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The "Five Eyes", often abbreviated as "FVEY", refer to an intelligence alliance comprising Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. [1]

247 relations: ABCA Armies, Activism, Aeroflot, Air and Space Interoperability Council, Al Jazeera, Alcatel-Lucent, Allies of World War II, Anglosphere, Anti-war movement, Asia-Pacific, Associated Press, Atlantic Charter, AUSCANNZUKUS, Australia, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Australian Federal Police, Australian Secret Intelligence Service, Australian Signals Directorate, Barack Obama, Barton Gellman, BBC, Behavioral targeting, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, British Empire, Canada, Canadian Global Affairs Institute, Canadian Security Intelligence Service, CBS News, Central Intelligence Agency, Chancellor of Germany, Charlie Dent, Chief of Defence Intelligence (Canada), Classified information, Clergy, Closed-circuit television, CNN, Cold War, Collective intelligence, Combined Communications Electronics Board, Comedian, Commonwealth of Nations, Communications Security Establishment, Communism, Computer and network surveillance, Constitutional law, David Cunliffe, Declassification, Defence Intelligence, Defence Intelligence Organisation, ..., Defense Intelligence Agency, Denmark, Der Spiegel, Deutsche Welle, Digital footprint, Directorate of Defence Intelligence and Security, Dixiecrat, East Timor, Eastern Bloc, ECHELON, Edward Snowden, Ehud Barak, Esko Seppänen, European Commission, European Parliament, European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, European Union, Evening Times, Extraordinary rendition, Facial recognition system, Fairfax New Zealand, Falklands War, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Financial Times, Five Nations Passport Group, Forensic profiling, France, France 24, Germany, Give Peace a Chance, Global surveillance, Google, Government Communications Headquarters, Government Communications Security Bureau, GPS tracking unit, Gulf War, Haaretz, Hacktivism, Hans Blix, Happy Xmas (War Is Over), Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Heinz Heise, Hong Kong, Human intelligence (intelligence gathering), Intelligence assessment, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Court of Justice, Internet, Iranian Kurdistan, Iraq War, Italy, Japan, John Key, Kofi Annan, Kuwait, Land mine, Le Monde, Le Nouvel Observateur, Leak, Legislator, Liberty (advocacy group), Lockheed Corporation, MasterCard, Mayor of Jerusalem, Megaupload, MI5, Military intelligence, Ministry of Defense (Israel), Model (people), Mohammad Mosaddegh, Muammar Gaddafi, MUSCULAR (surveillance program), National Post, National security, National Security Agency, Netherlands, New York (magazine), New York City, New Zealand, New Zealand Parliament, New Zealand Security Intelligence Service, News magazine, Newsweek, Nicky Hager, Nicolas Sarkozy, Norddeutscher Rundfunk, North Vietnam, Norway, NPR, NRK, Operation Yellowbird, Ottawa Citizen, Pacnet, Patrice Lumumba, Petrobras, Philanthropy, Post-war, President of Indonesia, President of Iran, President of South Africa, Prime Minister of Israel, Princess of Wales, PRISM (surveillance program), Proximus Group, Public switched telephone network, Radio New Zealand, Regnery Publishing, Resolution (law), Reuters, Richard Mosley, RT (TV network), Salvador Allende, Satellite imagery, Scientist, Secret Intelligence Service, Secret treaty, September 11 attacks, Shami Chakrabarti, Signals intelligence, Signals intelligence by alliances, nations and industries, Silent film, Singapore, SIPRNet, Slate (magazine), Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication, South Carolina, South China Morning Post, South Korea, Soviet Union, Spain, Special Broadcasting Service, Special Collection Service, Stateroom (surveillance program), Supranational union, Supreme Leader of Iran, Surveillance, Sveriges Television, Sweden, Television New Zealand, Tempora, Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System, Thales Group, The Australian, The Beatles, The Copenhagen Post, The Daily Telegraph, The Globe and Mail, The Guardian, The Independent, The Japan Times, The National Archives (United Kingdom), The New York Times, The New Zealand Herald, The Observer, The Pentagon, The Racah Institute of Physics, The Sydney Morning Herald, The Technical Cooperation Program, The Times, The Tramp, The Vancouver Sun, The Washington Post, Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Tim Ryan (politician), Time (magazine), Tom Hayden, Total S.A., Tsinghua University, Twelver, UKUSA Agreement, UNICEF, United Kingdom, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, United Nations peacekeeping, United States, United States Army Combined Arms Center, United States Congress, United States Department of War, United States presidential election, 1948, United States Senate, USA Today, Video content analysis, Vietnam War, Visa Inc., War on Terror, West Germany, Western Bloc, Western world, Whistleblower, World Trade Center (1973–2001), World War II, World Wide Web, XKeyscore, Yahoo!, 1943 BRUSA Agreement. Expand index (197 more) »

ABCA Armies

ABCA Armies (formally, the American, British, Canadian, Australian and New Zealand Armies' Program) is a program aimed at optimizing interoperability and standardization of training and equipment between the armies of the United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, plus the United States Marine Corps and the Royal Marines.

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Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental change, or stasis.

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OJSC AeroflotRussian Airlines (ОАО "Аэрофло́т-Росси́йские авиали́нии"), commonly known as Aeroflot (Аэрофлот, English translation: "air fleet"), is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation.

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Air and Space Interoperability Council

The Air and Space Interoperability Council (ASIC) is a formal five nation military organisation with a mandate to enhance coalition warfighting capability through air and space interoperability.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (الجزيرة, literally "The Peninsula", referring to the Arabian Peninsula), also known as Aljazeera and JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a Doha-based state-funded broadcaster owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network, which is partly funded by the House of Thani, the ruling family of Qatar.

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Alcatel-Lucent S.A. is a French global telecommunications equipment company, headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, France.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Anglosphere refers to a set of English-speaking nations with a similar cultural heritage, based upon populations originating from the nations of the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland), and which today maintain close political and military cooperation.

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Anti-war movement

An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause.

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Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as Asia-Pac, AsPac, APAC, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is an American multinational nonprofit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Atlantic Charter

The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued on 14 August 1941, that, early in World War II, defined the Allied goals for the post-war world.

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AUSCANNZUKUS is an abbreviation for the naval Command, Control, Communications and Computers (C4) interoperability organization involving the Anglosphere nations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian Broadcasting Corporation

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is Australia's state-owned and funded national public broadcaster.

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Australian Federal Police

The Australian Federal Police (AFP) is the federal police agency of the Commonwealth of Australia.

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Australian Secret Intelligence Service

The Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) is the national foreign intelligence agency of Australia.

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Australian Signals Directorate

Australian Signals Directorate (ASD) (formerly: Defence Signals Directorate (DSD)) is an Australian government intelligence agency responsible for signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information security (INFOSEC).

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Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States, and the first African American to hold the office.

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Barton Gellman

Barton David Gellman (born November 3, 1960) is an American journalist and bestselling author known for his Pulitzer Prize-winning reports on the September 11 attacks, on Dick Cheney's powerful vice presidency and on the global surveillance disclosure.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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Behavioral targeting

Behavioral targeting comprises a range of technologies and techniques used by online website publishers and advertisers aimed at increasing the effectiveness of advertising using user web-browsing behavior information.

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Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Bosna i Hercegovina,; Cyrillic script: Боснa и Херцеговина), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH, and in short often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.

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Canadian Global Affairs Institute

The Canadian Global Affairs Institute (Global Affairs) is an independent, non-partisan research institute based in Calgary with offices in Ottawa.

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Canadian Security Intelligence Service

The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS,; Service canadien du renseignement de sécurité, SCRS) is Canada's primary national intelligence service.

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CBS News

CBS News is the news division of American television and radio network CBS.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Chancellor of Germany

The Chancellor of Germany is the head of government of Germany.

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Charlie Dent

Charles Wieder "Charlie" Dent (born May 24, 1960) is the U.S. Representative for, serving since 2005.

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Chief of Defence Intelligence (Canada)

The Chief of Defence Intelligence (CDI); Chef du Renseignement de la Defense, (CRD) is a Canadian intelligence agency, part of a broader Canadian security and intelligence community that comprises several departments and agencies that collect and analyze intelligence on issues of concern to Canada and also manages DND/CF national/international intelligence partnerships.

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Classified information

Classified information is material that a government body claims is sensitive information that requires protection of confidentiality, integrity, or availability.

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Clergy are some of the formal leaders within certain religions.

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Closed-circuit television

Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.

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The Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).

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Collective intelligence

Collective intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making.

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Combined Communications Electronics Board

The Combined Communications Electronics Board (CCEB) is a military communications-electronics organisation established among five nations: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom & United States.

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A comedian (sometimes comedienne for a female) or comic, is a person who seeks to entertain an audience, primarily by making them laugh.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.

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Communications Security Establishment

The Communications Security Establishment (CSE) (Centre de la sécurité des télécommunications) (CST), formerly called the Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC), is the Canadian government's national cryptologic agency.

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.

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Computer and network surveillance

Computer and network surveillance is the monitoring of computer activity and data stored on a hard drive, or data being transferred over computer networks such as the Internet.

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Constitutional law

Constitutional law is the body of law which defines the relationship of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary.

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David Cunliffe

David Richard Cunliffe (born 30 April 1963) is a New Zealand politician and member of the New Zealand Labour Party.

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Declassification is the process of documents that formerly were classified as secret ceasing to be so restricted, often under the principle of freedom of information.

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Defence Intelligence

Defence Intelligence (DI) is a member of the United Kingdom Intelligence Community, but differs from the agencies (SIS, GCHQ, and the Security Service) in that it is not a stand-alone organisation, but is an integral part of the Ministry of Defence (MOD).

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Defence Intelligence Organisation

The Defence Intelligence Organisation (DIO) is an Australian government defence intelligence agency responsible for assessing intelligence obtained from or provided by other Australian and foreign intelligence agencies, supporting Defence and Government decision-making and the planning and conduct of Australian Defence Force operations.

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Defense Intelligence Agency

The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is an external intelligence service of the United States specializing in defense and military intelligence.

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Denmark (Danmark) is a country in Northern Europe.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Deutsche Welle

Deutsche Welle ("German Wave" in German) or DW is Germany's international broadcaster.

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Digital footprint

There are two main classifications for digital footprints: passive and active.

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Directorate of Defence Intelligence and Security

The Directorate of Defence Intelligence and Security (DDIS) is an intelligence agency of the New Zealand Defence Force.

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The States' Rights Democratic Party (usually called the Dixiecrats) was a short-lived segregationist political party in the United States in 1948.

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East Timor

East Timor or Timor-Leste, officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (Tetum: Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a country in Maritime Southeast Asia.

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Eastern Bloc

Eastern Bloc was the name used by NATO-affiliated countries for the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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ECHELON originally a code-name, is now used in global media and in popular culture to describe a signals intelligence (SIGINT) collection and analysis network operated on behalf of the five signatory nations to the UKUSA Security Agreement Given the 5 dialects that use the terms, UKUSA can be pronounced from "You-Q-SA" to "Oo-Coo-SA", AUSCANNZUKUS can be pronounced from "Oz-Can-Zuke-Us" to "Orse-Can-Zoo-Cuss".

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Edward Snowden

Edward Joseph "Ed" Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American privacy activist, computer professional, former CIA employee, and former government contractor who leaked classified information from the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013.

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Ehud Barak

Ehud Barak (Ehud_barak.ogg, born Ehud Brog; 12 February 1942) is an Israeli politician who served as Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001.

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Esko Seppänen

Esko Olavi Seppänen (born 15 February 1946 in Oulu) is a Finnish politician representing Left Alliance.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is the executive body of the European Union responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).

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European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs

The Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) is a standing committee of the European Parliament that is responsible for protecting civil liberties and human rights, including those of minorities, as listed in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evening Times

The Evening Times is an evening tabloid newspaper published Monday to Saturday in Glasgow, Scotland.

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Extraordinary rendition

Extraordinary rendition, also called irregular rendition, is the government sponsored abduction and extrajudicial transfer of a person from one country to another.

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Facial recognition system

A facial recognition system is a computer application capable of identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source.

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Fairfax New Zealand

Fairfax New Zealand Limited is one of the largest media companies operating in New Zealand, and is part of Australia's Fairfax Media.

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Falklands War

The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British overseas territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It began on Friday, 2 April 1982, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands (and, the following day, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands) in an attempt to establish the sovereignty it had claimed over them. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities. The conflict was a major episode in the protracted confrontation over the territories' sovereignty. Argentina asserted (and maintains) that the islands are Argentinian territory, and the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory. The British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory that had been a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are predominantly descendants of British settlers, and favour British sovereignty. Neither state, however, officially declared war (both sides did declare the Islands areas a war zone and officially recognised that a state of war existed between them) and hostilities were almost exclusively limited to the territories under dispute and the area of the South Atlantic where they lie. The conflict has had a strong impact in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles, films, and songs. Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the outcome prompted large protests against the ruling military government, hastening its downfall. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party government, bolstered by the successful outcome, was re-elected the following year. The cultural and political weight of the conflict has had less effect in Britain than in Argentina, where it remains a continued topic for discussion. Relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, Spain, at which the two countries' governments issued a joint statement. No change in either country's position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit. In 1994, Argentina's claim to the territories was added to its constitution.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, which simultaneously serves as the nation's prime Federal law enforcement organization.

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Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is an English-language international daily newspaper with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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Five Nations Passport Group

The Five Nations Passport Group is an international forum between the passport issuing authorities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States to "share best practices and discuss innovations related to the development of passport policies, products and practices", thereby ensuring that the five countries work collectively towards achieving a secure travel document, safe international travel and protecting national borders.

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Forensic profiling

Forensic profiling refers to the study and the exploitation of traces in order to draw a profile relevant to the supporting of various security tasks, mostly in the criminal justice system.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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France 24

France 24 (pronounced France vingt-quatre on all three editions) is an international news and current affairs television channel based in Paris.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.

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Give Peace a Chance

"Give Peace a Chance" is a song written by John Lennon (originally credited Lennon–McCartney), and performed with Yoko Ono in Montreal, Canada.

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Global surveillance

Global surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders.

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Google Inc. is an American multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products.

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Government Communications Headquarters

The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is a British intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the British government and armed forces.

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Government Communications Security Bureau

The Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) (Te Tira Tiaki, formerly Te Tari Whakamau Irirangi) is the public service department of New Zealand charged with promoting New Zealand's national security by collecting and analysing information of an intelligence nature.

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GPS tracking unit

A GPS tracking unit is a device, normally carried by a moving vehicle or person, that uses the Global Positioning System to determine and track its precise location, and hence that of its carrier, at intervals.

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Gulf War

The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

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Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News the Land ") is Israel's oldest daily newspaper.

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Hacktivism or hactivism (a portmanteau of hack and activism) is the subversive use of computers and computer networks to promote a political agenda.

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Hans Blix

Hans Martin Blix (born 28 June 1928) is a Swedish diplomat and politician for the Liberal People's Party.

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Happy Xmas (War Is Over)

"Happy Xmas (War Is Over)" is a song written by John Lennon and Yoko Ono, released in 1971 as a single by John & Yoko/Plastic Ono Band with the Harlem Community Choir.

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Hebrew University of Jerusalem

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, ha-Universita ha-Ivrit B'irushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, al-Ǧāmiʻah al-ʻIbriyyah fil-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university established in 1918, 30 years before the State of Israel.

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Heinz Heise

Heinz Heise is a publishing house based in Hannover, Germany.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong, traditionally Hongkong, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) on the southern coast of China at the Pearl River Estuary and the South China Sea.

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Human intelligence (intelligence gathering)

Human Intelligence (frequently abbreviated HUMINT) is intelligence gathered by means of interpersonal contact, as opposed to the more technical intelligence gathering disciplines such as signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT) and measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT).

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Intelligence assessment

Intelligence assessment is the development of forecasts of behavior or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on a wide range of available information sources both overt and covert.

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International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice (Cour internationale de justice; commonly referred to as the World Court or ICJ) is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations.

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide.

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Iranian Kurdistan

Iranian Kurdistan or Eastern Kurdistan (Kurdish: Rojhilatê Kurdistanê), is an unofficial name for the parts of northwestern Iran inhabited by Kurds which borders Iraq and Turkey.

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Iraq War

The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, Gulf War II, and Gulf War 2.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.

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Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

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John Key

John Phillip Key (born 9 August 1961) is the 38th Prime Minister of New Zealand, in office since 2008.

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Kofi Annan

Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.

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Kuwait (دولة الكويت), officially the State of Kuwait, is a country in Western Asia.

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Land mine

A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

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Le Monde

Le Monde (The World) is a French daily evening newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry and continuously published in Paris since its first edition on 19 December 1944.

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Le Nouvel Observateur

L'Obs (initially France Observateur, later Le Nouvel Observateur, since 23 October 2014 simply L'Obs)) is a weekly French newsmagazine. Based in Paris, it is the most prominent French general information magazine in terms of audience and circulation.

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A leak is a way (usually an opening) for fluid to escape a container or fluid-containing system, such as a tank or a ship's hull, through which the contents of the container can escape or outside matter can enter the container.

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A legislator (or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature.

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Liberty (advocacy group)

Liberty (formally known as the National Council for Civil Liberties or NCCL) is an advocacy group based in the United Kingdom, which campaigns to protect civil liberties and promote human rights – through the courts, in Parliament and in the wider community.

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Lockheed Corporation

The Lockheed Corporation (originally the Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company) was an American aerospace company.

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MasterCard Incorporated or MasterCard Worldwide is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in the MasterCard International Global Headquarters, Purchase, New York, United States, in Westchester County.

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Mayor of Jerusalem

The Mayor of the City of Jerusalem is head of the executive branch of the political system in Jerusalem, The Jerusalem Municipality.

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Megaupload Ltd was an online Hong Kong–based company established in 2005 that ran online services related to file storage and viewing, including megaupload.com.

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The Security Service, commonly known as MI5 (Military Intelligence, Section 5), is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS; also known as MI6) focused on foreign threats, Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and Defence Intelligence (DI).

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Military intelligence

Military intelligence is a military discipline that exploits a number of information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to commanders in support of their decisions.

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Ministry of Defense (Israel)

The Ministry of Defense (מִשְׂרַד הַבִּטָּחוֹן, Misrad HaBitahon) of the government of Israel, is the governmental department responsible for defending the State of Israel from internal and external military threats.

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Model (people)

A model (from Middle French modelle), is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for nude photography.

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Mohammad Mosaddegh

Mohammad Mosaddegh or Mosaddiq (مُحَمَد مُصَدِق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967), was an Iranian politician.

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Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi Details about Gaddafi's own involvement in the disambiguate spelling of his name in English.

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MUSCULAR (surveillance program)

MUSCULAR (DS-200B), located in the United Kingdom, is the name of a surveillance programme jointly operated by Britain's Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) that was revealed by documents which were released by Edward Snowden and interviews with knowledgeable officials.

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National Post

The National Post is an Canadian English-language newspaper based in Toronto, Canada.

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National security

National security is a concept that a government, along with its parliaments, should protect the state and its citizens against all kind of "national" crises through a variety of power projections, such as political power, diplomacy, economic power, military might, and so on.

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National Security Agency

The National Security Agency (NSA) is an intelligence organization of the United States government, responsible for global monitoring, collection, and processing of information and data for foreign intelligence and counterintelligence purposes – a discipline known as signals intelligence (SIGINT).

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The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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New York (magazine)

New York is a bi-weekly magazine concerned with life, culture, politics, and style generally, and with a particular emphasis on New York City.

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New York City

New York – often called New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it is a part – is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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New Zealand Parliament

The New Zealand Parliament (in Māori: Pāremata Aotearoa) consists of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives and, until 1951, the New Zealand Legislative Council.

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New Zealand Security Intelligence Service

The New Zealand Security Intelligence Service (NZSIS or SIS) (Te Pā Whakamarumaru) is New Zealand's main domestic and counter-intelligence intelligence agency.

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News magazine

A news magazine is a typed, printed, and published piece of paper, magazine or a radio or television program, usually weekly, showing articles on current events.

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Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine founded in 1933.

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Nicky Hager

Nicky Hager (born 1958) is a New Zealand investigative journalist.

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Nicolas Sarkozy

Nicolas Sarkozy (born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa; 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as the President of France and Co-prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.

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Norddeutscher Rundfunk

Norddeutscher Rundfunk (NDR) (Northern German Broadcasting) is a public radio and television broadcaster, based in Hamburg.

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North Vietnam

The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV; Việt Nam Dân chủ Cộng hòa), commonly known in English as North Vietnam, was a Marxist–Leninist government founded in 1945, laying claim to all of Vietnam yet comprising most of North Vietnam from September 1945 to December 1946, controlling pockets of territory throughout the country until 1954, and governing territory north of the 17th parallel until 1976, when the government led by the Communist Party reunified with the Southern Provisional Government governed from Hanoi.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.

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National Public Radio (NPR) is a privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national syndicator to a network of 900 public radio stations in the United States.

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NRK (an abbreviation of the Norwegian: Norsk rikskringkasting AS, generally expressed in English as the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation) is the Norwegian government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company, and the largest media organisation in Norway.

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Operation Yellowbird

Operation Yellowbird or Operation Siskin, was a Hong Kong-based operation to help the Chinese dissidents who participated in Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 to escape arrest by the PRC government by facilitating their departure overseas via Hong Kong.

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Ottawa Citizen

The Ottawa Citizen is an English-language daily newspaper owned by Postmedia Network in Ottawa, Canada.

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Pacnet was a global telecommunications service provider between 2008 and 2015.

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Patrice Lumumba

Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was a Congolese independence leader and the first democratically elected leader of the Congo.

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Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. or Petrobras is a semi-public Brazilian multinational energy corporation headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Philanthropy (from Greek φιλανθρωπία) etymologically means "love of humanity" in the sense of caring, nourishing, developing and enhancing "what it is to be human" on both the benefactors' (by identifying and exercising their values in giving and volunteering) and beneficiaries' (by benefiting) parts.

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A post-war period or postwar period is the interval immediately following the ending of a war and enduring, with no resumption of the war.

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President of Indonesia

The President of the Republic of Indonesia (Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Indonesia.

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President of Iran

The President of Iran (رئیس‌جمهور ایران) is the head of government of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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President of South Africa

The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.

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Prime Minister of Israel

The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה"מ) is the head of the Israeli government and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.

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Princess of Wales

Princess of Wales (Tywysoges Cymru) is a British courtesy title held by the wife of the Prince of Wales, who is, since the 14th century, the heir apparent of the English or British monarch.

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PRISM (surveillance program)

PRISM is a clandestine surveillance program under which the United States National Security Agency (NSA) collects internet communications from at least nine major US internet companies.

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Proximus Group

The Proximus Group is the largest telecommunications company in Belgium, headquartered in Brussels.

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Public switched telephone network

The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication.

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Radio New Zealand

Radio New Zealand (Te Reo Irirangi o Aotearoa) is a New Zealand public service radio broadcaster and Crown entity formed by the Radio New Zealand Act 1995.

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Regnery Publishing

Regnery Publishing in Washington, D.C., specializes in conservative books characterized on their website as "contrary to those of 'mainstream' publishers in New York." Regnery is currently led by president Marji Ross, who until 2003 served as vice-president under Al Regnery, son of the company's founder Henry Regnery.

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Resolution (law)

In law, resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body.

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Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in Canary Wharf, London, England, United Kingdom and a division of Thomson Reuters.

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Richard Mosley

A Canadian Federal Court trial judge, Richard Mosley has a background in National security interests, and has taken a role in hearing a number of Canadian anti-terrorism cases, including those relating to Abdullah and Omar Khadr, as well as Hassan Almrei.

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RT (TV network)

RT (founded as "Russia Today") is a Russian state-funded television network which runs cable and satellite television channels, as well as Internet content directed to audiences outside the Russian Federation.

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Salvador Allende

Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.

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Satellite imagery

Satellite imagery consists of images of Earth or other planets collected by satellites.

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A scientist, in a broad sense, is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge.

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Secret Intelligence Service

The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6), is the British intelligence agency which supplies the British Government with foreign intelligence.

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Secret treaty

A secret treaty is "an international agreement in which the contracting parties have agreed, either in the treaty instrument or separately, to conceal its existence or at least its substance from other states and the public." According to one compilation of secret treaties published in 2004, there have been 593 secret treaties negotiated by 110 countries and independent political entities since the year 1521.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th, or 9/11)9/11 is pronounced "nine eleven".

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Shami Chakrabarti

Sharmishta "Shami" Chakrabarti (born 16 June 1969) is, since September 2003, the director of Liberty, the British civil liberties advocacy organisation.

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Signals intelligence

Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).

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Signals intelligence by alliances, nations and industries

Many organizations, national or not, are responsible for communications security as well as SIGINT; the organization makes codes and ciphers that it hopes opponents cannot break.

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Silent film

A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, and often referred to as the ''Lion City'', the ''Garden City'', and the ''Red Dot'', is a leading global city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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The Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNet) is "a system of interconnected computer networks used by the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Department of State to transmit classified information (up to and including information classified SECRET) by packet switching over the TCP/IP protocols in a 'completely secure' environment".

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Slate (magazine)

Slate is an English-language online current affairs and culture magazine in the United States created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley, initially under the ownership of Microsoft as part of MSN.

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Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication

The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) provides a network that enables financial institutions worldwide to send and receive information about financial transactions in a secure, standardized and reliable environment.

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South Carolina

South Carolina is a state in the southeastern United States, bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the south and west by Georgia across the Savannah River, and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean.

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South China Morning Post

The South China Morning Post ('SCMP' or 'the Post'), together with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper with a circulation of 104,000, published by the SCMP Group.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (lit. The Republic of Great Han; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Soviet Union

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

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Special Broadcasting Service

The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio, online, and television network.

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Special Collection Service

The Special Collection Service (SCS) is a highly classified joint U.S. Central Intelligence Agency-National Security Agency program charged with inserting eavesdropping equipment in difficult-to-reach places, such as foreign embassies, communications centers, and foreign government installations.

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Stateroom (surveillance program)

STATEROOM is the code name of a highly secretive signals intelligence collection program involving the interception of international radio, telecommunications and internet traffic.

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Supranational union

A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.

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Supreme Leader of Iran

The Supreme Leader of Iran (ولی فقیه ایران,, lit. Guardian Jurist of Iran, or رهبر انقلاب,, lit. Leader of the Revolution), officially in Iran, the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Surveillance is the monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting them.

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Sveriges Television

Sveriges Television AB (SVT), Sweden's Television, is the Swedish national public TV broadcaster, funded by a television licence fee payable by all owners of television sets, and set by the Riksdag.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Television New Zealand

Television New Zealand, Limited (Te Reo Tātaki o Aotearoa), more commonly referred to as TVNZ, is a government-owned national broadcaster broadcasting in New Zealand and parts of the Pacific region.

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Tempora is the codeword for a formerly secret computer system that is used by the British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ).

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Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System

The Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System was a Committee of the European Parliament that was set up in 2000 to investigate the global surveillance network ECHELON.

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Thales Group

Thales Group is a French multinational company that designs and builds electrical systems and provides services for the aerospace, defence, transportation and security markets.

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The Australian

The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.

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The Beatles

The Beatles were an English rock band, formed in Liverpool in 1960.

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The Copenhagen Post

The Copenhagen Post is a weekly newspaper providing Danish news in English both nationally and internationally; it is the only English-language newspaper published in Denmark.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph is a British daily morning English-language broadsheet newspaper, published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed throughout the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Globe and Mail

The Globe and Mail is a nationally distributed Canadian newspaper owned by The Woodbridge Company, based in Toronto and printed in six cities across the country.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British national morning newspaper published in London by Independent Print Limited, owned by Alexander Lebedev since 2010.

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The Japan Times

The Japan Times is an English-language newspaper published in Japan by, a subsidiary of Nifco, a leading manufacturer of plastic fasteners for the automotive and home design industries.

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The National Archives (United Kingdom)

The National Archives (TNA) is an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice of the United Kingdom.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.

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The New Zealand Herald

The New Zealand Herald is a daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment.

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The Observer

The Observer is a British newspaper, published on Sundays.

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The Pentagon

The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia.

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The Racah Institute of Physics

The Racah Institute of Physics is an institute at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, part of the faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences on the Edmund J. Safra Campus in the Givat Ram neighborhood of Jerusalem, Israel.

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The Sydney Morning Herald

The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney and is also an Australian national brand.

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The Technical Cooperation Program

The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) is a long-standing international organisation concerned with cooperation on defence science and technology matters, including national security and civil defence.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London.

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The Tramp

The Tramp (Charlot in several languages), also known as The Little Tramp, was British actor Charlie Chaplin's most memorable on-screen character and an icon in world cinema during the era of silent film.

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The Vancouver Sun

The Vancouver Sun is a daily newspaper first published in the Canadian province of British Columbia on February 12, 1912.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper.

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Tiananmen Square protests of 1989

The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件) or '89 Democracy Movement (八九民运) in Chinese,Events named by date in Chinese are conventionally named by the number of the month and the date, followed by the type of event.

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Tim Ryan (politician)

Timothy John "Tim" Ryan (born July 16, 1973) is the U.S. Representative for, serving since 2003.

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Time (magazine)

Time (styled within the magazine as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City.

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Tom Hayden

Thomas Emmet Hayden, known as Tom Hayden (born December 11, 1939), is an American social and political activist, author, and politician, who is director of the Peace and Justice Resource Center in Culver City, California.

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Total S.A.

Total S.A. is a French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the six "Supermajor" oil companies in the world.

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Tsinghua University

Tsinghua University (abbreviated THU; Chinese: 清华大学, pinyin: Qīnghuá Dàxué) is a research university located in Beijing, China, and one of the nine members in the elite C9 League of universities.

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Twelver (اثنا عشرية, Athnā‘ashariyyah or Ithnā‘ashariyyah; شیعه دوازده‌امامی) Shia Islam or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.

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UKUSA Agreement

The United Kingdom – United States of America Agreement (UKUSA) is a multilateral agreement for cooperation in signals intelligence between the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

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No description.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United Nations Development Programme

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA, GA, or, from the Assemblée Générale, "AG") is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation.

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United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research

The United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) was established in 1980 by the United Nations General Assembly to inform States and the global community on questions of international security, and to assist with disarmament efforts so as to facilitate progress toward greater security and economic and social development for all.

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United Nations peacekeeping

Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the Organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from both peacebuilding and peacemaking.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Army Combined Arms Center

The U.S. Army Combined Arms Center (USACAC) is located at Fort Leavenworth and provides leadership and supervision for leader development and professional military and civilian education; institutional and collective training; functional training; training support; battle command; doctrine; lessons learned and specified areas the Commanding General, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) designates in order to serve as a catalyst for change and to support developing relevant and ready expeditionary land formations with campaign qualities in support of the joint force commander.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives.

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United States Department of War

The United States Department of War, also called the War Department (and occasionally War Office in the early years), was the United States Cabinet department originally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army.

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United States presidential election, 1948

The United States presidential election of 1948 was the 41st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1948.

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United States Senate

The United States Senate is a legislative chamber in the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the U.S. House of Representatives makes up the U.S. Congress.

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USA Today

USA Today is a national American daily middle-market newspaper published by the Gannett Company.

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Video content analysis

Video content analysis (also Video content analytics, VCA) is the capability of automatically analyzing video to detect and determine temporal and spatial events.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and also known in Vietnam as Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a Cold War-era proxy war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Visa Inc.

Visa Inc. is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Foster City, California, United States.

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War on Terror

The War on Terror (WoT), also known as the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), refers to the international military campaign that started after the September 11 attacks on the United States.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG (Bundesrepublik Deutschland or ''BRD'') in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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Western Bloc

The Western Bloc or Capitalist Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and its allies.

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Western world

The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens "sunset, West"; as contrasted with the Orient), is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.

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A whistleblower (whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, dishonest, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.

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World Trade Center (1973–2001)

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (www, W3) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by URLs, interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet.

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XKeyscore or XKEYSCORE (abbreviated as XKS) is a formerly secret computer system first used by the United States National Security Agency for searching and analyzing global Internet data, which it collects on a daily basis.

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Yahoo Inc. (styled as Yahoo!) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Sunnyvale, California.

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1943 BRUSA Agreement

The 1943 BRUSA Agreement (Britain–United States of America agreement) was an agreement between the British and US governments to facilitate co-operation between the US War Department and the British Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS).

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Redirects here:

5 Eyes, CAZAB, FVEY, Five-eyes, Fourteen Eyes, Nine Eyes (signals intelligence), The five eyes.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Eyes

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