66 relations: Albert Einstein, Alternation (geometry), Circle group, Coordinate system, Coxeter element, Cross-polytope, Cube, Demihypercube, Dimension, Edward Witten, Electromagnetism, Equilateral triangle, Euclidean space, Fundamental interaction, Gauge theory, General relativity, Gerard 't Hooft, Germany, Graviton, Gravity, Hermann Weyl, Hilbert space, Holographic principle, Hypercube, Hypersphere, Kaluza–Klein theory, Large Hadron Collider, M-theory, Massless particle, Mathematics, Membrane, Minkowski space, Oskar Klein, Peter Bergmann, Physics, Real number, Regular polytope, Riemann curvature tensor, Scalar (physics), Simplex, Space, Spacetime, Square, String theory, Strong interaction, Supergravity, Sweden, Symmetry (physics), Tesseract, Tetrahedron, ..., Theodor Kaluza, Theory of relativity, Time, Triangle, Tuple, Unified field theory, Universe, Valentine Bargmann, Weak interaction, 16-cell, 5-cell, 5-cube, 5-demicube, 5-manifold, 5-orthoplex, 5-simplex. Expand index (16 more) » « Shrink index
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist.
In geometry, an alternation or partial truncation, is an operation on a polygon, polyhedron, tiling, or higher dimensional polytope that removes alternate vertices.
In mathematics, the circle group, denoted by T, is the multiplicative group of all complex numbers with absolute value 1, i.e., the unit circle in the complex plane or simply the unit complex numbers The circle group forms a subgroup of C×, the multiplicative group of all nonzero complex numbers.
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of a point or other geometric element on a manifold such as Euclidean space.
In mathematics, the Coxeter number h is the order of a Coxeter element of an irreducible Coxeter group.
In geometry, a cross-polytope, orthoplex, hyperoctahedron, or cocube is a regular, convex polytope that exists in any number of dimensions.
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.
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In geometry, demihypercubes (also called n-demicubes, n-hemicubes, and half measure polytopes) are a class of n-polytopes constructed from alternation of an n-hypercube, labeled as hγn for being half of the hypercube family, γn.
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.
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Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
In geometry, an equilateral triangle is a triangle in which all three sides are equal.
In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.
Fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions in physical systems that don't appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under a continuous group of local transformations.
General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
Gerardus (Gerard) 't Hooft (born July 5, 1946) is a Dutch theoretical physicist and professor at Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
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In physics, the graviton is a hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravitation in the framework of quantum field theory.
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Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or 'gravitate' towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles.
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Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, (9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher.
The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space.
The holographic principle is a property of string theories and a supposed property of quantum gravity that states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a boundary to the region—preferably a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon.
In geometry, a hypercube is an n-dimensional analogue of a square (n.
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In geometry of higher dimensions, a hypersphere is the set of points at a constant distance from a given point called its center.
In physics, Kaluza–Klein theory (KK theory) is a unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism built around the idea of a fifth dimension beyond the usual four of space and time.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the largest, most complex experimental facility ever built, and the largest single machine in the world.
M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory.
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In particle physics, a massless particle is a particle whose invariant mass is theoretically zero.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.
A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others.
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In mathematical physics, Minkowski space or Minkowski spacetime is a combination of Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.
Oskar Benjamin Klein (September 15, 1894 – February 5, 1977) was a Swedish theoretical physicist.
Peter Gabriel Bergmann (Berlin, 24 March 1915 – Seattle, 19 October 2002) was a German-American physicist best known for his work with Albert Einstein on a unified field theory encompassing all physical interactions.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phúsis "nature") is the natural science that involves the study of matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization, and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
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In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a continuous line.
In mathematics, a regular polytope is a polytope whose symmetry is transitive on its flags, thus giving it the highest degree of symmetry.
In the mathematical field of differential geometry, the Riemann curvature tensor or Riemann–Christoffel tensor (after Bernhard Riemann and Elwin Bruno Christoffel) is the most common method used to express the curvature of Riemannian manifolds.
In physics, a scalar is a one-dimensional physical quantity, i.e. one that can be described by a single real number (sometimes signed, often with units), in other words a scalar is a physical quantity that only has magnitude but no direction, unlike (or as a special case of) vectors, tensors, etc.
In geometry, a simplex (plural: simplexes or simplices) is a generalization of the notion of a triangle or tetrahedron to arbitrary dimensions.
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Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
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In physics, spacetime (also space–time, space time or space–time continuum) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single interwoven continuum.
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In geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles (90-degree angles, or right angles).
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In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force, nuclear strong force or colour force), one of the four fundamental interactions of nature, the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction and gravitation.
In theoretical physics, supergravity (supergravity theory; SUGRA for short) is a field theory that combines the principles of supersymmetry and general relativity.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
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In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation.
In geometry, the tesseract is the four-dimensional analog of the cube; the tesseract is to the cube as the cube is to the square.
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In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each corner or vertex.
Theodor Franz Eduard Kaluza (9 November 1885, Wilhelmsthal, today part of Opole in Poland – 19 January 1954, Göttingen) was a German mathematician and physicist known for the Kaluza–Klein theory involving field equations in five-dimensional space.
The theory of relativity, or simply relativity in physics, usually encompasses two theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
Time is a measure in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure of durations of events and the intervals between them.
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A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.
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A tuple is a finite ordered list of elements.
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In physics, a unified field theory (UFT), occasionally referred to as a uniform field theory, is a type of field theory that allows all that is usually thought of as fundamental forces and elementary particles to be written in terms of a single field.
The Universe is all of time and space and its contents.
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Valentine "Valya" Bargmann (April 6, 1908 – July 20, 1989) was a German-born American mathematician and theoretical physicist.
In particle physics, the weak interaction is the mechanism responsible for the weak force or weak nuclear force, one of the four known fundamental interactions of nature, alongside the strong interaction, electromagnetism, and gravitation.
In four-dimensional geometry, a 16-cell, is a regular convex 4-polytope.
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In geometry, the 5-cell is a four-dimensional object bounded by 5 tetrahedral cells.
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In five-dimensional geometry, a 5-cube is a name for a five-dimensional hypercube with 32 vertices, 80 edges, 80 square faces, 40 cubic cells, and 10 tesseract 4-faces.
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In five-dimensional geometry, a demipenteract or 5-demicube is a semiregular 5-polytope, constructed from a 5-hypercube (penteract) with alternated vertices truncated.
In mathematics, a 5-manifold is a 5-dimensional topological manifold, possibly with a piecewise linear or smooth structure.
In five-dimensional geometry, a 5-orthoplex, or 5-cross polytope, is a five-dimensional polytope with 10 vertices, 40 edges, 80 triangle faces, 80 tetrahedron cells, 32 5-cell 4-faces.
In five-dimensional geometry, a 5-simplex is a self-dual regular 5-polytope.
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