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Fitna (word)

Index Fitna (word)

Fitna (or, pl.; فتنة, فتن: "temptation, trial; sedition, civil strife"Wehr (1976), p. 696.) is an Arabic word with extensive connotations of trial, affliction, or distress. [1]

32 relations: Arabic-English Lexicon, Caliphate, Classical Arabic, Connotation, Edward William Lane, First Expedition to Badr, First Fitna, Fitna of al-Andalus, Fourth Fitna, Harut and Marut, Hebrew language, Hegira, Ibn Kathir, Lexical item, Mecca, Modern Standard Arabic, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Quran, Quraysh, Raid on Nakhla, Second Fitna, Semantics, Semitic languages, Semitic root, Shirk (Islam), Ta'if, Temptation, Third Fitna, Waqid ibn Abdullah, William Muir, Zaqqum.

Arabic-English Lexicon

The Arabic–English Lexicon is an Arabic–English dictionary compiled by Edward William Lane (died 1876).

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A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Classical Arabic

Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.

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A connotation is a commonly understood cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to its explicit or literal meaning, which is its denotation.

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Edward William Lane

Edward William Lane (17 September 1801 – 10 August 1876) was a British Orientalist, translator and lexicographer.

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First Expedition to Badr

The First Expedition to Badr or the Preliminary Badr Invasion occurred in the year 2 AH of the Islamic calendar, in the month of Rabi ul Awal.

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First Fitna

The First Fitna (فتنة مقتل عثمان fitnat maqtal ʿUthmān "strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman") was a civil war within the Rashidun Caliphate which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty.

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Fitna of al-Andalus

The Fitna of al-Andalus (فتنة الأندلس.) (1009–1031) was a period of instability and civil war that preceded the ultimate collapse of the Caliphate of Córdoba.

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Fourth Fitna

The Fourth Fitna or Great Abbasid Civil WarKennedy (2004), p. 147 resulted from the conflict between the brothers al-Amin and al-Ma'mun over the succession to the throne of the Abbasid Caliphate.

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Harut and Marut

Harut and Marut (هَـارُوت وَمَـارُوت, Hārūṫ wa-Mārūṫ) are the two angels mentioned in the second surah of the Quran, who were present during the reign of Sulaymân (سُـلَـيْـمَـان, Solomon), and were located at Bābil (بَـابِـل, Babylon).

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Hebrew language

No description.

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The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.

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Ibn Kathir

Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria.

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Lexical item

In lexicography, a lexical item (or lexical unit/ LU, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (.

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Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.

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Muawiyah I

Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.

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Raid on Nakhla

The Raid on Nakhla was the seventh Caravan Raid and the first successful raid against the Meccans.

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Second Fitna

The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic empire during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I. Historians date its start variously as 680 AD and its end as being somewhere between 685 and 692.

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Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Semitic root

The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).

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Shirk (Islam)

In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.

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Ta'if (الطائف) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains (Al-Sarawat Mountains).

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Temptation is a desire to engage in short-term urges for enjoyment, that threatens long-term goals.

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Third Fitna

The Third Fitna (الفتنة الثاﻟﺜـة; al-Fitna al-thālitha), was a series of civil wars and uprisings against the Umayyad Caliphate beginning with the overthrow of Caliph al-Walid II in 744 and ending with the victory of Marwan II over the various rebels and rivals for the caliphate in 747.

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Waqid ibn Abdullah

Waqid ibn Abdullah was a companion of Muhammad who participated in the Nakhla Raid during Muhammad's era.

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William Muir

Sir William Muir, KCSI (27 April 1819 – 11 July 1905) was a Scottish Orientalist, scholar of Islam, and colonial administrator, serving as Principal of the University of Edinburgh and Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Provinces of India.

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According to the Quran, Zaqqum (زقوم) is a tree that "springs out of the bottom of hell-fire" or Jahannam.

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Al-Fitnah, فتنة.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fitna_(word)

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