482 relations: Abyssal zone, Acanthodii, Acetic acid, Achaemenid Empire, Acipenseriformes, Actinistia, Actinopterygii, Adaptation, Adaptive immune system, Aestivation, Agnatha, Airbreathing catfish, Alfred Romer, Amazon basin, American English, Ammonia, Amniote, Amphibian, Amphibious fish, Ampullae of Lorenzini, Anabantoidei, Anaspida, Anchovy, Angelshark, Anglerfish, Angling, Anguillidae, Animal, Antibody, Antigen, Aorta, Apkallu, Apoptosis, Aquaculture, Aquaculture (journal), Aquarium, Aquatic animal, Aquifer, Arthropod, Ascidiacea, Asian carp, Astrology, Atargatis, Atlantic cod, Atrium (heart), Bait (luring substance), Basal (phylogenetics), Batoidea, Batrachoididae, BBC News, ..., Bee, Berossus, Betta, Bichir, Billfish, Bird, Bird vision, Bluefin tuna, Bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Boil, Bone marrow, Book of Jonah, Bowfin, British English, Brown trout, Buccal space, Buddhism, Bulbus arteriosus, Bullhead shark, Butterfly kingfish, California sheephead, Callichthyidae, Cambrian, Cannibalism, Cantão State Park, Capillary, Carangidae, Carbon dioxide, Carp, Cast net, Catch and release, Catfish, Catshark, Cave painting, Cavefish, Cecum, Cell nucleus, Cephalaspidomorphi, Cerebrum, Cetacea, Characidae, Chimaera, Chondrichthyes, Chondrostei, Chordate, Christianity Today, Cichlid, Circadian rhythm, Circulatory system, Clade, Cladistics, Clasper, Class (biology), Cleaner fish, Cod, Coelacanth, Coelom, Color vision, Commercial fishing, Cone cell, Congo Basin, Conodont, Copeia, Coral reef, Corydoras, Countercurrent exchange, Craniate, Crayfish, Crocodile, Crustacean, Culture hero, Current Biology, Cuttlefish, Cyclostomata, Cylinder seal, Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes, Deep sea fish, Deity, Developing country, Devils Hole pupfish, Dharma, Diencephalon, Diffusion, Digestion, Digit (anatomy), Drainage basin, Early Christianity, Ectotherm, Eel, Egg case (Chondrichthyes), Egg cell, Elasmobranchii, Electric eel, Electric fish, Endemism, Endocrine system, Enki, Enzyme, Epidermis, Erythrinidae, Esophagus, Eyespot (mimicry), Feeding the multitude, Filtration, Fin, Finding Nemo, First Babylonian dynasty, Fish, Fish (disambiguation), Fish acute toxicity syndrome, Fish anatomy, Fish as food, Fish development, Fish farming, Fish hook, Fish intelligence, Fish jaw, Fish scale, Fish stock, FishBase, Fisheries science, Fishery, Fishes of the World, Fishing, Fishing industry, Fishing line, Fishing reel, Fishing rod, Fishkeeping, Flounder, Follicular atresia, Food and Agriculture Organization, Forage fish, Fresh water, Freshwater fish, Galeaspida, Gamete, Gar, Giant grouper, Gill, Gnathostomata, Goby, Goldfish, Goodeidae, Gospel, Gourami, Granulocyte, Great white shark, Gudgeon (fish), Guppy, Gymnotiformes, Hadal zone, Haematopoiesis, Haemulon flavolineatum, Hagfish, Halfbeak, Hamlet (fish), Hans Christian Andersen, Hawaii, Hearing, Heart, Hermaphrodite, Herring, Hillstream loach, Hippopotamus, Holocephali, Holostei, Homeostasis, Homeothermy, Hormone, Horn shark, Horror film, Human body temperature, Hyperoartia, Hypostomus plecostomus, Ichthyology, Ichthyoplankton, Ichthys, Ika-Roa, Immune response, Indian Ocean, Indo-Pacific, Inflammation, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Invasive species, IUCN Red List, Jaw, Jaws (film), Jaws (novel), Jellyfish, John Wiley & Sons, Jonah, Joseph S. Nelson, Kassites, Kidney, Koi, Lake Victoria, Lamnidae, Lamprey, Lampriformes, Lampris guttatus, Lateral line, Lek mating, Lemon shark, Lens (anatomy), Leydig's organ, Limb (anatomy), Lissamphibia, List of common fish names, List of fish families, Lists of aquarium life, Live-bearing aquarium fish, Liver, Loricariidae, Luciocephalus pulcher, Lumen (anatomy), Lungfish, Lymph, Lymphatic system, Lymphocyte, Macrophage, Mammal, Marine biology, Marine vertebrate, Marsupial, Matsya, Matthew 4:19, Mekong, Meninges, Mercury in fish, Mermaid, Mesopotamia, Metamorphosis, Metencephalon, Microorganism, Midbrain, Mollusca, Monophyly, Monotypic taxon, Moray eel, Mormyridae, Most recent common ancestor, Mudskipper, Myelencephalon, National Geographic Society, Neil Shubin, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neocortex, Neontology, Neopterygii, Neoteny, Neotropical fish, Neotropical realm, Nervous system, Nile perch, Nostril, Notochord, Old Testament, Olfaction, Olfactory bulb, Olfactory nerve, Oocyte, Oogonium, Oophagy, Operculum (fish), Osmoregulation, Osmosis, Osteichthyes, Osteostraci, Ostium of uterine tube, Ostracoderm, Otolith, Ovarian follicle, Ovary, Oviduct, Oviparity, Ovoviviparity, Oxygen, Pacific hagfish, Pacific Ocean, Paddlefish, Pain, Paleozoic, Pallid sturgeon, Pancreas, Paraphyly, Pathogen, PDF, Pelvis, Perch, Pharynx, Photopic vision, Phreatobius, Phylogenetic nomenclature, Phylogenetics, Pineal gland, Pinniped, Piranha (1978 film), Pisces (astrology), Pisces (constellation), Piscis Austrinus, Pituriaspida, Placenta, Placentalia, Placodermi, Plant litter, Plasma cell, Polarization (waves), Polynesians, Population dynamics of fisheries, Porbeagle, Pregnancy in fish, Pronephros, Prophet, Protein, Protein filament, Protopterus, Pteraspidomorphi, Queensland lungfish, Quran, Rainbow trout, Recreational fishing, Red blood cell, Red drum, Red lionfish, Red-bellied piranha, Reedfish, Reptile, Respiration (physiology), Reticular cell, Retina, Rod cell, Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Saccopharyngiformes, Salmon, Salmonidae, Salvelinus, Sand tiger shark, Sarcopterygii, Sardinops, Scale (anatomy), Schindleria brevipinguis, Scoloplax, Scombroidei, Scorpaenidae, Scotopic vision, Sea lamprey, Seafood, Seahorse, Seleucid Empire, Seminiferous tubule, Semitic people, Sensory nervous system, Serranidae, Shark, Shark Tale, Shellfish, Shoaling and schooling, Shortfin mako shark, Silurian, Sinus venosus, Skate (fish), Slender seahorse, Snakehead (fish), Snakehead Terror, Species, Spermatogenesis, Spermatogonium, Sphere, Spiral valve, Spleen, Starfish, Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines, Sturgeon, Subterranean river, Suffering, Surah, Surface area, Surfperch, Swim bladder, Swordfish, Synonym, Systematics, T cell, T-cell receptor, Tanakh, Taxon, Teleost, Temple Grandin, Terrestrial animal, Testicle, Tetraodontidae, Tetrapod, The Guardian, The Old Man and the Sea, The Washington Post, Thelodonti, Thresher shark, Thriller (genre), Thymus, Tilapia, Tropical rainforest, Tuna, Tunicate, Ultraviolet, Underground lake, Undescribed taxon, University of Edinburgh, University of Wyoming, Vaccine, Vein, Venom, Ventricle (heart), Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Vision in fishes, Visual system, Viviparity, Walking fish, Warm-blooded, Water pollution, Whale shark, White blood cell, Wild fisheries, Wiley-Blackwell, Wrasse, Yolk, Yolk sac, Zebrafish, Zooplankton. 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The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean.
Acanthodii or acanthodians (sometimes called spiny sharks) is a paraphyletic class of extinct teleostome fish, sharing features with both bony fish and cartilaginous fish.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
''Yanosteus longidorsalis'' MHNT Acipenseriformes is an order of basal ray-finned fishes that includes the sturgeons and paddlefishes, as well as some extinct families.
Actinistia is a subclass of mostly fossil lobe-finned fishes.
Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Aestivation or æstivation (from aestas, summer, but also spelled estivation in American English) is a state of animal dormancy, similar to hibernation, characterized by inactivity and a lowered metabolic rate, that is entered in response to high temperatures and arid conditions.
Agnatha (Greek, "no jaws") is a superclass of jawless fish in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, consisting of both present (cyclostomes) and extinct (conodonts and ostracoderms) species.
Airbreathing catfishes are fishes comprising the family Clariidae of order Siluriformes.
Alfred Sherwood Romer (December 28, 1894 – November 5, 1973) was an American paleontologist and biologist and a specialist in vertebrate evolution.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Amphibious fish are fish that are able to leave water for extended periods of time.
The ampullae of Lorenzini are special sensing organs called electroreceptors, forming a network of jelly-filled pores.
The Anabantoidei are a suborder of anabantiform ray-finned freshwater fish distinguished by their possession of a lung-like labyrinth organ, which enables them to breathe air.
Anaspida ("without shield") is an extinct group of primitive jawless vertebrates that lived primarily during the Silurian period, and became extinct soon after the start of the Devonian.
An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae.
The angelsharks are a group of sharks in the genus Squatina in the family Squatinidae, which are unusual in having flattened bodies and broad pectoral fins that give them a strong resemblance to rays.
Anglerfish are fish of the teleost order Lophiiformes.
Angling is a method of fishing by means of an "angle" (fish hook).
The Anguillidae are a family of ray-finned fish that contains the freshwater eels.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
Apkallu (Akkadian), or Abgal (Sumerian), are terms found in Cuneiform inscriptions that in general mean either "wise" or "sage".
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
Aquaculture is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on aquaculture, published by Elsevier.
An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.
A aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in the water for most or all of its lifetime.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or sea squirts) is a paraphyletic class in the subphylum Tunicata of sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders.
Several species of heavy-bodied cyprinid fishes are collectively known in the United States as Asian carp.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Atargatis or Ataratheh (italic or italic) was the chief goddess of northern Syria in Classical antiquity.
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a benthopelagic fish of the family Gadidae, widely consumed by humans.
The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.
Bait is any substance used to attract prey, e.g. in a mousetrap.
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.
Batoidea is a superorder of cartilaginous fish commonly known as rays.
Batrachoididae is the only family in the ray-finned fish order Batrachoidiformes.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Berossus or Berosus (name possibly derived from script, "Bel is his shepherd"; Βήρωσσος) was a Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk and astronomer who wrote in the Koine Greek language, and who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC.
Betta, is a large genus of small, often colorful, freshwater ray-finned fishes, known as "bettas", in the gourami family (Osphronemidae).
Bichirs and the reedfish comprise the Polypteridae, a family of archaic-looking ray-finned fishes and the only family in the order Polypteriformes.
The term billfish refers to a group of predatory fish characterised by prominent bills, or rostra, and by their large size; some are longer than 4 m (13 ft).
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Vision is the most important sense for birds, since good eyesight is essential for safe flight, and this group has a number of adaptations which give visual acuity superior to that of other vertebrate groups; a pigeon has been described as "two eyes with wings".
Bluefin tuna is a common name used to refer to several species of tuna of the genus Thunnus.
The bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, is one of several species of cleaner wrasses found on coral reefs from Eastern Africa and the Red Sea to French Polynesia.
A boil, also called a furuncle, is a deep folliculitis, infection of the hair follicle.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
The Book of Jonah is a book of the Nevi’im (“Prophets”) in the Hebrew Bible.
Bowfin (Amia calva) are basal bony fishes related to gars in the infraclass Holostei.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
The brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a European species of salmonid fish that has been widely introduced into suitable environments globally.
The buccal space (also termed the buccinator space) is a fascial space of the head and neck (sometimes also termed fascial tissue spaces or tissue spaces).
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
In the circulatory system of fish, the bulbus arteriosus is a pear shaped chamber that functions as a capacitor, maintaining continuous blood flow into the gill arches.
The bullhead sharks are a small order (Heterodontiformes) of basal modern sharks (Neoselachii).
The butterfly kingfish (Gasterochisma melampus) is an ocean-dwelling ray-finned bony fish in the mackerel family, Scombridae – a family which it shares with the tunas, mackerels, Spanish mackerels, and bonitos.
The California sheep head (Semicossyphus pulcher) is a species of wrasse native to the eastern Pacific Ocean.
Callichthyidae is a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes), called armored catfishes due to the two rows of bony plates (or scutes) running down the length of their bodies.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.
The Cantão State Park (Parque Estadual do Cantão) is a state park in the state of Tocantins, Brazil.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
The Carangidae are a family of fish which includes the jacks, pompanos, jack mackerels, runners, and scads.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.
A cast net, also called a throw net, is a net used for fishing.
Catch and release is a practice within recreational fishing intended as a technique of conservation.
Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish.
Catsharks are ground sharks of the family Scyliorhinidae.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
Cavefish or cave fish is a generic term for fresh and brackish water fish adapted to life in caves and other underground habitats.
The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cephalaspidomorphs are a group of jawless fishes named for Cephalaspis of the osteostracans.
The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Characidae, the characids or characins is a family of freshwater subtropical and tropical fish, belonging to the order Characiformes.
Chimaeras the order Chimaeriformes, known informally as ghost sharks, rat fish (not to be confused with the rattails), spookfish (not to be confused with the true spookfish of the family Opisthoproctidae), or rabbit fish (not to be confused with the family Siganidae).
Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.
Chondrostei are primarily cartilaginous fish showing some degree of ossification.
A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.
Christianity Today magazine is an evangelical Christian periodical that was founded in 1956 and is based in Carol Stream, Illinois.
Cichlids are fish from the family Cichlidae in the order Perciformes.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
In biology, a clasper is a male anatomical structure found in some groups of animals, used in mating.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Cleaner fish are fish that provide a service to other fish species by removing dead skin and ectoparasites.
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
The coelacanths constitute a now rare order of fish that includes two extant species in the genus Latimeria: the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) primarily found near the Comoro Islands off the east coast of Africa and the Indonesian coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis).
The coelom is the main body cavity in most animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
Commercial fishing is the activity of catching fish and other seafood for commercial profit, mostly from wild fisheries.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
The Congo Basin is the sedimentary basin of the Congo River.
Conodonts (Greek kōnos, "cone", + odont, "tooth") are extinct agnathan chordates resembling eels, classified in the class Conodonta.
Copeia is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in ichthyology and herpetology that was named after Edward Drinker Cope, a prominent American researcher in these fields.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
Corydoras is a genus of freshwater catfish in the family Callichthyidae and subfamily Corydoradinae.
Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.
A craniate is a member of the Craniata (sometimes called the Craniota), a proposed clade of chordate animals with a skull of hard bone or cartilage.
Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, crawldads, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
A culture hero is a mythological hero specific to some group (cultural, ethnic, religious, etc.) who changes the world through invention or discovery.
Current Biology is a scientific journal that covers all areas of biology, especially molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, neurobiology, ecology and evolutionary biology.
Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs. Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from, with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching in mantle length and over in mass. Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates. (television program) NOVA, PBS, April 3, 2007. Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates. The 'cuttle' in 'cuttlefish' comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi ('cushion') and the Middle Low German Kudel ('rag'). The Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The word for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, now refers to the reddish-brown color sepia in English.
Cyclostomata is a group of agnathans that comprises the living jawless fishes: the lampreys and hagfishes.
A cylinder seal is a small round cylinder, typically about one inch in length, engraved with written characters or figurative scenes or both, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a two-dimensional surface, generally wet clay.
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (also CyHV-3, koi herpes virus, or KHV), is a species of virus causing a viral disease that is very contagious to the common carp Cyrpinus carpio.
The Cyprinidae are the family of freshwater fishes, collectively called cyprinids, that includes the carps, the true minnows, and their relatives (for example, the barbs and barbels).
Cypriniformes is an order of ray-finned fish, including the carps, minnows, loaches and relatives.
Deep-sea fish are fish that live in the darkness below the sunlit surface waters, that is below the epipelagic or photic zone of the sea.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
The Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) is a species of fish native to Devils Hole (Nevada, U.S.), a geothermal aquifer-fed pool within a limestone cavern, in the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge east of Death Valley.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
A digit is one of several most distal parts of a limb, such as fingers or toes, present in many vertebrates.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
An eel is any ray-finned fish belonging to the order Anguilliformes, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and about 800 species.
An egg case or egg capsule is the casing that surrounds the eggs of oviparous sharks, skates, and chimaeras.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
Elasmobranchii is a subclass of Chondrichthyes or cartilaginous fish, including the sharks (superorder Selachii) and the rays, skates, and sawfish (superorder Batoidea).
The electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) is a South American electric fish, and the only species in its genus.
An electric fish is any fish that can generate electric fields.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Enki (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)) is the Sumerian god of water, knowledge (gestú), mischief, crafts (gašam), and creation (nudimmud).
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
The Erythrinidae are a family of fishes found in rivers and other freshwater habitats from Costa Rica south as far as Argentina.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
An eyespot (sometimes ocellus) is an eye-like marking.
Feeding the multitude is a term used to refer to two separate miracles of Jesus reported in the Gospels.
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure.
Finding Nemo is a 2003 American computer-animated adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures.
The chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia (also First Babylonian Empire) is debated as there is a Babylonian King List A and a Babylonian King List B. In this chronology, the regnal years of List A are used due to their wide usage.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fish are vertebrates with gills that live in water.
Fish acute toxicity syndrome (FATS) is a set of common chemical and functional responses in fish resulting from a short-term, acute exposure to a lethal concentration of a toxicant, a chemical or material that can produce an unfavorable effect in a living organism.
Fish anatomy is the study of the form or morphology of fishes.
Many species of fish are consumed as food in virtually all regions around the world.
The development of fishes is unique in some specific aspects compared to the development of other animals.
Fish farming or pisciculture involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such as fish ponds, usually for food.
A fish hook or fishhook is a device for catching fish either by impaling them in the mouth or, more rarely, by snagging the body of the fish.
Fish intelligence is "...the resultant of the process of acquiring, storing in memory, retrieving, combining, comparing, and using in new contexts information and conceptual skills" as it applies to fish.
Most bony fishes have two sets of jaws made mainly of bone.
The skin of most fishes is covered with scales, which, in many cases, are animal reflectors or produce animal coloration.
Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are traditionally regarded as the significant factors determining the stock's population dynamics, while extrinsic factors (immigration and emigration) are traditionally ignored.
FishBase is a global species database of fish species (specifically finfish).
Fisheries science is the academic discipline of managing and understanding fisheries.
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.
Fishes of the World by Joseph S. Nelson is a standard reference for fish systematics.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products.
A fishing line is a cord used or made for angling.
A fishing reel is a cylindrical device attached to a fishing rod used in winding and stowing line.
A fishing rod is a long, flexible rod used to catch fish.
Fishkeeping is a popular hobby, practiced by aquarists, concerned with keeping fish in a home aquarium or garden pond.
Flounders are a group of flatfish species.
Follicular atresia is the breakdown of the ovarian follicles, which consist of an oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells and internal and external theca cells.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Forage fish, also called prey fish or bait fish, are small pelagic fish which are preyed on by larger predators for food.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
Freshwater fish are those that spend some or all of their lives in fresh water, such as rivers and lakes, with a salinity of less than 0.05%.
Galeaspida (from Latin, "Helmet shields") is an extinct taxon of jawless marine and freshwater fish.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Gars (or garpike) are members of the Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes), an ancient holosteian order of ray-finned fish; fossils from this order are known from the Late Jurassic onwards.
The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), also known as the brindlebass, brown spotted cod, or bumblebee grouper, and as the Queensland groper in Australia, is the largest bony fish found in coral reefs, and the aquatic emblem of Queensland.
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.
Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates.
Gobies are fishes of the family Gobiidae, one of the largest fish families comprising more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera.
The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes.
Splitfins are a family, Goodeidae, of teleost fish endemic to Mexico and some areas of the United States.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
Gouramis, or gouramies, are a group of freshwater anabantiform fishes that comprise the family Osphronemidae.
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), commonly known as the great white or the white shark, is a species of large mackerel shark which can be found in the coastal surface waters of all the major oceans.
Gudgeon is the common name for a number of small freshwater fish of the families Cyprinidae, Eleotridae or Ptereleotridae.
The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), also known as millionfish and rainbow fish, is one of the world's most widely distributed tropical fish, and one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species.
The Gymnotiformes are a group of teleost bony fishes commonly known as the Neotropical or South American knifefish.
The hadal zone (named after the realm of Hades, the underworld in Greek mythology), also known as the hadopelagic zone, is the deepest region of the ocean lying within oceanic trenches.
Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.
Haemulon flavolineatum, the French grunt, is a species of grunt native to the western Atlantic Ocean from South Carolina and Bermuda to Brazil as well as the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.
Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).
The halfbeaks (family Hemiramphidae) are a geographically widespread and numerically abundant family of epipelagic fish inhabiting warm waters around the world.
A hamlet is a fish of the genus Hypoplectrus that is found mainly in coral reefs in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, particularly around Florida and the Bahamas.
Hans Christian Andersen (2 April 1805 – 4 August 1875) was a Danish author.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
The hillstream loaches or river loaches are a family, the Balitoridae, of small fish from South, Southeast and East Asia.
The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).
The subclass Holocephali ("complete heads") is a taxon of cartilaginous fish in the class Chondrichthyes.
Holostei are bony fish.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Homeothermy or homothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The horn shark (Heterodontus francisci) is a species of bullhead shark, in the family Heterodontidae.
A horror film is a film that seeks to elicit a physiological reaction, such as an elevated heartbeat, through the use of fear and shocking one’s audiences.
Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, is the typical temperature range found in humans.
Hyperoartia or Petromyzontida is a disputed group of vertebrates that includes the modern lampreys and their fossil relatives.
Hypostomus plecostomus, the suckermouth catfish or common pleco, ('hypo'.
Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthys, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study"), also known as fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish.
Ichthyoplankton (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthus, "fish"; and πλαγκτός, planktos, "drifter") are the eggs and larvae of fish.
The ichthys or ichthus, from the Greek ikhthýs (ἰχθύς 1st cent. AD Koine Greek, "fish") is a symbol consisting of two intersecting arcs, the ends of the right side extending beyond the meeting point so as to resemble the profile of a fish.
In Māori mythology, Ikaroa is the long fish that gave birth to all the stars in the Milky Way or the Mother Goddess of all the stars – ornaments of the Sky God.
The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indo-Pacific, sometimes known as the Indo-West Pacific, is a biogeographic region of Earth's seas, comprising the tropical waters of the Indian Ocean, the western and central Pacific Ocean, and the seas connecting the two in the general area of Indonesia.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food.
Jaws is a 1975 American thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on Peter Benchley's 1974 novel of the same name.
Jaws is a 1974 novel by American writer Peter Benchley.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Jonah or Jonas is the name given in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) to a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BCE.
Joseph (Joe) Schieser Nelson (April 12, 1937 – August 9, 2011) was an American ichthyologist.
The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
or more specifically, are colored varieties of Amur carp (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) that are kept for decorative purposes in outdoor koi ponds or water gardens.
Lake Victoria (Nam Lolwe in Luo; Nalubaale in Luganda; Nyanza in Kinyarwanda and some Bantu languages) is one of the African Great Lakes.
The Lamnidae are the family of mackerel or white sharks. They are large, fast-swimming sharks, found in oceans worldwide.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
Lampriformes is an order of ray-finned fish.
Lampris guttatus, commonly known as the opah, cravo, moonfish, kingfish, and Jerusalem haddock, is a large, colorful, deep-bodied pelagic lampriform fish belonging to the family Lampridae, which comprises the genus Lampris.
The lateral line is a system of sense organs found in aquatic vertebrates, used to detect movement, vibration, and pressure gradients in the surrounding water.
A lek, from the Swedish word for "play", is an aggregation of male animals gathered to engage in competitive displays, lekking, to entice visiting females which are surveying prospective partners for copulation.
The lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris) is a stocky and powerful shark.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
Leydig's organ (named after the German histologist Franz Leydig who first described it in 1857) is a unique structure that is only found in elasmobranchs (sharks and rays), although some elasmobranchs lack this organ.
A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.
The Lissamphibia are a group of tetrapods that includes all modern amphibians.
This is a list of common fish names.
This is a list of fish families sorted alphabetically by scientific name.
In fishkeeping, suitable species of aquarium fish, plants and other organisms vary with the size, water chemistry and temperature of the aquarium.
Live-bearing aquarium fish, often simply called livebearers, are fish that retain the eggs inside the body and give birth to live, free-swimming young.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Loricariidae is the largest family of catfish (order Siluriformes), with 92 genera and just over 680 species to date, with new species being described each year.
The pikehead (Luciocephalus puncher) is a species of gourami native to the Malaya Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
Marine vertebrates are vertebrates which live in a marine environment.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
Matsya (मत्स्य, lit. fish), is the fish avatar in the ten primary avatars of Hindu god Vishnu.
Matthew 4:19 is the nineteenth verse of the fourth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament.
The Mekong is a trans-boundary river in Southeast Asia.
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
Fish and shellfish concentrate mercury in their bodies, often in the form of methylmercury, a highly toxic organic compound of mercury.
In folklore, a mermaid is an aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
The metencephalon is the embryonic part of the hindbrain that differentiates into the pons and the cerebellum.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
In biology, a monotypic taxon is a taxonomic group (taxon) that contains only one immediately subordinate taxon.
Moray eels, or Muraenidae, are a cosmopolitan family of eels.
The family Mormyridae, sometimes called "elephantfish" (more properly freshwater elephantfish), are freshwater fish in the order Osteoglossiformes native to Africa.
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
Mudskippers are amphibious fish, presently included in the subfamily Oxudercinae, within the family Gobiidae (gobies).
The myelencephalon or afterbrain is the most posterior region of the embryonic hindbrain, from which the medulla oblongata develops.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Neil Shubin (born December 22, 1960) is an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
Neopterygii are a group of fish.
Neoteny, (also called juvenilization)Montagu, A. (1989).
The freshwater fishes of tropical South and Central America represent one of the most diverse and extreme aquatic ecosystems on Earth, with more than 5,600 species, representing about 10% all living vertebrate species.
The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) is a species of freshwater fish in family Latidae of order Perciformes.
A nostril (or naris, plural nares) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening.
In anatomy, the notochord is a flexible rod made out of a material similar to cartilage.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell.
An oocyte, oöcyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction.
An oogonium (plural oogonia) is a small diploid cell which upon maturation forms a primordial follicle in a female fetus or the female (haploid or diploid) gametangium of certain thallophytes.
Oophagy sometimes ovophagy, literally "egg eating", is the practice of embryos feeding on eggs produced by the ovary while still inside the mother's uterus.
The operculum is a series of bones found in bony fish that serves as a facial support structure and a protective covering for the gills; it is also used for respiration and feeding.
Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.
The class Osteostraci ("Bony Shields") is an extinct taxon of bony-armored jawless fish, termed "ostracoderms", that lived in what is now North America, Europe and Russia from the Middle Silurian to Late Devonian.
The ostium of the uterine tube (plural ostia) may refer to the proximal or distal opening of the tube also called the Fallopian tube.
Ostracoderms ("shell-skinned") are the armored jawless fishes of the Paleozoic.
An otolith (ὠτο-, ōto- ear + λῐ́θος, líthos, a stone), also called statoconium or otoconium or statolith, is a calcium carbonate structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear, specifically in the vestibular system of vertebrates.
An ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
In vertebrates, other than mammals, the passageway from the ovaries to the outside of the body is known as the oviduct.
Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother.
Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) is a species of hagfish.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Paddlefish (family Polyodontidae) are basal Chondrostean ray-finned fish.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) is an endangered species of ray-finned fish, endemic to the waters of the Missouri and lower Mississippi river basins of the United States.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
Perch is a common name for fish of the genus Perca, freshwater gamefish belonging to the family Percidae.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Photopic vision is the vision of the eye under well-lit conditions (luminance level 10 to 108 cd/m2).
Phreatobius is a genus of very small catfishes (order Siluriformes) from tropical South America.
Phylogenetic nomenclature, often called cladistic nomenclature, is a method of nomenclature for taxa in biology that uses phylogenetic definitions for taxon names as explained below.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Piranha is a 1978 American satirical B horror film directed and co-edited by Joe Dante, and starring Bradford Dillman, Heather Menzies, Kevin McCarthy, Keenan Wynn, Barbara Steele and Dick Miller.
Pisces (♓️) (Ἰχθύες Ikhthyes) is the twelfth astrological sign in the Zodiac.
Pisces is a constellation of the zodiac.
Piscis Austrinus is a constellation in the southern celestial hemisphere.
The Pituriaspida ("Pituri Shield") are a small group of extinct armored jawless fishes with tremendous nose-like rostrums, which lived in the marine, deltaic environments of Middle Devonian Australia (about 390 Ma).
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Placentalia ("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.
Placodermi (from the Greek πλάξ.
Litterfall, plant litter, leaf litter, tree litter, soil litter, or duff, is dead plant material (such as leaves, bark, needles, twigs, and cladodes) that have fallen to the ground.
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
The Polynesians are a subset of Austronesians native to the islands of Polynesia that speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.
A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial or recreational value.
The porbeagle (Lamna nasus) is a species of mackerel shark in the family Lamnidae, distributed widely in the cold and temperate marine waters of the North Atlantic and Southern Hemisphere.
Pregnancy has been traditionally defined as the period during which developing embryos are incubated in the body after egg-sperm union.
Pronephros is the most basic of the three excretory organs that develop in vertebrates, corresponding to the first stage of kidney development.
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In biology, a filament is a "long chain of proteins, such as those found in hair, muscle, or in flagella".
Protopterus is the genus of four species of lungfish found in Africa.
Pteraspidomorphi is an extinct class of early jawless fish.
The Queensland lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri), also known as the Australian lungfish, Burnett salmon and barramunda, is a surviving member of the family Neoceratodontidae and order Ceratodontiformes.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America.
Recreational fishing, also called sport fishing, is fishing for pleasure or competition.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
The red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), also known as channel bass, redfish, puppy drum spottail bass, or simply red, is a game fish found in the Atlantic Ocean from Massachusetts to Florida and in the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to northern Mexico.
The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is a venomous coral reef fish in the family Scorpaenidae, order Scorpaeniformes.
The red-bellied piranha, also known as the red piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri), is a species of piranha native to South America, found in the Amazon, Paraguay, Paraná and Essequibo basins, as well as coastal rivers of northeastern Brazil.
The reedfish, ropefish (more commonly used in the United States), or snakefish, Erpetoichthys calabaricus, is a species of freshwater fish in the bichir family and order.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
A reticular cell is a type of fibroblast that synthesizes collagen alpha-1(III) and uses it to produce reticular fibers.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) is a charity operating in England and Wales that promotes animal welfare.
Saccopharyngiformes is an order of unusual ray-finned fish, superficially similar to eels, but with multiple internal differences.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the order Salmoniformes.
Salvelinus is a genus of salmonid fish often called char or charr; some species are called "trout".
The sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus), grey nurse shark, spotted ragged-tooth shark, or blue-nurse sand tiger is a species of shark that inhabits subtropical and temperate waters worldwide.
The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.
Sardinops is a monotypic genus of sardines of the family Clupeidae.
In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek λεπίς lepis, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animal's skin to provide protection.
Schindleria brevipinguis is a species of marine fish in family Schindleriidae of Perciformes.
Scoloplax is the only genus in the catfish (order Siluriformes) family Scoloplacidae, the spiny dwarf catfishes.
Scombroidei is a suborder of the Perciformes, the largest order of fish.
Scorpaenidae (also known as the scorpionfish) are a family of mostly marine fish that includes many of the world's most venomous species.
Scotopic vision is the vision of the eye under low-light levels.
The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a parasitic lamprey native to the Northern Hemisphere.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
Seahorse (also written sea-horse and sea horse) is the name given to 54 species of small marine fishes in the genus Hippocampus.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seminiferous tubules are located within the testes, and are the specific location of meiosis, and the subsequent creation of male gametes, namely spermatozoa.
Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.
The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.
The Serranidae are a large family of fishes belonging to the order Perciformes.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
Shark Tale is a 2004 American computer-animated comedy film produced by DreamWorks Animation and directed by Vicky Jenson, Bibo Bergeron and Rob Letterman.
Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are shoaling (pronounced), and if the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are schooling (pronounced). In common usage, the terms are sometimes used rather loosely.
The shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), also known as the blue pointer or bonito shark, is a large mackerel shark.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
The sinus venosus is a large quadrangular cavity which precedes the atrium on the venous side of the chordate heart.
Skates are cartilaginous fish belonging to the family Rajidae in the superorder Batoidea of rays.
The slender seahorse or longsnout seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) is a species of fish in the family Syngnathidae.
The snakeheads are members of the freshwater perciform fish family Channidae, native to parts of Africa and Asia.
Snakehead Terror is a 2004 science fiction-horror television film.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
A spermatogonium (plural: spermatogonia) is an undifferentiated male germ cell.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
A spiral valve or scroll valve is the corkscrew-shaped lower portion of the intestine of some sharks, Acipenseriformes (sturgeon and paddlefish), rays, skates, bichirs, and lungfishes.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
Streamlines, streaklines and pathlines are field lines in a fluid flow.
Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.
A subterranean river is a river that runs wholly or partly beneath the ground surface – one where the riverbed does not represent the surface of the Earth (rivers flowing in gorges are not classed as subterranean).
Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.
A Surah (also spelled Sura; سورة, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran.
The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.
The surfperches are a family of perciform fishes, Embiotocidae.
The swim bladder, gas bladder, fish maw or air bladder is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of many bony fish (but not cartilaginous fish) to control their buoyancy, and thus to stay at their current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming.
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.
Mary Temple Grandin (born August 29, 1947) is an American professor of animal science at Colorado State University, consultant to the livestock industry on animal behavior, and autism spokesperson.
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts).
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
The Tetraodontidae are a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Old Man and the Sea is a short novel written by the American author Ernest Hemingway in 1951 in Cuba, and published in 1952.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thelodonti (from Greek: "feeble teeth")Maisey, John G., Craig Chesek, and David Miller.
Thresher sharks are large lamniform sharks of the family Alopiidae found in all temperate and tropical oceans of the world; the family contains four species, all within the genus Alopias.
Thriller is a broad genre of literature, film and television, having numerous, often overlapping subgenres.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
Tilapia is the common name for nearly a hundred species of cichlid fish from the tilapiine cichlid tribe.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).
A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
An underground lake or subterranean lake is a lake under the surface of the Earth.
In taxonomy, an undescribed taxon is a taxon (for example, a species) that has been discovered, but not yet formally described and named.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet (2194 m), between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vision is an important sensory system for most species of fish.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
Among animals, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent, eventually leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body.
A walking fish, or ambulatory fish, is a fish that is able to travel over land for extended periods of time.
Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is a slow-moving, filter-feeding carpet shark and the largest known extant fish species.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial value.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored.
Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.
The yolk sac is a membranous sac attached to an embryo, formed by cells of the hypoblast adjacent to the embryonic disk.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
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