Intensive and extensive properties, Internal energy, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Isolated system, J. R. Partington, James Clerk Maxwell, James Prescott Joule, Jean Baptiste Perrin, John Gamble Kirkwood, John Wiley & Sons, Julius von Mayer, Latent heat, Laws of thermodynamics, László Tisza, Max Born, Max Planck, Mechanical equivalent of heat, Microstate (statistical mechanics), Mole (unit), Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, PDF, Perpetual motion, Peter Atkins, ... Expand index (16 more) »

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic wall between two thermodynamic systems does not allow heat or matter to pass across it.

## Brian Pippard

Sir Alfred Brian Pippard, FRS (7 September 1920 &ndash; 21 September 2008), was a British physicist.

## Caloric theory

The caloric theory is an obsolete scientific theory that heat consists of a self-repellent fluid called caloric that flows from hotter bodies to colder bodies.

## Chemical potential

In thermodynamics, chemical potential of a species is a form of energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition due to a change of the particle number of the given species.

## Clifford Truesdell

Clifford Ambrose Truesdell III (February 18, 1919 – January 14, 2000) was an American mathematician, natural philosopher, and historian of science.

## Conservation of energy

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

## Conservation of mass

The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system's mass cannot change, so quantity cannot be added nor removed.

## Constantin Carathéodory

Constantin Carathéodory (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Καραθεοδωρή Konstantinos Karatheodori; 13 September 1873 – 2 February 1950) was a Greek mathematician who spent most of his professional career in Germany.

## Dirk ter Haar

Dirk ter Haar (Oosterwolde, 19 April 1919 – Drachten, 3 September 2002) was an Anglo-Dutch physicist.

## Edward A. Guggenheim

Edward Armand Guggenheim FRS (11 August 1901 in Manchester – 9 August 1970) was an English physical chemist, noted for his contributions to thermodynamics.

## Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

## Entropy production

Entropy production determines the performance of thermal machines such as power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, heat pumps, and air conditioners.

## Exact differential

In multivariate calculus, a differential is said to be exact or perfect, as contrasted with an inexact differential, if it is of the form dQ, for some differentiable function Q.

## Fundamental thermodynamic relation

In thermodynamics, the fundamental thermodynamic relation is generally expressed as a microscopic change in internal energy in terms of microscopic changes in entropy, and volume for a closed system in thermal equilibrium in the following way.

## Generalized forces

Generalized forces find use in Lagrangian mechanics, where they play a role conjugate to generalized coordinates.

## George H. Bryan

George Hartley Bryan FRS (1 March 1864, Cambridge – 13 October 1928, Bordighera) was an English applied mathematician who was an authority on thermodynamics and aeronautics.

## Germain Henri Hess

Germain Henri Hess (Герман Иванович Гесс German Ivanovich Gess; 7 August 1802 &ndash; 30 November 1850) was a Swiss-Russian chemist and doctor who formulated Hess's law, an early principle of thermochemistry.

## Heat

In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

## Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

## Heat engine

In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.

## Heat transfer

Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.

## Herbert Callen

Herbert Bernard Callen (1919 – May 22, 1993) was an American physicist best known as the author of the textbook Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics, the most frequently cited thermodynamic reference in physics research literature.

## Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.

## Hess's law

Hess' law of constant heat summation, also known as Hess' law (or Hess's law), is a relationship in physical chemistry named after Germain Hess, a Swiss-born Russian chemist and physician who published it in 1840.

## Ilya Prigogine

Viscount Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (Илья́ Рома́нович Приго́жин; 28 May 2003) was a physical chemist and Nobel laureate noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility.

## Inexact differential

An inexact differential or imperfect differential is a specific type of differential used in thermodynamics to express the path dependence of a particular differential.

## Intensive and extensive properties

Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive quantities, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes.

## Internal energy

In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.

## International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

## Isolated system

In physical science, an isolated system is either of the following.

## J. R. Partington

James Riddick Partington (30 June 1886 – 9 October 1965) was a British chemist and historian of chemistry who published multiple books and articles in scientific magazines.

## James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

## James Prescott Joule

James Prescott Joule (24 December 1818 11 October 1889) was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire.

## Jean Baptiste Perrin

Jean Baptiste Perrin (30 September 1870 – 17 April 1942) was a French physicist who, in his studies of the Brownian motion of minute particles suspended in liquids, verified Albert Einstein’s explanation of this phenomenon and thereby confirmed the atomic nature of matter (sedimentation equilibrium).

## John Gamble Kirkwood

John "Jack" Gamble Kirkwood (May 30, 1907, Gotebo, Oklahoma – August 9, 1959, New Haven, Connecticut) was a noted chemist and physicist, holding faculty positions at Cornell University, the University of Chicago, California Institute of Technology, and Yale University.

## John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

## Julius von Mayer

Julius Robert Mayer (November 25, 1814 – March 20, 1878) was a German physician, chemist and physicist and one of the founders of thermodynamics.

## Latent heat

Latent heat is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process — usually a first-order phase transition.

## Laws of thermodynamics

The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.

## László Tisza

László Tisza (July 7, 1907 – April 15, 2009) was Professor of Physics Emeritus at MIT.

## Max Born

Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.

## Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 &ndash; 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

## Mechanical equivalent of heat

In the history of science, the mechanical equivalent of heat states that motion and heat are mutually interchangeable and that in every case, a given amount of work would generate the same amount of heat, provided the work done is totally converted to heat energy.

## Microstate (statistical mechanics)

In statistical mechanics, a microstate is a specific microscopic configuration of a thermodynamic system that the system may occupy with a certain probability in the course of its thermal fluctuations.

## Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

## Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with physical systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium but can be described in terms of variables (non-equilibrium state variables) that represent an extrapolation of the variables used to specify the system in thermodynamic equilibrium.

## PDF

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

## Perpetual motion

Perpetual motion is motion of bodies that continues indefinitely.

## Peter Atkins

Peter William Atkins (born 10 August 1940) is an English chemist and former Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Lincoln College.

## Primitive notion

In mathematics, logic, and formal systems, a primitive notion is an undefined concept.

## Quasistatic process

In thermodynamics, a quasi-static process is a thermodynamic process that happens slowly enough for the system to remain in internal equilibrium.

Radu Bălescu (Bucharest, 18 July 1932 &ndash; 1 June 2006, Bucharest) was a Romanian and Belgian (Belgian since 1959) scientist and professor at the Statistical and Plasma Physics group of the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB).

## Relativistic heat conduction

Relativistic heat conduction refers to the modelling of heat conduction (and similar diffusion processes) in a way not compatible with special relativity.

## Roger Balian

Roger Balian (born January 18, 1933) is a French-Armenian physicist who has worked on quantum field theory, quantum thermodynamics, and theory of measurement.

## Rudolf Clausius

Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (2 January 1822 &ndash; 24 August 1888) was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics.

## Sensible heat

Sensible heat is heat exchanged by a body or thermodynamic system in which the exchange of heat changes the temperature of the body or system, and some macroscopic variables of the body or system, but leaves unchanged certain other macroscopic variables of the body or system, such as volume or pressure.

## Thermodynamic operation

A thermodynamic operation is an externally imposed manipulation or change of connection or wall between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.

## Thermodynamic process

Classical thermodynamics considers three main kinds of thermodynamic process: change in a system, cycles in a system, and flow processes.

## Thermodynamic system

A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.

## Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

## William John Macquorn Rankine

Prof William John Macquorn Rankine LLD (5 July 1820 – 24 December 1872) was a Scottish mechanical engineer who also contributed to civil engineering, physics and mathematics.

## William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.

## Work (electrical)

Electrical work is the work done on a charged particle by an electric field.

## Work (physics)

In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.

## Work (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, work performed by a system is the energy transferred by the system to its surroundings, that is fully accounted for solely by macroscopic forces exerted on the system by factors external to it, that is to say, factors in its surroundings.

## References

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