120 relations: Anhui, Annam (province), Beijing, Bo Yang, Cambria Press, Chai Rong, Changsha, Chengdu, China proper, Chinese sovereign, Chu (Ten Kingdoms), Conquest dynasty, Daming County, De facto, Dingnan Jiedushi, Dingzhou, Dunhuang, Dynasties in Chinese history, Edwin O. Reischauer, Emperor Taizong of Song, Emperor Taizu of Song, Emperor Zhaozong of Tang, Fengxiang County, Former Shu, Fujian, Fuzhou, Gansu, Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom, Gao Jixing, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guangzhou, Guiyi Circuit, Guo Wei, Hainan, Han Chinese, Hangzhou, Hebei, Henan, Historical Records of the Five Dynasties, History of China, Huang Chao, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jiedushi, Jingnan, Kaifeng, Khitan people, ..., Later Han (Five Dynasties), Later Jin (Five Dynasties), Later Liang (Five Dynasties), Later Shu, Later Tang, Later Zhou, Li Bian, Li Cunxu, Li Keyong, Li Maozhen, Liao dynasty, Liu Chong, Liu Rengong, Liu Shouguang, Liu Yan (emperor), Liu Yin (Southern Han), Liu Zhiyuan, Luo Shaowei, Luoyang, Ma Yin, Min Kingdom, Nanjing, North China, Northern and southern China, Northern Han, Northern Song Dynasty, Old History of the Five Dynasties, Ouyang Xiu, Oxford University Press, Qi (Li Maozhen's state), Qian Liu, Qingyuan Jiedushi, Shaanxi, Shan shui, Shanxi, Shatuo, Shi Jingtang, Sichuan, Sixteen Prefectures, Song conquest of Southern Tang, Song dynasty, South China, Southern Han, Southern Tang, Taiyuan, Tan Prefecture (Hunan), Tang dynasty, Taoism, Tuttle Publishing, Wang Chuzhi, Wang Gungwu, Wang Jian (Former Shu), Wang Rong (warlord), Wang Shenzhi, Wu (Ten Kingdoms), Wuhan, Wuwei, Gansu, Wuyue, Yan (Five Dynasties period), Yang Xingmi, Yangtze, Yangzhou, Yin (Five Dynasties period), You Prefecture, Zhao (Five Dynasties period), Zhejiang, Zhengding County, Zhongyuan, Zhu Wen, Zizhi Tongjian. Expand index (70 more) » « Shrink index
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.
Annam was the southernmost province of China after the Tang dynasty.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Bo Yang (7 March 1920. BBC News Online (Chinese). 29 April 2008. Accessed 30 April 2008. – 29 April 2008), sometimes also erroneously called Bai Yang, was a Chinese poet, essayist and historian based in Taiwan.
Cambria Press is an independent academic publisher based in Amherst, New York.
Chai Rong (柴榮) (27 October 921 – 27 July 959) or Guo Rong (郭榮), also known by his temple name Shizong (世宗), was the second emperor of imperial China's short-lived Later Zhou during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 954 until his death.
Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
The Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China.
Chǔ (楚), often referred to as Ma Chu (马楚) or Southern Chu (南楚) to distinguish it from other historical states called Chu, was a kingdom in southern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960).
A conquest dynasty in the history of imperial China refers to a dynasty established by non-Han peoples that ruled parts or all of the China proper, such as the Mongol Yuan dynasty and the Manchu Qing dynasty.
Daming County is a county under the jurisdiction of Handan City in far southern Hebei Province, China.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Dingnan Jiedushi (定難節度使), also known as Xiasui Jiedushi, was a military post known as a jiedushi created in 787 by the Tang dynasty and lasted until the early Song dynasty when its rulers declared the Western Xia.
Dingzhou, formerly romanized as Tingchow, is a county-level city with sub-prefecture-level city status, located in Baoding in the southwest of Hebei Province in northern China.
Dunhuang is a county-level city in northwestern Gansu Province, Western China.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
Edwin Oldfather Reischauer (October 15, 1910 – September 1, 1990) was an American educator and professor at Harvard University.
Emperor Taizong of Song (20 November 939 – 8 May 997), personal name Zhao Jiong, was the second emperor of the Song dynasty in China.
Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976) personal name Zhao Kuangyin, courtesy name Yuanlang, was the founder and first emperor of the Song dynasty in China.
Emperor Zhaozong of Tang (March 31, 867 – September 22, 904), né Li Jie, name later changed to Li Min and again to Li Ye, was the penultimate emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China.
Fengxiang County is a county administered by Baoji City in the west of Shaanxi province, People’s Republic of China.
Great Shu (Chinese: 大蜀, Pinyin: Dàshǔ) called in retrospect Former Shu (Chinese: 前蜀, Pinyin: Qiánshǔ) or occasionally Wang Shu (王蜀), was one of the Ten Kingdoms formed during the chaotic period between the rules of the Tang dynasty and the Song dynasty.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
The Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom, also referred to as the Hexi Uyghurs, was established in 894 around Gan Prefecture in modern Zhangye.
Gao Jixing (高季興) (858 – January 28, 929), né Gao Jichang (高季昌), known for some time as Zhu Jichang (朱季昌), courtesy name Yisun (貽孫), formally Prince Wuxin of Chu (楚武信王), was the founder of Jingnan, also known as Nanping, one of the states during the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
The Guiyi Circuit, also known as the Guiyi Army (848–1036 AD), was a regional regime nominally subordinate to the Chinese Tang dynasty and later on the Northern Song dynasty.
Guo Wei (郭威) (10 September 904 – 22 February 954), also known by his temple name Taizu (太祖), was the founding emperor of imperial China's short-lived Later Zhou during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 951 until his death.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
The Han Chinese,.
Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.
Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
The Historical Records of the Five Dynasties (Wudai Shiji) is a Chinese history book on the Five Dynasties period (907–960), written by the Song dynasty official Ouyang Xiu in private.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Huang Chao (835 – July 13, 884) was a Chinese smuggler, soldier, and rebel, and is most well known for being the leader of a major rebellion that severely weakened the Tang dynasty.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
The jiedushi were regional military governors in China during the Tang dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Jingnan (also called Nanping (南平)) was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created in 924, marking the beginning of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960).
Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China.
The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.
The Later Han was founded in 947.
The Later Jìn (936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.
The Later Liang (1 June 907 – 19 November 923), also known as Zhu Liang, was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.
Shu (referred to as Later Shu to differentiate it from other states named Shu in Chinese history), also known as Meng Shu, was one of the Ten Kingdoms during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.
Tang, known in history as Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty that lasted from 923 to 937 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in the history of China.
The Later Zhou was the last in a succession of five dynasties that controlled most of northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the gap between the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty.
Li Bian (7 January 889 – 30 March 943, courtesy name Zhenglun), known as Xu Gao between 937 and 939 and Xu Zhigao before 937, and possibly Li Pengnu during his childhood, also known posthumously by his temple name Liezu, was the founder and first emperor of the Southern Tang.
Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang, personal name Li Cunxu, nickname Yazi (亞子), was the Prince of Jin (908–923) and later became Emperor of Later Tang (923–926), of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period of Chinese history.
Li Keyong (October 24, 856 – February 23, 908) was a Shatuo military governor (Jiedushi) during the late Tang Dynasty and was key to developing a base of power for the Shatuo in what is today Shanxi Province in China.
Li Maozhen (856 – May 17, 924), born Song Wentong (宋文通), courtesy name Zhengchen (正臣), formally Prince Zhongjing of Qin (秦忠敬王), was the only ruler of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Qi (901–924).
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
Liu Min (劉旻) (895 – 954), named Liu Chong (劉崇) before 951, also known by his temple name Shizu (世祖), was the founding emperor of imperial China's Northern Han state during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Liu Rengong (劉仁恭) (died 914) was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who controlled Lulong Circuit (盧龍, headquartered in modern Beijing) from 895 (when his one-time lord Li Keyong conquered Lulong and left him in charge of it) to 907 (when he was overthrown by his son Liu Shouguang and put under house arrest).
Liu Shouguang (劉守光) (died February 12, 914) was a warlord early in the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period who controlled Lulong (盧龍, headquartered in modern Beijing) and Yichang (義昌, headquartered in modern Cangzhou, Hebei) Circuits, after seizing control from his father Liu Rengong and defeating his brother Liu Shouwen.
Liu Yan (Lưu Nghiễm; 889 – June 10, 942), né Liu Yan (劉巖), also known as Liu Zhi (劉陟) (from c. 896 to 911) and briefly as Liu Gong (劉龔), formally Tianhuang Dadi (天皇大帝) with the temple name Gaozu (高祖), was the first emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Southern Han.
Liu Yin (劉隱) (874New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 65. – April 4, 911Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 268..), formally Prince Xiang of Nanhai (南海襄王), later further posthumously honored Emperor Xiang (襄皇帝) with the temple name of Liezong (烈宗) by his younger brother Liu Yan, was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Tang's succeeding dynasty Later Liang of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, who ruled Qinghai Circuit (清海, headquartered in modern Guangzhou, Guangdong) as its military governor (Jiedushi).
Liu Zhiyuan (劉知遠) (March 4, 895 – March 10, 948), later changed to Liu Gao (劉暠), formally Emperor Gaozu of (Later) Han ((後)漢高祖), was the ethnically-Shatuo founder of the Later Han, the fourth of the Five Dynasties in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history. It, if the subsequent Northern Han is not considered part of its history, was also one of the shortest-lived states in Chinese history, lasting only three years.
Luo Shaowei (877History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 14.-July 4, 910Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 267..), courtesy name Duanji (端己), formally Prince Zhenzhuang of Ye (鄴貞莊王), was a warlord who ruled Weibo Circuit (魏博, headquartered in modern Handan, Hebei), also known as Tianxiong Circuit (天雄), as its military governor (Jiedushi), late in the Chinese Tang dynasty and early in Tang's successor state Later Liang.
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
Ma Yin (853-December 2, 930), courtesy name Batu (霸圖), formally King Wumu of Chu (楚武穆王), was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who became the first ruler of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Chu and the only one who carried the title of "king."Ma Yin's title was Wang (王) in Chinese, which could be translated as either "Prince" or "King" in English.
Min was one of the Ten Kingdoms which was in existence between the years of 909 and 945.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.
Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions are not precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities of the Chinese people.
The Northern Han kingdom was a state of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Northern Song Dynasty (2.4.960-3.20.1127) is an era of Song Dynasty.
The Old History of the Five Dynasties (Jiù Wǔdài Shǐ) was an official history of the Five Dynasties (907–960), which controlled much of northern China.
Ouyang Xiu (1 August 1007 – 22 September 1072), courtesy name Yongshu, also known by his art names Zuiweng ("Old Drunkard") and Liu Yi Jushi ("Retiree Six-One"), was a Chinese scholar-official, essayist, historian, poet, calligrapher, and epigrapher of the Song dynasty.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Qi was a kingdom during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in Chinese history.
Qian Liu (10 March 852.Spring and Autumn Annals of the Ten Kingdoms (十國春秋),. - 6 May 932,Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 277. courtesy name Jumei), known as Qian Poliu during his childhood, was a warlord of the late Tang dynasty who founded the Wuyue kingdom.
Qingyuan Jiedushi (清源節度使) (i.e., the Jiedushi of Qingyuan Circuit) was a military/governance office late in China's Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, later renamed to Pinghai Jiedushi (平海節度使).
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shan shui (pronounced) refers to a style of traditional Chinese painting that involves or depicts scenery or natural landscapes, using a brush and ink rather than more conventional paints.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
The Shatuo (or, also: Shato, Sha-t'o, Sanskrit Sart Zuev Yu.A., "Horse Tamgas from Vassal Princedoms (Translation of Chinese composition "Tanghuyao" of 8-10th centuries)", Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences, Alma-Ata, I960, p. 127 (In Russian)) were a Turkic tribe that heavily influenced northern Chinese politics from the late ninth century through the tenth century.
Shi Jingtang (石敬瑭) (30 March 892 – 28 July 942Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 283.), also known by his temple name Gaozu (高祖), was the founding emperor of imperial China's short-lived Later Jin during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 936 until his death.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
The Sixteen Prefectures, more specifically the Sixteen Prefectures of Yan and Yun or the Sixteen Prefectures of You and Ji, comprise a historical region in northern China along the Great Wall in present-day Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities and northern Hebei and Shanxi Province, that were ceded by the Shatuo Turk Emperor Shi Jingtang of the Later Jin to the Khitan Liao dynasty in 938.
In 975 AD the Song managed through force to subdue the state now known as Southern Tang, to distinguish it from the synonymously named Tang Dynasty, as part of a series of Song conquests to reunify China.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
South China or Southern China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China.
Southern Han (917–971), originally Great Yue, was one of the ten kingdoms that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Southern Tang (also referred to as Nantang), later known as Jiangnan (江南), was one of the Ten Kingdoms in Southern China created following the Tang dynasty from 937–976.
Taiyuan (also known as Bīng (并), Jìnyáng (晋阳)) is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in North China.
Tanzhou or Tan Prefecture (潭州) was a zhou (prefecture) in imperial China centering on modern Changsha, Hunan, China.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Tuttle Publishing, originally the Charles E. Tuttle Company, is a book publishing company that includes Tuttle, Periplus Editions, and Journey Editions.
Wang Chuzhi (王處直, Wade–Giles: Wang Chʻu-chih) (862–922), courtesy name Yunming (允明, Wade–Giles: Yün-ming), formally the Prince of Beiping (北平王, Wade–Giles: Prince of Pei-pʻing), was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and early in the subsequent Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, who ruled Yiwu Circuit (義武, headquartered in modern Baoding, Hebei) as its military governor (Jiedushi) from 900 (when his nephew Wang Gao, then military governor, fled under attack) and as its de jure sovereign from 910 (when he, along with his neighboring warlord Wang Rong the Prince of Zhao, broke away from Later Liang) to 921, when he was overthrown by his adoptive son Wang Du.
Wang Gungwu, (born 9 October 1930) is an Australian historian of overseas Chinese descent.
Wang Jian (王建) (847 – July 11, 918), courtesy name Guangtu (光圖), formally Emperor Gaozu of (Former) Shu ((前)蜀高祖), was the founding emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Former Shu.
Wang Rong (877?Old Book of Tang, vol. 142.New Book of Tang, vol. 211.History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 54.New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 54.Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 255.–921Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 271.), was a warlord in the final years of the Tang dynasty who later became the only ruler of the state of Zhao during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Wang Shenzhi (862 – December 30, 925), courtesy name Xintong (信通) or Xiangqing (詳卿), formally Prince Zhongyi of Min (閩忠懿王) and later further posthumously honored as Emperor Taizu of Min (閩太祖), was the founder of Min on the southeast coast of China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history.
Wu (吳), also referred to as Huainan (淮南), Hongnong (弘農), Southern Wu (南吳), or Yang Wu (楊吳), was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China which was in existence from 907 to 937.
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
Wuwei is a prefecture-level city in northwest central Gansu province.
Wuyue (Shanghainese), 907–978, was an independent coastal kingdom founded during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907–960) of Chinese history.
Yan (燕) was a very short lived kingdom in the vicinity of present-day Beijing at the beginning of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, which is traditionally dated as being from 907 to 960.
Yang Xingmi (852Spring and Autumn Annals of the Ten Kingdoms,. – December 24, 905.Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 265.), né Yang Xingmin (楊行愍, name changed 886), courtesy name Huayuan (化源), formally Prince Wuzhong of Wu (吳武忠王, "martial and faithful"), later posthumously honored King Xiaowu of Wu (吳孝武王, "filial and martial") then Emperor Wu of Wu (吳武帝) with the temple name of Taizu (太祖), was a military governor (Jiedushi) of Huainan Circuit (淮南, headquartered in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu) late in the Chinese Tang Dynasty, whose takeover of Huainan and several nearby circuits allowed him and his family to rule over territory that would eventually become the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms state Wu (although Yang Xingmi would be the first ruler in his line to receive the title of Prince of Wu, it was a Tang-bestowed title and did not denote independence of the state), including most of modern Jiangsu and Anhui and parts of modern Jiangxi and Hubei.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
Yangzhou, formerly romanized as Yangchow, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu Province, China.
The Yin was a short-lived kingdom during China’s Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the time between the fall of the Tang Dynasty and the foundation of the Song Dynasty.
You Prefecture or Province, also known by its Chinese name Youzhou, was a prefecture (zhou) in northern China during its imperial era.
Zhao (趙, ~910–~921) was a state early in the Five Dynasties period of the history of China in what is now central Hebei.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
Zhengding, originally Zhending and formerly romanized as Chengting, is a county of southwestern Hebei Province, China, located approximately south of Beijing.
Zhongyuan, Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu, Chungtu or Zhongzhou, Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.
Emperor Taizu of Later Liang (後梁太祖), personal name Zhu Quanzhong (朱全忠) (852–912), né Zhu Wen (朱溫), name later changed to Zhu Huang (朱晃), nickname Zhu San (朱三, literally, "the third Zhu"), was a Jiedushi (military governor) at the end of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who previously served as a general under the rival Emperor Huang Chao's Empire of Qi and overthrew Empire of Tang in 907, established the Later Liang as its emperor, and ushered in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.
The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, in the form of a chronicle.
10 Kingdoms, 5 Dynasties, 5 Dynasties and 10 Kingdoms, 5 Dynasties and 10 Kingdoms Period, Five Dynasties & Ten Kingdoms, Five Dynasties & Ten Kingdoms Period, Five Dynasties Era, Five Dynasties Ten Kingdoms, Five Dynasties Ten Kingdoms period, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, Five Dynasties and Ten States, Five Dynasties and the Ten Kingdoms Period, Five Dynasties period, Five dynasties and Ten kingdoms, Five dynasties and ten kingdoms period, Five dynasties and the Ten kingdoms, Five-Dynasty, Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, Period of the Five Dynasties and Ten States, Period of the Five Dynasties and the Ten Kingdoms, Shih-Kuo, Tang-Song transition, Ten Kingdoms period, The Five Dynasties and Ten States, The Period of the Five Dynasties and Ten States, Wu Dai Shi Guo, Wu Tai, Wu-Tai, Wu-tai period, Wudai, Wudai Shiguo.