61 relations: Actinide, Alpha decay, Arms control, Atomic number, Beta decay, Beta-decay stable isobars, Binding energy, Breeder reactor, Chemical element, Electronvolt, Enriched uranium, Even and odd atomic nuclei, Exponential decay, Fast-neutron reactor, Fermium, Fertile material, Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, Gamma ray, Half-life, Inelastic scattering, Isobar (nuclide), Isotope, Isotopes of neptunium, Isotopes of thorium, Kinetic energy, Mass number, Metastability, Metre per second, Natural uranium, Naturally occurring radioactive material, Neutron, Neutron capture, Neutron cross section, Neutron number, Neutron temperature, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear engineering, Nuclear explosive, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear weapon yield, Nucleon, Nuclide, Plutonium-239, Plutonium-240, Plutonium-241, ..., Proton, Radium, Scare quotes, Special nuclear material, Spontaneous fission, Subset, Thermal-neutron reactor, Thorium, Uranium-233, Uranium-235, Uranium-238. Expand index (11 more) » « Shrink index
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Arms control is a term for international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of small arms, conventional weapons, and weapons of mass destruction.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Beta-decay stable isobars are the set of nuclides which cannot undergo beta decay, that is, the transformation of a neutron to a proton or a proton to a neutron within the nucleus.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
In nuclear physics, properties of a nucleus depend on evenness or oddness of its atomic number Z, neutron number N and, consequently, of their sum, the mass number A. Most notably, oddness of both Z and N tends to lower the nuclear binding energy, making odd nuclei, generally, less stable.
A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.
A fast-neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons, as opposed to thermal neutrons used in thermal-neutron reactors.
Fermium is a synthetic element with symbol Fm and atomic number 100.
Fertile material is a material that, although not itself fissionable by thermal neutrons, can be converted into a fissile material by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions.
The Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) is a proposed international treaty to prohibit the further production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other explosive devices.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
In chemistry, nuclear physics, and particle physics, inelastic scattering is a fundamental scattering process in which the kinetic energy of an incident particle is not conserved (in contrast to elastic scattering).
Isobars are atoms (nuclides) of different chemical elements that have the same number of nucleons.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Neptunium (93Np) is usually considered an artificial element, although trace quantities are found in nature, so thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
Metre per second (American English: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds.
Natural uranium (NU, Unat) refers to uranium with the same isotopic ratio as found in nature.
Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) consist of materials, usually industrial wastes or by-products enriched with radioactive elements found in the environment, such as uranium, thorium and potassium and any of their decay products, such as radium and radon.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.
The neutron number, symbol N, is the number of neutrons in a nuclide.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of breaking down atomic nuclei (fission) or of combining atomic nuclei (fusion), or with the application of other sub-atomic processes based on the principles of nuclear physics.
A nuclear explosive is an explosive device that derives its energy from nuclear reactions.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy released when that particular nuclear weapon is detonated, usually expressed as a TNT equivalent (the standardized equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene which, if detonated, would produce the same energy discharge), either in kilotons (kt—thousands of tons of TNT), in megatons (Mt—millions of tons of TNT), or sometimes in terajoules (TJ).
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
Plutonium-240 (/Pu-240) is an isotope of the actinide metal plutonium formed when plutonium-239 captures a neutron.
Plutonium-241 (Pu-241) is an isotope of plutonium formed when plutonium-240 captures a neutron.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Scare quotes (also called shudder quotes,Pinker, Steven. The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person's Guide to Writing in the 21st Century. Penguin (2014) sneer quotes, and quibble marks) are quotation marks a writer places around a word or phrase to signal that they are using it in a non-standard, ironic, or otherwise special sense.
Special nuclear material is a term used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the United States to classify fissile materials.
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
In mathematics, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.
A thermal-neutron reactor is a nuclear reactor that uses slow or thermal neutrons.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.